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ANATOMICAL MEMOIES 



OF THE LATE 



JOHN GOODSIK 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/anatomicalmemoir01gooduoft 








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T I i K 



ANATOMICAL MEMOIRS 



JOHN OOODSIK 

F. R. S. 

LATE PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH 



EDITED BY 

WILLIAM TURNER* M.B. 

PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINUUROII 

WITH A BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR BY 
HENRY LONSDALE, M.D. 

FORMERLY LECTURER ON ANATOMY 



VOL. I. 



EDINBURGH 

ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK 

1 868 



OCT 1 1997 



^,0,.,.,,^ 



s 



Printed by R. Clark, Edinburgh. 



TO THE 

Pupils of Sfojnr ffiootistr, $M.&. 

THIS COLLECTED EDITION OF HIS WRITINGS, 

WITH A BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR, 

is 

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED. 



PBEFACE. 

Soon after the death of the late Professor Goodsir 
several of his friends thought that it would only be a 
fit tribute to the memory of one who for so many years 
had occupied a prominent position as a teacher and 
man of science, to collect and arrange in an easily 
accessible form his published anatomical memoirs, most 
of which were scattered in Journals, or in the Transac- 
tions or Proceedings of various learned Societies. 

On examining his manuscripts, it was found that 
amongst them were several lectures and essays care- 
fully written out for the press, and in some cases 
even in proof, but which had not been published. 
From the new facts, or from the expression of opinion 
on questions of scientific interest, which they contained, 
it has been decided to include them in this collected 
edition of his writings. The duty of selecting those 
lectures and memoirs which were considered most 
worthy of preservation in this form lias been under- 



viii PREFACE. 

taken by Professor Turner, and in the editorial labour 
of correcting and revising the proofs he has had the 
most willing co-operation of the Eev. J. T. Goodsir, 
who has given every facility for examining the mass 
of accumulated manuscript, and has taken the most 
active interest in the progress of the work. 

The papers are arranged, not in chronological 
order, but according to their subject-matter. In the 
first volume will be found a number of lectures on 
anthropological and psychological questions, none of 
which have previously been published; and several 
memoirs on descriptive comparative anatomy, of which 
the essays on Tethea, and on a New Mollusc, have not 
previously appeared in print. Two papers, written 
conjointly with the late Professor Edward Forbes, and 
a brief Appendix containing some detached observations 
selected from his note-books, close this volume. The 
second volume contains memoirs on development and 
morphology, together with a number of papers on ana- 
tomy, physiology, and pathology. Of the papers in this 
volume, most of those on the mechanism of the joints 
are new. The configuration of articular surfaces, and 
the movements of the joints, had been for many years 
the subject of careful study by the late Professor, and 
in addition to the essays on the knee and hip, his 



PREFACE. ix 

papers contained notes on the structure and functions 
of various other joints, more especially the vertebral 
and costo-vertebral articulations, but they were unfor- 
tunately in too fragmentary a form to be made use of. 
In this volume also are incorporated three short papers 
by Harry D. S. Goodsir, which originally appeared in 
the volume of Anatomical and Pathological Observa- 
tions published in 1845 in conjunction with his brother 
John. 

The duty of preparing the Biographical Memoir 
was originally undertaken by the Rev. J. T. Goodsir, 
who, after collecting some materials in illustration of 
his brother's early life, committed this part of the work 
to Dr. Henry Lonsdale, whose long intimacy with 
Professor Goodsir, and other members of his family, 
and whose literary skill, were regarded as eminently 
fitting him to perform this office. 

The portrait is engraved from a photograph of the 
Professor when he was forty years of age. 

The Editors beg to acknowledge the liberal spirit 
in which the Publishers have carried out the pre- 
paration of the two handsome volumes now submitted 
to the medical profession and the public. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 



CHAPTER I. 

PACK 

Introductory. — The Goodsirs of Fife and Anstruther — 
Three generations of " Doctor Johns" — The birth, 
schooling, and St. Andrews education of John the 
Professor ..... i 

CHAPTER II. 

Edinburgh Studies and Dentistry — Anatomy his chief Pur- 
suit — Dr. Knox and other Teachers — Medical Societies 
— Friendship with Forbes — Gets a Surgical Diploma, 
and joins his Father in Practice — British Association, 
1838 ..... 19 

CHAPTER III. 

Memoirs on the Teeth — Jameson's Kindness — Model Mu- 
seum — Crania from Fife Barrows — Fossil Fishes — 
Dredging with Forbes — Natural History and other Pa- 
pera read to the Societies of St. Andrews and Cupar 37 

CHAPTER IV. 

Habits of Animals — The Brotherhood of Friends of Truth — 
Goodsir returns to Edinburgh — The rising Men of the 
Medical School : Reid, Simpson, Barry, etc. — Goodsir's 
Appearance and General Character — His co-operation 
with Edward Forbes . . . . r »7 



Xll CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 



PAGE 



Wernerian, Royal Medical, and other Societies — Curator and 
Lecturer at the Royal College of Surgeons — Museum 
Work — Brief Sketch of the Cell-question — Goodsir's 
Claims — Virchow at Fault — Latest Doctrines . 74 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Domicile of the Goodsirs, its Peculiarities and Attractions 
— " Noctes Lothianse" — A new Curatorship — Salmo- 
nida? — " Sarcina Ventriculi" and other Inquiries — De- 
monstrator and chief Curator — His Theories modified 97 

CHAPTER VII. 

Contest for the Anatomical Chair — Calvinism alarmed — Po- 
tato-Blight — His system of Teaching and its Results — 
Loved by his Class — The Success of his Pupils — Sur- 
gical Practice — Veterinary Relations and Agriculture 118 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Zoological Studies — Lectures on Comparative Anatomy — 
Knox's Opinions — The ^Esthetic Club — Defence of 
Anatomy — Lectures for Jameson — HI Health — On the 
Continent — Joints — Nerves . . . 136 

CHAPTER IX. 

Morphology — Goethe and Others — Goodsir's Views and In- 
fluences — The Anatomical Museum — Social Reforms — 
Death of Forbes — Holidays — Philosophical Apparatus 154 

CHAPTER X. 

A Mathematical Solution of Organic Forms — The Triangle 
and Crystal — Lectures on Man — His Addresses and 
Correspondence — The Respect shown him . 174 



CONTENTS. xiii 



CHAPTER XI. 



I'AGE 



Last Illness — Hopes of the Future — Death — Opinions of the 

Press regarding Goodsir — Resume of his Character 191 



DIVISION I. 

I. On the Dignity of the Human Body. 

Lecture 1. — The Nature of Animality . 207 

Lecture 2. — The Essence of Humanity . 215 

Lecture 3. — The Erect Position in Man . 224 

Lecture 4. — The Upper Limb in Man . 232 
Lecture 5. — The Integument and Organs of Sense 

and Speech in Man . 243 

Lecture 6. — Skull and Brain in Man . 256 

Lecture 7. — Teleology and Morphology . 262 
Lecture 8. — The Position of Man in the Scale 

of Being . . .266 

Lecture 9. — Retrogressive Man . . 276 

Lecture 10. — Progressive Man . . 280 

II. On Life and Organisation . . 286 

III. Address Delivered to the Graduates in Medicine 323 

IV. The Present Aspect of Medicine . . 336 
V. ' >.v the PiiuouEss oi' Anatomy . . 350 



XIV CONTENTS. 



DIVISION II. 

PAGE 

VI. On the Anatomy of Amphioxus Lanceolatus . 371 

(Transactions Royal Society, Edinburgh, vol. xv.) 

VII. On Certain Peculiarities in the Structure of the 

Short Sun-fish (Orthagoriscus mola) . 394 

(Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, vol. xxx.) 

VIII. On Gymnorhynchus horridus, a new Cestoid Ento- 

zoon .... 401 

(Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, vol. xxxi. ) 

IX. On the Structure and Economy of Tethea . 405 

X. On an undescribed form of Gasteropod Mollusk 

from the Firth of Forth . . 420 

XL On the Natural History and Anatomy of Thalas- 

sema and Echiurus . . . 425 

(Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, vol. xxx.) 

XII. On Pelonaia, a new Genus of Tunicated Mollusks, 

with Description of two Species . 435 

(Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, vol. xxxi.) 



APPENDIX. 

I. On Asynchronism of the Auricular Contractions 

in the Reptilian Heart . . 443 

II. Notes on the Myology of the Elephant . 446 



CONTENTS. XV 

PAGE 

III. Notes on the General Morphology of the 

Muscles . . . .451 

IV. Notes on the Morphology of the Muscles of 

the Limbs .... 452 

V. Action of the Popliteus Muscle . 455 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS.— Plates I. II. page 371. 

Fiv;. 1. A lateral view of Amphioxus lanceolatus. As the specimen 
when sketched was slightly compressed between two plates 
of -lass, it is represented of greater depth than the animal 
exhibits in its natural condition, a The mouth, with the 
oral filaments ; b the abdominal fold of the left side : the 
fold is semi-transparent, so that the lower surface of the 
abdomen is seen through it ; c the anus, with one tin before, 
and another behind it ; d the dorsal fin : the vesicular 
germs of the rays are seen in all these fins, and the 
splanchno-ribs are also visible through the abdominal 
parietes ; e the length of the specimen. 

Fig. 2. The abdominal aspect of the specimen. a The mouth ; 
6 5 the abdominal folds ; c the anus ; d the heart. 

Fig. 3. A lateral view of the same specimen after the removal of the 
integuments, including the abdominal folds and the sofl 
parts of the fins, a The mouth, with the oral filaments ; 
// the abdominal muscle, with the splanchno-ribs Been 
through it; c c the heart; d the anus; e the vesicular 
germs of the rays of the anterior, / those of the posterior 
anal fin : these germ- do not, like the soft parts, extend to 
the extremity of the tail ; g the germs of the rays of the 
dorsal fin, which, like those of the anal fin, do not extern! 
along the tail ; h h the lateral muscular bundles separated 
by the needle, -> as to display in their intervals the " chorda 
dorsalis," and the dorsal and ventral branches of the nerves; 
i the fired pair of nerves ; I the Becond pair, analogous to 
the trifacial, the dorsal and ventral branches of which 
extend along the ba ee of the fins to join the branches of 
the other nerves. This dissected specimen is Battened by 
slight compre rion, in order to display the various part- with 
greater disl incl u 

i . l. The integuments have been removed from the tail, but the 
abdominal folds have been left. The abdominal muscle, 

Yu I.. I. /; 



XV111 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

and the branchial compartment of the intestinal tube, have 
been opened longitudinally, a little to the right side of the 
mesial line. a a The two divisions of the hyoid bone ; 
b b the internal surface of the branchial chamber, through 
the walls of which the " chorda dorsalis," the nerves, and 
the ventral bundles of the muscles, are seen ; c c the heart, 
with the splanchno-ribs passing off from it on each side 
towards the " chorda dorsalis ;" d d the abdominal muscle ; 
e the digestive portion of the intestinal tube proceeding to 
the anus ; f g g the abdominal folds. 

Fig. 5. The neuro-skeleton, consisting of a a the " chorda dorsalis," 
b b the vesicular germs of the dorsal fin rays, c those of the 
anterior, and d those of the posterior anal fins. 

Fig. 6. The nervous system, a a The spinal cord ; b the first pair 
of nerves ; c the dorsal ; d the ventral branch of the second 
pair. 

Fig. 7. The intestinal system, a The branchial compartment ; b the 
digestive compartment of the intestinal tube ; c the mouth ; 
d the anus. 

Fig. 8. The vascular system, a a The heart ; 6 b the primary branches 
or branchial arteries ; c c the branchial veins uniting in 
loops, from the angles between which trunks convey the 
blood into d d the aorta. 

Fig. 9. a Portion of the " chorda dorsalis," to show the circular fibres 
of the sheath ; b the superior ; c the inferior longitudinal 
ligament. 

Fig. 10. A portion of the sheath ; shreds of the aponeuroses adhere 
to it. 

Fig. 1 1 . One of the compressed vesicles which occupy the interior of 
the sheath, and compose the mass of the " chorda dorsalis." 

Fig. 1 2. Some of the compressed vesicles removed from the sheath, to 
show their relation one to another. 

Fig. 13. Five of the cylindrical cells, from the dorsal fin, to show their 
relative positions, and the masses of cells which they contain 
in their interior. 

Fig. 14. A single cell. 

Fig. 15. A portion of the spinal cord, from its anterior third, magnified, 
to show the black matter which runs along the median line, 
and the origins of the nerves. 

Fig. 16. A portion of the middle third, highly magnified to show the 
nucleated cells of which it is composed, and the larger cells 
of the dark median band. Some of the cells of the dark 
band are filled with black pigment granules, which are repre- 
sented escaping under the compression. 

Fi^. 17. A portion of the spinal cord, magnified to show the origin of 
the nerves by single roots, and withoul the insertion of the 
primitive fibres of the nerves into the substance of the cord. 

Fie. 18. Primitive fibres of a nerve. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. xix 

Fig. 19. A transverse section of the spinal cord, to show the groove on 
its upper surface, and the black matter on the iloor of the 
groove. 

Fig. 20. Primitive fibres from one of the lateral muscles. 

Fig. 21. The eighteen pieces of one of the divisions of the hyoid bone. 
The anterior piece carries no ray. 

Fig. 22. A few of the splanchno-ribs, to show their relations to the 
heart, aorta, and branchial vessels, a a The ribs which bifur- 
cate ; h b the simple ribs ; c c a portion of the heart with four 
branchial arteries ; d d a portion of the aorta with eight 
branchial veins. 

Fig. 23. A portion of the aorta, to show the mode of connection be- 
tween the aorta and branchial venous trunks and loops. 

Fig. 24. A portion of the heart, to show the mode in which the 
arteries leave it. The heart or ventral vessel is somewhat 
flattened, its upper and under walls meeting at an acute 
angle on each side. 

Fig. 25. The lower end of one of the lateral muscular bundles, magni- 
fied to show the position and configuration of one of the 
generative organs. 

Fig. 26. Portions of four pieces from the hyoid bone, magnified to 
show tlie mode of connection, also the cavities, and irregular 
masses of cells which they contain. 
27. One of the generative organs, highly magnified under com- 
pression, to show the nucleated cells of which it is composed. 



CHAPTEE I. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



The Goodsirs of Fife and Anstrnther — Three generations of " Doctor 
Johns " — The birth, schooling, and St. Andrews education of John 
the Professor. 

The city of Edinburgh is built on lofty heights, accli- 
vities, and intervening valleys ; it is situated in the 
midst of sea and land prospects of great diversity 
and beauty ; and naturally and aesthetically it shows 
the most picturesque metropolis in Europe. Its Old 
and New Towns form an architectural counterpoise; 
the Old, with its many-storeyed dwellings, narrow 
alleys, quaint turrets, its ancient Castle on precipitous 
cock, its royal Palace on meadowed plain — partaking 
more or less of tin- semi mediaeval, the transitional and 
the grotesque in art — stands in strong contrast to the 
uniform streets, the pleasure-gardens, the palatial edi- 
fices, and noble monumental structures of the New, or 
modern city. Claiming the rapturous admiration of 
foreigners, and uo small share of national homage, 
Eklinburgh, as a city of historic uote, has ever been 
the pride and joy of its educated, enlightened, and 

aesthetic citizens. The mi f travel, surveying the truly 

grand panoramic view from the Calton Hill, will best 



2 "MODERN ATHENS. 

comprehend the claims of the Scottish metropolis to the 
title of " Modern Athens," — as characterised by her 
position, her environs, and sea-approach, — though the 
analogy between the cities of the ancient Greek and 
modern Scot has been viewed by the historic scholar 
as resting upon the broader bases of learning, of litera- 
ture, and the arts. The Calton Hill itself, not so in- 
aptly compared (the writer may say from personal 
observation) to the Athenian Acropolis, as an eminence 
in proximity to the sea and enjoying matchless views, 
wants, however, the climatic favours of Greece — the 
glorious sunshine that sparkles over the waters of Attica 
and gilds the mountain-tops of Pentelicus ; the Calton 
has its works of art, and notably its classic High 
School, but where are the Propylsea, the Erechtheum, 
and the Temple of the Wingless Victory ? The Calton 
has its lofty Doric columns standing in architectural 
isolation, and imposing, as seen from afar, like 
" Sunium's marbled steep;" these columns, however, 
can hardly rank with the dilapidated yet ever noble 
Parthenon, which, despite Saracenic and Venetian 
bombardments, man's iconoclasm, and a twenty-three 
centuried exposure to " decay's effacing fingers," still 
manifests in its pristine structure the sublime grandeur 
of Greek art and the marvellous majesty of the Greek 
mind. 

Looking northwards from the Calton, the observer 
notes, immediately beneath, the shipping town of Leith, 
the Firth of Forth, with its countless sail of fishing- 
boats returning from the sea-depths, like laden bees 



"the kingdom of fife." 3 

to their coast-hives; and across the said firth the county, 
1 tetter known as the Kingdom of Fife, stretching from 
the Ochils eastwards to the German Ocean ; then the 
isles of Inchkeith and Inchcolme — a physical landscape 
somewhat resembling the Saronic Gnlf and its sur- 
roundings; whilst, turning southwards, his thoughts 
may rest with absorbing pleasure on Edinburgh itself, 
in recalling its roll of scholars, historians, and men of 
science, who helped in days gone by to unravel the 
ancient philosophy, and whose successors, consistently 
with the age of Progress, are now seeking to outstrip 
the Past in a more glorious Present of discovery, en- 
lightenment, and philanthropy. 

Upon the shores of Fife the Pict, the Roman, the 
early Christians and Norman ecclesiastics all played 
their part and left their impress ; and when Fife en- 
joyed the proud distinction of being a Kingdom, the 
warlike Thanes, in daring and defeating the Norsemen, 
exhibited faithful types of a stern Caledonian mediae- 
val ism, — so admirably adduced by Shakspeare in his 
Macbeth, one of the greatest dramatic and intellectual 
conceptions ever given to the world of letters. As 
Fife was a marked theological areua for John Knox, 
the rude citizen of Queen Mary's Court, the roost- 
•Icstroyer of the Papacy, and albeit the mighty builder 
of a " Reform ed Faith," so was it one of the cherished 
localities of the Covenanters, whose religious fever 
burned for martyrdom and death.* Fife being almost 

* Nearly two-thirds of the population of Anstrather, it is said, perished in 

the cause of the Covenant. m ft1 Kilsyth and Sheriffnrair. 



4 ANSTRUTHER HISTORICAL. 

central to the "Highlands" and "Lowlands" became 
intimately bound up with the general history of 
Scotland from the period, far distant, of its Keltic 
aborigines, down to the Eoman innovator and the 
monkish settlers, with whom, as the ancient ballad 
would have it — 

" The King sits in Dunfermling tonne. 
Drinking the blude-reid wine ;" 

and whilst it shared in the warlike attitudes and theo- 
logical feuds of the nation at large, it took the initia- 
tive in industrial pursuits, and, with a loyalty worthy 
of a better following, held to the last by the Stuart 
cause. At a later date, with the close of the 18th 
century, Fife felt the varied impulses that swayed 
Scotland in happy bondship with England — to-day 
improving its material resources ; to-morrow solicitous 
about its commerce menaced by France or Spain ; and 
on Sundays, all the year round, keenly alive to eccles- 
iastical polity and the fresh indoctrination of her pul- 
pits. 

On the south-east coast of Fife are two small ship- 
ping ports— Anstruther "Easter" and "Wester" — hold- 
ing the position of royal burghs from 1583-7 down to 
1832, when they were united with Cupar and St. 
Andrews in a single Parliamentary representation. 
" Easter " Anstruther, which affects this narrative, and 
in population has seldom exceeded 1000 inhabitants, 
has its business limited to boat building, dyeing, and 
coast fishing. This Anstruther, or " Anster," had its 
traditions of naval encounters when Fife saw "the 



A TRIAD OF WORTHIES. 5 

Norweyan banner flout the sky," also its legends, its 
faiths, and its martyrdoms to be discursive upon ; but 
all these burgh boasts and local glories might have 
passed away with Fife mortalities had not Thomas 
Chalmers, D.D., the man of massive head and mighty 
work, orator, preacher, and political economist, and 
William Tennant, the poet and professor, been born 
within its little world. In the year (1814) that Scotland 
became cognisant, through Jeffrey's pen in the Edin- 
burgh Revieiv, of a youthful poet singing right cheerily, 
in the ottava rima measures of Boccaccio and Tasso, 
fancies based on the customs and characters of Fife, a 
third candidate for historical honours was born at An- 
ster, named John Goodsir, who, along with Chalmers 
and Tennant, constitutes a triad of Anster worthies. 

The Goodsirs of Fife have a family history of at 
least two centuries, and a credibly traditional life ex- 
tending considerably beyond. Their progenitors are 
said to have come from Germany, and the old Scotch 
mode of pronouncing Goodsir as "Gutcher" would 
seem to favour the notion. The family had armorial 
bearings and a capital motto — Virtute et Fidelitate — 
than which no words could be found more applicable 
to the subject of this narrative. The big frames, the 
energy and steadfastness of purpose of the Goodsirs, a 
race trained to labour, ingenuity, and forethought, could 
hardly be reconciled with the ]>//i/s/<///<' and vivacious 
nature of the Celt, but seem to point to a strong 
Teutonic or dired Scandinavian origin — a supposition 
strengthened by the intercourse of the Norsemen with 



6 A CAREFUL SPOUSE. 

the shores of the Firth of Forth — trading for cereals 
with the sons, and now and then espousing the daughters 
of Fife. Correctly or not, the nature of the soil is sup- 
posed to have a share in the product of manly growth 
and character ; and the man of the East of Scotland is 
looked upon as taller and bigger-headed than the man 
of the West; consistently with this opinion the re- 
ligious revolutions of the Scotch have arisen on the 
east of the country, and spread from a radius or central 
point over a large territory. Let their origin be what 
it may, the Goodsirs managed to keep themselves afloat 
in the world, and tried to meet bad harvests by gar- 
nering a little from the good ones. They were farmers, 
schoolmasters, and traders up to the eighteenth cen- 
tury, when the professional element became the pre- 
vailing one. The history of the family strengthens 
the Horatian tenet, and is not without the sanction 
of modern opinion that attributes physical and moral 
excellence to ancient stock. Thomas Goodsir of the 
seventeenth century may be noted as a prototype of 
his kinsmen. During the famine prevailing in his 
time, he helped his needy neighbours as long as he 
had it to give, and so freely as to draw forth a bit of 
his wife's mind : — " Ay, Tammas Gutcher " (repeating 
" Tammas" with a dogged meaning), " gie them'd a' 
and tak the blanket on yer ain shouthers."* Upon 
hearing this, Thomas would reply to his amiable 
spouse : — " My dame" (Scottish mode of addressing a 

* Was the blanket thrown over the shoulder the token of domestic 
poverty and distress ? or was it the significant garb of the old gaberlunzie of 
the seventeenth century ? 



GRANDFATHER JOH>". 7 

wife), " ne'er fear, ne'er fear ! ;; The Goodsirs were 
prone to marry, and, with quivers full, had large fami- 
lies of sons and daughters. Some of the latter readily 
found alliances when favoured, as they sometimes 
were, with handsome tochers of 1000 or 1500 gude 
B t b merks ; in other words, dowries of a thousand or 
more silver coins, each valued at 13 shillings and 4 
pence of English money. Many interesting details 
crop out of the family history, but only a few words on 
the direct line of doctors are allowable in this narrative, 
beginning with John, the grandfather of Professor 
Goodsir. 

Nearly a century ago Dr. John Goodsir was among 
the best known men in the East Neuk of Fife. Born 
in the parish of Wemyss in 1746, he became a graduate 
of the University of Edinburgh, and settled at Largo. 
Known at home for his skill, affability, and other good 
parts, his essays in Duncan's Annals of Medicine 
gained for liim reputation in the Edinburgh circle. 
This big-nosed, long-headed, large-hearted disciple of 
Galen and Lucina was a fine specimen of the eighteenth 
century country medical practitioner — hatted, coated, 

ted, and spurred, a la mode. Wiry in build, 
thoughtful and successful in practice, aye ready with 

"mull" (Scottice for snuff-box), and aye ready to 
help a neighbour as well as to uphold the int« : 
and character of " canny Fife," he was among the most 
popular of men, The customs of the period \ 
primitive and curious, and the practice of the healing 
art in rural distri cried on in pack-saddle 



8 DOCTOR AND PREACHER. 

fashion and regularity. Dr. Goodsir would start from 
Largo on Monday, caparisoned for the week with 
drugs and surgical appliances, and not return home 
till Friday— as itinerant with his physic as the ancient 
Peripatetic with his philosophy. He rode with a pecu- 
liar swinging motion that brought his spurs too fre- 
quently in contact with the horse ; and after the spur- 
points were clandestinely cut off, the doctor still made 
the rowel play, causing marked solutions of continuity 
in the nag's sides. In his moods of abstraction, 
medical and theological, he overlooked the effects of 
hard steel upon soft textures. To obviate the dangers 
of travelling by night, he carried a lantern, fastened by 
a strap above his knee. The bull's-eye of the doctor's 
lantern was often signalled, in moonless nights, herald- 
ing the comfortins; assurance of an obstetric deliverance. 
His regularity in his rounds vied with the carrier of 
his Majesty's mails, and the saddle-bags of the one, 
and surgical accoutrements of the other, were similarly 
horsed, so that the Laird of Largo, scanning the roads, 
used to say, — " It's either the doctor or the post that's 
coming." His piety in time became as noted and 
demonstrative as his physic ; for, after leaving " the 
Established Church," and having had experience of the 
"Independents," he joined the "Baptists" at Largo, 
and occupied their pulpit for twenty years ! The 
Christian community looked upon him as " a physician 
by profession and a pastor by principle." His success 
in both directions led Fife folk to say that Dr. 
Goodsir's physic always did good, as it was mixed 



THE SECOND DR. JOHN. 9 

with prayer. The Evangelical Magazine and TJieo- 
logical Review for June 1821 contains a portrait and 
biographical sketch of this worthy iEsculapian. " The 
church of Edinburgh" wrote to " the church at Largo," 
sympathising with the brethren on the loss they had 
sustained in the death of Dr. Goodsir, whose " savoury, 
and impressive, and edifying manner, as a pastor," 
was well known in the Scottish metropolis, and had 
frequently touched the hearts of both churches. 

Dr. Goodsir of Largo married Miss Agnes Johnstone 
of Moffat, Dumfriesshire, by whom he had eleven child- 
ren. His three sons took to surgery. John, the 
third son, settled down at Anstruther, where he be- 
came highly esteemed. He married Elizabeth Dunbar 
Taylor, daughter of the Rev. Joseph Taylor of Carnbee, 
whose wife was Jeanie Ross, daughter of Duncan 
Forbes Ross of Kindeace, and granddaughter of Grizzcl 
Forbes, the sister of Lord President Duncan Forbes. 
This, the second Dr. John Goodsir, had five sons, throe 
of whom are dead, and one daughter. The oldest son, 
named after his father, John, is the subject of this 
memoir, and was born on the 20th March 1814. The 
second son, Joseph, a scholar and divine, and his amiable 
sister Jane, are now living in Edinburgh ; Harry, the 
third sod, an anatomist and naturalist of the highest 
promise, joined Sir John Franklin's expedition to the 
Polar Sens in 1845, and perished with that noble band 
of heroes martyrs to science and geographical dis- 
covery ; Robert, the fourth son, graduated in medicine, 
and sailed twice to the Arctic ILegions with Captain 



10 THE GOODSIR ALLIANCES. 

Penny (in Lady Franklin's ship), in search of his 
brother Harry; and Archibald, the youngest son, 
studied medicine with eminent success in the best 
schools of Europe, and then came home to die — too 
truly a victim to his zeal in anatomical pursuits. 

The Goodsirs of Anstruther had formed family ties 
with — 1st, the historical Forbes of Culloden — many 
letters of the Lord President Forbes are now in the 
Goodsirs' archives ; 2d, with John Monro of Milton, 
the father of Dr. Monro, Primus and founder of the 
Anatomical School of Edinburgh ; 3d, with Dr. John 
Gregory of Aberdeen, and his son Dr. James, the author 
of" the Conspectus Medicince Theoreticce, who, living in 
Edinburgh, became allied with the Eev. Archibald 
Alison, the " Man of Taste," and father of the historian 
of Europe, and William Pulteney, the distinguished 
professor of the University of Edinburgh ; Ath, with 
Dr. Joshua Mackenzie, the father of Henry Mackenzie, 
the "Man of Feeling," and others of position in and 
around the Scottish metropolis. These direct and colla- 
teral blood-affinities of John Goodsir might constitute a 
pretty family chapter, in which the philosophic, the 
medical, and the historic, would find large space and 
mention ; and his being linked with the Monros the 
most curious of all — the Monros who established the fame 
of the Anatomical Chair of the Edinburgh University, 
and continued to hold it for three generations, and then 
resigned their place and trust to him (John Goodsir), 
to uphold, extend, and dignify. The genealogical web 
of prominent Goodsir warp, with its skeins of chivalry 



THE DAWN OF MEMORY. 11 

and law of the Culloden Forbes, forming an excellent 
fabric, showed a border of Monro-anatomical cord, 
fringed with the aesthetic Mackenzie and the medico- 
classical Gregories and Alisons. 

The boy John Goodsir grew in stature and good 
sense, and partook of the tender reciprocations of feel- 
ing that seasoned the domestic hearth of a gladsome 
and kindly-conducted home in Scottish life. His 
mother was a person of superior education, who pos- 
sessed many accomplishments, not the least of which 
was good management of her household and the 
affectionate guidance of her children. John used to 
recall his babyhood — his mother's coaxing him to try 
a dip in the sea, and of her guiding him so gently 
beneath the "bonny waves;" then the daisied field, 
so pearly and scarlet, in which he was allowed to 
romp ; and, above all, he remembered the pure white 
lily, the presentation of which elicited his first word- 
utterance, to his own and others' delight; — verily a 
pleasant dawn of memory, happily associated with 
nature, and inchoative of a larger acquaintance with 
organic forms and a grander knowledge of the crea- 
tive world. De Quincey wrote of his babyish me- 
mories as the earliest on record — startled, however, 
by a sudden burst of grief, the presage to a fitful 
and unsettled life of opium in high revelry and anti- 
podal remorse; but Goodsir had his primitive cognis- 
ance called Forth, and quite as early in life, by the open 
sea, daisied pastures, and liveried flora, and lie lived 
lo enjoy equanimity and pleasure in watching progres- 



12 JOHN AT ANSTER SCHOOL. 

sive thought and extending the lines of science. John's 
character as a boy, his brother states, " was singularly 
pure and good, never defiled by bad language or mean 
and evil deeds. His activity of mind and sagacity, 
co-operating with a most kindly and just spirit, 
formed for him a constant safeguard. In one sense he 
never was a child or boy, for he was at no time the 
sport of mere childish or boyish inanity. But still he 
was as little, in early as in later life, in the least 
priggish or austere. He was an open-faced, warm- 
hearted, rather diffident boy and lad, even as through 
life he continued to be an honest, kindly, and unosten- 
tatious man." Good education and training fell to 
John Goodsir's lot. The worldly wisdom and Scotch 
caution, the love of home and of natural scenery, and 
the sea and its living things, were exampled to the 
juvenile Goodsirs, along with the moralities, the prin- 
ciples, and the virtues of correct life. John imbibed 
the hereditary feeling of his family for worldly dis- 
tinction, and seems at an early age to have been gather- 
ing up his strength for the great conflict of life. On 
this head his brother very justly remarks : — " While 
natural force of character will always find or make its 
own way, and that apart from such force no circum- 
stances can be of much avail, still the favourable or 
unfavourable traditions of a family, equally with those 
of a larger society, act most powerfully on the members, 
whether of the family or larger associations." 

John was sent to the Burgh and Grammar Schools 
of Anstruther, and these, like other Scottish schools, 



STUDIES AT ST. ANDREWS. 13 

were noted for close surveillance, long tasks, and the 
hard grit of the instruction given ; the Bible in daily- 
use, and the Ten Commandments always in command, 
with Lon£ and Short Catechisms standing as awful 
monitors in the foreground of puberty. In his thir- 
teenth year he was sent to the University of St. 
Andrews, where he speedily attracted notice by his 
assiduity and forwardness as a scholar. He went 
through the regular curriculum required for a degree 
in arts ; and though the " Humanities " partook more 
of a High School form than a true University, the 
years of study spent within its walls were viewed by 
him as exceedingly profitable and formative of 
character. There was the daily work, the hebdomadal 
exposition of each lecturer, and other helps to sys- 
tematic and scholarly pursuits ; and these served as 
an instructive basis and no less wholesome training to 
his diligent and ever-appetising mind. To be put in 
the right groove for acquiring knowledge was, to a 
lad like John Goodsir, more than half-way to the 
accomplishment of the task assigned him. Dr. 
Chalmers was Professor of Moral Philosophy at this 
time ; and as the Professor and student had both 
family and nativity ties, a pleasant relationship 
existed between them. In May 1827, when fully 
thirteen years of age, John had mastered the first 
twenty propositions of Euclid, and was reading the 
"Clouds" of Aristophanes in the Greek. Be showed 
a greater aptitude for Latin than Greek or mathe- 
matics; but as he was not onesided, even in his 



14 NATURE AND ART. 

juvenile days, each branch of study obtained equal 
attention at his hand, and few of his college com- 
panions were much ahead of him. In the last year of 
his studies at St. Andrews he attended a course of 
lectures on natural history given by Mr. John G. 
Macvicar (then a licentiate of the church, now D.D., 
and the accomplished minister at Moffat), and formed 
friendships with those of congenial tastes to his own ; 
and though so young, joined a scientific society, in which 
several lads of promise were enrolled. Mr. Macvicar's 
lectures embraced a general course of natural history, 
and were much more than suggestive of first principles. 
They comprehended the views of the French school 
quoad biology, and these were far in advance of the 
British in 1829 ; moreover, they gave a direction to the 
feeling for the natural sciences in the ancient Univer- 
sity. If the museum of St. Andrews was not large, 
the student had the neighbouring quarries, rocky coast, 
and hedgerows for helps to his geological and botanical 
researches, whilst zoological demonstrations could be 
had on the sea-beach and in the ocean's wave. 

During the recess or summer months Goodsir 
showed no small liking for plants and animals, read 
Buffon and Goldsmith, watched the growth of tad- 
poles, scrutinised the contents of marine nets, traced 
the ropes and rigging of the small crafts in Anster 
harbour, and in various ways showed the intelligence, 
constancy, and methodical study that characterised 
him in after years. From his mother — a woman of 
artistic powers — he got lessons in drawing, and he 



MECHANICS AND CHEMISTRY. 15 

eventually imbibed a love of art almost as strong as 
his love of natural science, and this too at a very early 
age. 

His self-education went along with his academical, 
and received every encouragement at home ; and, as 
his brother writes, " this self-education, which after- 
wards developed itself fully in his professional and 
scientific walk, proceeded in three directions : — 1st, 
in observations of the works of nature and art ; 2d, in 
the acquisition of knowledge from books ; 3d, in an 
almost instinctive tendency to employ his admirable 
hands in observing what struck him, or in constructing 
various mechanical and other objects according to their 
true principles, as he had learned them, or latterly 
in experimenting or anatomising." A camera lucida 
excited his curiosity, and made him turn to the Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica, which ever afterwards became 
his reference on all matters of doubt pertaining to his 
youthful efforts. The work belonged to his grandfather, 
and had been well thumbed by a lad of the name of John 
Leslie of Largo. Its careful perusal probably helped 
to make that lad the Kumford medallist of the Eoyal 
Society in 1803 for his Researches on Heat, and, at a 
later date, the celebrated Edinburgh professor, now best 
known in history as Sir John Leslie the philosopher. 

Though so favourably situated for the study of 

medicine and the natural sciences, John Goodsir 

-ms to have had a greater desire for mechanics; 

he used to say in after years thai had hi* family 

given liim IVir scope he would have turned his 



16 "CAN THIS BE OUR JOCK?" 

abilities to engineering work or the construction of 
mechanical apparatus. With the aid of a school- 
fellow he got up a turning-lathe ; he also studied 
the steam-engine, and made experiments in chem- 
istry. In May 1829 he heard a lecture of Professor 
Christison's in Edinburgh, which gave fresh zest to 
his efforts in chemical manipulation and inquiries. 
His desire to work by himself created enemies among 
his school-fellows ; and his younger brothers, excluded 
from the improvised laboratory, vented their anger 
in the same vernacular form as Dr. Cullen's famous 
"Can this be our Jock?"** — by calling from the 
outside, " Mathematical-Chemical Jock !" The young 
chemist had ample reward for his industry, and for- 
got all the taunts of his companions when Professor 
Syme, called to a patient of his father's at Anster, 
and seeing the lad John handling some calculi, 
asked him their nature, and being told correctly, 
bestowed no small amount of commendation on his 
chemical skill — a pleasant episode in his juvenile 
history that was never effaced from his mind. 

Anstruther, like all sea-side places, afforded play 
to the playful, and much of an interesting nature to 
observing lads. Of the numerous belongings there 

* Dr. John Brown, the assistant of the famous Cullen of Edinhurgh, feel- 
ing himself aggrieved by the Professor's treatment, sought a Mastership in the 
High School of the city. Cullen heard of this, and vented his indignation by 
asking those who spoke of Brown's application "Can this be our Jock?" 
Brown took his revenge and wrote Elementa medicines hoping to crush 
Cullen's theory of physic ; but "the Brunonian system," as Brown's views 
were termed, though favoured in Germany and Italy, gained small ground in 
Britain. 



INCENTIVES TO STUDY. 17 

were " the smacks " — " Rob the Ranter " and " Maggie 
Lauder" — the boast of the port, as re-echoing the 
strains of " Anster Fair ;" the fishermen with their 
nets and tackle on the beach creating in boys a curiosity 
to know the names and uses of the nets' contents, and 
that curiosity heightened by the superstitious stories 
told of the uncouth denizens of the deep. With fish 
and fun and " sailors' yarns," there were also abundant 
materials, and of the most interesting nature, for in- 
vestigation ; and who so likely to take advantage of 
them as the sons of Dr. Goodsir, to whom the unknown 
" oddities " were continually being offered for in- 
spection and discrimination ? Marine zoology was 
at the door of the Goodsirs, and love of the sea 
would increase the enthusiasm of the pursuit ; for 
what life could be more charming than holding the 
helm, or "hauling in a sheet," while the light bark 
skimmed o'er the waves, unless the greater pleasure 
to John and Harry Goodsir of watching the exuber- 
ance of animal life that was free to roam over the 
wild sea's foam ; or when that life, caught in the 
meshed trail, came to be cabin 'd and confin'd, to see 
the motley group of entities, wanting the loves and 
affections that bind warmer natures, manifesting 
rapacity as their only law, and voracity as the sum 
and Bubstance of life? What opportunities to lads 
bent on zoological inquiry and in (lie possession of 
brain, energy, and education! Wh.it glorious in- 
centives t<> Btudy in having the faculties of the mind, 
and all (la; senses, made partakers of the pleasure of 



18 CHARMS OF THE SEA. 

observation ! Almost every haul in the waters of 
the Firth brought up organisms, fitful in action and 
Protaean in character ; — the faceless, shapeless, round, 
angular, and stellate forms ; the gelatinous, pulpy, 
passively transient ; the finny, scaly, and gliding- 
surfaced; the shelly, cretaceous, or bristling-defiant, 
mingling with the more harmonising and attractive, 
showing their lines of beauty, and dots and streaks of 
colour, nature-anilined, gold or ruby ; — all studies of 
the vast waters of 

The sea, the sea, the open sea, 

***** 

And the whale it whistled, the porpoise rolled, 
And the dolphins bared their backs of gold. 



CHAPTER II. 

Edinburgh. Studies and Dentistry — Anatomy his chief Pursuit — Dr 
Knox and other Teachers — Medical Societies — Friendship with 
Forbes — Gets a Surgical Diploma, and joins his Father in Prac- 
tice — British Association, 1838. 

Being well grounded in Latin and Euclid, and disposed 
to mechanics, chemistry, and natural history, John 
Goodsir seemed fitted for the professional walk of his 
family. Being desirous that John should, in the course 
of time, enjoy the privileges of a Fellowship of the 
Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh, his father, 
with a view to easy pecuniary terms, thought of ap- 
prenticing him to Mr. Liston or Mr. Syme. Meanwhile, 
his old friend Mr. Nasmyth, dentist, and also Fellow of 
his college, offered to take John as a pupil and with- 
out fees. This offer was gratefully accepted, and John 
was apprenticed for five years to Mr. Nasmyth, who, 
as a master, treated him kindly and considerately. 

In November 1830, John matriculated in Edin- 
burgllj and attended medical classes both within and 
without the University walls. His most absorbing 
course of lectures during the first session was Dr. 
Knox's, on descriptive anatomy, delivered in Old Sur- 
geons' I hill. Though not engaged with forceps and 
scalpel in hand, he was daily in the rooms watching 



20 THE "RESURRECTIONISTS." 

the progress of dissections, and adding to his stores of 
osteology. In his second year practical anatomy so 
absorbed his attention that he wrote to his father ask- 
ing his permission to become a surgeon, and not a gra- 
duate in medicine. No doubt he was influenced in 
part by his admiration of Knox, and a wish to avoid 
attendance on Monro, and possibly also with a view to 
economise his father's means. Immediately previous 
to Goodsir's student-days, the Edinburgh school of 
anatomy was supplied with materiel, got from the 
burial-grounds of the neighbourhood, or from England, 
even London itself. The men who robbed the graves 
of their contents were called " Eesurrectionists," and 
vile rascals they were ; some of them, not content with 
nocturnal depredations, took to the heinous crime of 
sacrificing the living for the sake of the booty their 
cadaverous victim would yield. Fifteen or twenty 
guineas for an adult subject was a great temptation to 
the body-snatchers. Students of anatomy, till the act 
legalising the removal of the unclaimed dead came 
fairly into operation — and this was hardly the case in 
1832 — had to pay dearly for their opportunities of 
practical knowledge ; thus Goodsir had £2 to pay for 
an upper extremity, and this he laboured at with a 
zeal that implied a determination to exact the pound's 
worth from the pounds of flesh. He wrote to his mo- 
ther as follows — " I do not occupy much of my time 
in dissecting animals, as I am too much employed with 
human anatomy ; but when I find a leisure hour in 
dissecting one, the information I acquire is so much 



TOOTH-PULLING TIRESOME. 21 

connected with the subjects discussed in other classes 
that it gives me a superiority over others, who only 
obtain at second hand what I acquire by actual inspec- 
tion." 

Young Goodsir was a thorough student, practical 
at work, thoughtful of the hour and the aim and pas- 
sion of his life, so that the smallest effort in the way 
of common business matters disturbed him quite as 
much as an adverse vote in Parliament could affect the 
most gouty of premiers. The following quotation from 
one of his letters shows this : — "Everything connected 
with my studies goes on to my heart's desire, but my 
bump of order is confused when I have to settle any- 
thing connected with money matters, letters to be 
written, calls, etc." He had declared in a previous let- 
ter that he was not fit for the management of the most 
common concerns of life. His landlady's account of 
larder-furnishinos for the week bothered him, and home 
commissions were no less troublesome. 

After two years' experience of dentistry he got 
tired of the work, and longed to be free, for, as he 
argued, after so many hours of each day so spent, he 
could not possibly keep pace with other young men in 
the profession who had no such drawbacks. In 1833 
he lost his temper quoad dentistry. The influenza 
raged as an epidemic in Edinburgh, and he had an 
attack; but tooth pulling was vastly worse in Good- 
sir's eyes- -almost a quotidian ague. He disliked the 
art from tin* beginning, Q01 per se, but as a hindrance 
to the higher studies of medicine and surgery ; and, as 



22 DONE WITH DENTISTEY. 

lie wrote, he wished to exercise his hands and his mind 
with other instruments, and with other subjects, than 
"smith's forges, brass furnaces, and sand-grinding 
stones." He was chagrined at seeing the dentist better 
paid than the surgeon, when the only diseases he had 
to treat were toothache and gum-boil, his only oper- 
ation the extraction of teeth, and his whole pharmaco- 
poeia tincture of myrrh. Ill at ease on the matter, he 
sought to be free from his apprenticeship. Dentistry 
and domestic details stood between him and life's plea- 
surable enjoyment ; the one a constant gum-boil that 
no tincture of myrrh could palliate, the other a half- 
penny arithmetic beyond the aid of a ready-reckoner. 
Soaring above the mechanical agencies of a speciality 
like dentistry, his scientific aim became too impetuous 
to be restrained by any bonds ; so Mr. Nasmyth very 
kindly cancelled his indentures before the expiry of the 
legal term. Goodsir's dislike stood in strange contrast 
to the progress he had made in an art for which his 
head and hands were so well equipped — an art that 
would have brought more money to his coffers than 
the most favoured following of the natural sciences. 
Mr. Nasmyth's confidence in his pupil's powers was 
such that he entrusted his large practice to him during 
the autumn of 1835, and with entire satisfaction. 
Whilst his master's locum tenens, Goodsir wrote to his 
father that Daniel O'Connell had been haranguing the 
Edinburgh worthies ; and that, wanting a tooth ex- 
tracted, sent for Mr. Nasmyth, in whose absence he 
went; that the " Great Agitator " made no demur to 



ANATOMICAL WORK. 23 

his youthfulness, but opened his mouth as the operator 
entered the room, as if to say " Out with the rascal!" 
When Goodsir's forceps had relieved him of his pos- 
terior molar, the " Great Dan " had his joke at the loss 
of a wisdom tooth, and the " repeal " of their union. 

Anatomy was Goodsir's hobby ; he did not limit 
himself to the purely "descriptive," but tried to 
advance his knowledge of surgical and pathological 
anatomy. During 1832-3 he made plaster-of-Paris 
casts of his dissections, to the surprise of his fellow- 
students, who had never heard of such a way of ren- 
dering dissections permanent and instructive. After 
some experience, he tried to imitate the models of 
ulcers and other lesions in the College of Surgeons, 
done by Sir C. Bell, who stood unrivalled in the 
art, and believed he had discovered the secret from 
experiments of his own : it was painting with coloured 
burnt wax, or the encaustic method of the ancients. 
He took his plaster-of-Paris cast of the ulcer, and 
completed his work at the bedside of the patient, in 
the wards of the Royal Infirmary. In putting up 
preparations, in articulating skeletons, and in every 
mode by which individual specimens of the animal 
series could be illustrated, or morbid growths pre- 
served, he showed surpassing care and neatness. His 
teachers availed themselves of his work ; Knox giving 
him a pike to form a skeleton, and other teachers 
morbid specimens to preserve. He was studiously 
nice in his mode of operating, and learned to do 
everything l'<>v himself: he laid down a principle 



24 GOODSIR APPRECIATED. 

worthy of being red-lettered in every dissecting-room, 
that a piece of true dissection ought to turn out an 
object of wonder and beauty. In his case, as his 
brother remarks, " his tools were deserved because he 
could use them ; and, like a good workman, he took 
pride in his tools and cared for them." 

In his third session he made a collection of 
morbid and healthy anatomy of the teeth for Mr. 
Nasmyth ; and this work probably led Goodsir's 
attention to the development of the human tooth and 
the interesting changes connected therewith. About 
the same time, possibly later, a work of Carus's fell in 
his way, the perusal of which strongly impressed him 
with the importance of the study of developmental 
anatomy, and gave the first impetus to his researches 
in that direction. Goodsir could not fail to be 
noticed in the classes ; he obtained attention from 
his fellow-students by his methodical demonstrations, 
his sketches, and casts ; while his teachers early 
detected in him superior ability, and a growing love 
for learning in every professional walk. The recog- 
nition of Goodsir by Knox was agreeably shown by 
soliciting him to become one of the vice-presidents 
of the Anatomical and Physiological Society, of which 
Knox was president. It may be noted here that 
Goodsir joined the Royal Medical Society on Novem- 
ber 8, 1833, probably for the advantage of the library, 
as he does not seem to have taken any part in 
Society business. 

Mr. Goodsir owed a great deal to Dr. Knox, and 



BARCLAY AND THE FROGS. 25 

always spoke of him as his anatomical teacher and 
friend. In 1830 Knox was far above his compeers, 
and did more than any teacher, professorial or extra- 
mural, to revive the fame of the anatomical school 
of Edinburgh, that had been on the wane during the 
reign of Monro tertius. He was the successor of Dr. 
John Barclay, in 1825-6, and extended the reputation, 
so well founded, of that distinguished anatomist/" 
Knox won the admiration of John Goodsir, and of 
every intellectual student ; for who could fail to be 
pleased with a lecturer so fluent in speech, so per- 
suasive in style, and so generally impressive and 
eloquent ? The plainest visaged man in Edinburgh, 
Knox was gay in dress, with embroidered purple 
vests, gold chains in profusion, and dandyism ; more- 
over, he was a courtier in manners, a dramatist in 
action, and possessed of a rhetorical faculty that 
would have suited the Bema, the Forum, or the 
Tribune. He had a class of 504 pupils (session 
1829 or 1830), the largest anatomical audience ever 

* John Barclay was educated for the church, and, as a probationer, 
was for some weeks the locum tenons of the Rev. G. Baird of Bo'ness, after- 
wards Principal of the University of Edinburgh. Mr. Baird, wishing to 
ascertain how his parishioners liked Barclay, asked the opinion of a shrewd 
villager. "Gey wed, minister, gey weel," quoth Sandie ; "but every 
body thought him daft." "Why, Sandie ?" "0, for gude reasons, minister ; 
Mr. Barclay was aye skinning paddocks" (frogs). This dissecting of frogs 
changed Barclay's thoughts, and he took to medicine, and became a man of 
mark in the anatomical school of Edinburgh. He bequeathed his fine 
comparative anatomy collection, and other preparations, to the Royal 
College of Surgeons. It used to be said that dogs avoided Barclay's path 
from an instinctive dread of his dissecting them. If disliked by the 
aiiimalitics, he was much esteemed by his contemporaries and friends. He 
ri'iid'Ted tin- medical school no small Service. 



26 DR. ROBERT KNOX. 

known in Britain. A scholar and a man of great 
ability, lie possessed a self-reliance that never failed 
him in the lecture-room, within the hall of his 
college, or the inner circle of the Royal Society. 
Anatomy lost its repulsive character to the student, 
looking at Knox's masterly attitudes — so effective, 
graceful, and inimitable — and listening to his graphic 
descriptions and narrative, in which the historical was 
blended with the figurative and sensational. Knox 
in his lecture-room carried all before him : his 
voice, now gentle as a zephyr, or evenly melodious, 
occasionly rose with characteristic force, to barb the 
cynical shaft, to heighten the historical figure, or 
to fan the professional ardour of his class. His 
wit was keen, flashing, and incisive, highly amusing 
to the listener, and oft withering to the object of 
his causticity. As a teacher inspiring youths with 
a love of biology, he had no rival, nor was he less 
grand in discomfiting the charlatanisms, the royal 
roads, and trade-following of physic. Pertinent in 
description, and ever rich in illustration and critical 
acumen, Knox revelled in variety of work, from 
the examination of a tissue to the broadest general- 
izations and occasionally became prophetic of types 
and homologucs.* If his lectures did not fathom all, 

* Whilst Dr. Knox and the writer (Nov. 1840) were arranging a series 
of humeri for lecture, a marked point of bone at the lower third of the 
inner surface of one of the specimens was observed, and, on further examina- 
tion of the entire collection, other humeri presented more or less of a bony- 
eminence, not, however, of such a character as to attract attention. After 
some thought, Knox said — "This is a rudimentary structure, Dr. Lonsdale, 
and rest assured you will some day find in man a supra-condyloid foramen 



A MASTER IN HIS ART. 27 

they were suggestive of more than all that had 
ever been proclaimed from British anatomical ros- 
trums. His translations of Cloquet and Beclard, and 
his efforts to impress the English mind with the 
doctrines of Bichat and Geoffroy St. Hilaire, and 
his own marked tendency to morphology, helped 
much to create inquiry among his own pupils, and 
to promote the growth of a philosophic anatomy in 
Britain. 

Under such a teacher as Knox, Goodsir' s anatomi- 
cal predilections had every chance of being strengthened, 
for session after session he heard lessons in comparative 
anatomy from a master of the art, who could harmonize 
the incongruous forms, typify the natural series, and 
with a lofty rhetoric clothe the dry bones with fibre 
and flesh ; — putting in force the springs of motion and 
all the varied manifestations of life. The museums, 
private and public, also presented to Goodsir's cognizance 
the chief zoological data of the Old and New Worlds- 
data marvellous of themselves, yet indicative of a 
mightier aggregate — data as varied as the pebbles of 
the sea-shore, of which but few examples could be 
fully determined, and those only by a Newton or a 
Cuvier. If Knox was at home in descriptive and 
general anatomy, he was rich and rare upon the human 

transmitting the brachial vessels and median nerve, as you see in the 
eamivora." This prophecy was verified within a few weeks in the practical 
rooms, and, of coarse, to Knox's greal delight < »n an adjacent table the carcase 
of a huge jaguar was Lying, with its natural Bupra-condyloid foramen, with 
which to compare the human rarity. This jaguar, so wonderfully tamed hy 

Mr. Carter, had been the great sensational Gael in a large menagerie. — Vide 

Ed. Med. and Surg. Journal, July 1841. 



28 DR. JOHN REID. 

cranium and the history of races ; so that, in whatever 
direction the student aimed his course, Knox could be 
his guide, philosopher, and friend ; and he was all these 
to John Goodsir. 

Mr. William Fergusson and Dr. John Reid were 
Knox's demonstrators. The former looked at anatomy 
in relation to surgery, and to-day has his reward in 
being Sergeant-Surgeon to the Queen, and a member 
of the British baronetcy. 

Few could fail to be struck with Reid's appearance, 
bucolic gait and manners, ruddy complexion, with long 
locks of black hair hanging over his neck and coat- 
collar, broad forehead and open countenance. Under- 
neath an outer toga that Reid wore, rather shambles- 
like, in " The Rooms," was a man of large heart and 
large promise. Reid's forte was physiology, the 
teaching of which Goodsir fully appreciated, but his 
greater liking was for the fellowship and friendly 
counsel of the man himself. One early debt of grati- 
tude he owed to Reid was a recommendation to 
Professor Alison, of the institutes of medicine, as 
the person best fitted to go through a series of dissec- 
tions in comparative anatomy, which the professor 
wished to do at that time for his own information. 
Goodsir naturally felt the honourable distinction of 
being closeted with the academical physiologist for 
two hours, demonstrating to him the cuttle-fish. A 
pretty picture might have been conceived from this 
episode in the lives of both men ; the philosophic 
Alison watching the operations of the Fife lad in his 



PROFESSOR SYME. 29 

dissection of the mollusc, the young naturalist modestly 
pointing out the parts of the anatomy and their uses ; 
age and youth changing their respective positions in 
the field of teaching, yet pleasantly in concert exploring 
organisms for the elucidation of one of Nature's plans, 
by which to unravel the type of a larger series. 

Mr. Syme was the surgical teacher and attached 
friend of Goodsir : and no one of the Edinburgh school 
has done more for its surgical fame than the present 
distinguished professor of clinical surgery. Adorning 
his position by numerous improvements in his art, as 
acknowledged throughout Europe, he has, in his forty 
years' experience as a lecturer, contributed largely to 
the surgical indoctrination of the British mind both at 
home and abroad. Acting as dresser, and often as 
assistant, to Mr. Syme, Goodsir enjoyed the best surgi- 
cal education in Edinburgh. Nor did he overlook the 
great props of his medical building, and that of materia 
medica was far from the least. Professor Christison's 
lectures were a daily treat of admirable instruction, as 
thousands of graduates, distributed over the world, 
could readily testify. Goodsir never forgot the kind- 
ness of Dr. John Macintosh, a popular extramural 
lecturer on practice of physic, from whom he derived 
much excellent information. 

If anatomy and surgery were the corner-stones of 
the Goodsir fabric, the ornamental column was natural 
history, then taught by Professor Robert Jameson, a 
disciple of Werner and a mineralogist of distinction. 
In his measured walk and fixed countenance, Jameson 



30 PROFESSOR JAMESON. 

betokened the man of gravity and precision, if not the 
abstract thinker. In society his manner was cool, re- 
served, and taciturn ; but he was a man of his epoch, 
and ever zealous for the extension of his science. He 
belonged to the conservative school of natural history. 
Though agitated by the bold innovations of Berzelius, 
and the greater discoveries of Mitscherlich in his special 
walk of mineralogy, and oft refreshed by the advancing 
tide of biology, upon which new sciences like palae- 
ontology were being wafted, he showed in his latter 
years a less responsive call to the tendencies of the 
age, now looking beyond the museum era of stuffed 
birds and the colouring of tattooed New Zealanders. 
John Goodsir and his friends Edward Forbes and 
Hugh Falconer, were among the chief of Jameson's 
pupils in the fourth decade of the century; all ac- 
knowledged their master's worth, and helped to extend 
his fame, and all, like himself, have paid their last 
tribute to nature. Jameson in his lecture-room can 
never be forgotten. Appearing as if enveloped in his 
professor's gown, his head of black hair was brushed 
stiffly upward, and gave bold relief to his brow ; his 
sallow, strong-lined physiognomy, indicative of the 
wisdom of the sage and the appeal of the preacher ; 
his head thrown back and fixed ; his slow, precise, and 
oracular utterances, each sentence of import being ac- 
companied by an emphatic throwing of the folds of 
his gown across his left breast were all grand adju- 
vantia to the occupant of a platform ; and assuredly 
no man looked more like a philosopher than Jameson. 



goodsie's companions. 31 

When Goodsir studied chemistry in 1831, the 
teaching of the science was more theoretical than 
practical. Dr. Thomas Hope, known as " Strontian 
Hope" for his one discovery, was not an enthusiastic 
teacher, and not likely to fascinate the young idea 
with the grand problems awaiting solution in the 
science. He was dry, didactic, yet methodical and 
accurate in his experiments, and a gentleman of the 
old type, and essentially academical. Dr. Graham, 
the professor of botany, whose lectures were attended 
by Goodsir, lived and died in the Linnsean faith, 
despite Jussieu and Decandolle, and held by a pocket- 
lens as if the microscopic observations of Dr. Eobert 
Brown had never been made. Without a natural- 
history inheritance, Goodsir' s botanical knowledge 
would have remained latent as far as teaching affected 
its genesis. 

Goodsir's character kept him from a promiscuous 
acquaintanceship. His brother observes — " When he 
saw or felt there was no affinity, he quietly but reso- 
lutely kept within himself. In addition to this, the 
remains of what was an innate and sometimes painful 
sensitiveness and modesty acted on him powerfully, 
often disadvantagcously, through life. Nevertheless 
he always enjoyed the real good of having a quite 
sufficient circle of friendly acquaintance, as well as an 
inner circle of tried friends, whom he valued highly, 
loved sincerely, and delighted in as companions." 

His closest and mosl important friendship was with 

Edward Forbes of the Isle of Man. They met for the 



32 EDWAED FORBES. 

first time in Knox's rooms, and instinctively drew 
towards each other with the confidence of travellers 
going the same road, and formed a friendship that 
became firm, cordial, and permanent. Goodsir gave 
Forbes his first lesson in comparative anatomy by 
showing him how to dissect a snail of the genus 
Clausilia, found on Arthur's Seat. Forbes benefited 
greatly by his friend's hints, and took earnestly to 
malacology ; and in after years became an authority 
in the natural history of the mollusca. The two lads, 
Fife and Manx, being of tall stature and characteristic- 
ally visaged, though of different type, were the most 
conspicuous members of the anatomical class : gemini 
in their evolutions and craving search for the lower 
organisms, they were looked upon as a double star 
rising above the horizon of their compeers. Mr. 
Joseph Goodsir says of them — " Their ages differing 
only by a year, their mental and moral constitution, 
as also their intellectual and aesthetic tastes, fitted to 
work in harmony, even by the striking contrasts they 
presented — their very physical constitution, both 
being tall, lithe and powerful men in their respective 
fashions — by all these things they were formed to be 
companions and collaborateurs." 

Mr. Forbes persuaded Goodsir to accompany him 
to a meeting of the " Royal Physical Society," as a 
paper was to be read on the chameleon. The theory 
of the action of the tongue in the chameleon, as given 
by the essayist, Forbes knew from Goodsir's dissections 
to be incorrect ; so, without asking his bashful friend's 



ESSAY ON THE SNAIL. 33 

permission, which he well knew he would not obtain, 
begged the favour of the society to call upon a 
stranger then present for his opinions on the paper 
that had just been read. Good sir was taken aback by 
this appeal, and could not help himself. So he rose 
for the first time in public arena, and pointed out 
the anatomy and true uses of the structures in the 
chameleon, and satisfied the author of the paper, and 
the society of his thorough knowledge of this oft- 
questioned and poetically- painted animal. This 
pleasant public initiative of Goodsir was taken advan- 
tage of by Forbes and Reid, who, aided by J. H. 
Bennett, now professor of the institutes of medicine — 
a friend who knew Goodsir's strength of intellect to 
be associated with a severe modesty — persuaded him 
to read an account of the snail, which he had drawn 
up, to the Anatomical and Physiological Society.'* 
This paper, so novel and elaborate and highly illus- 
trated, surprised and delighted his audience. It is 
characteristic of Goodsir, that this, his earliest scientific 
r<»inmunication, was only drawn forth by repeated 
solicitations of his friends. 

When anatomy, physic, and natural history — each 
and all in succession at nights — had satisfied his 
powers of hard thought, he took to Milton and the 
ports, Coleridge and other English writers of emi 
aence, amongsl whom Eerschel ranked high. He 

* This essay is not forthcoming. It has been supposed thai be read it to 
the "Eoyal Physical;" bul the evidence is largely in favour of the Bociet] 
mentioned in the b rt. 

l> 



34 GETS HIS DIPLOMA. 

also took interest in the theological and other studies 
of his brother Joseph, who was preparing to enter the 
church, and there he indicated his true character — 
the early manifestation of his grandfather's inherit- 
ance, theological as well as medical — by insisting 
unweariedly that his brother was neglecting what 
ought to be his main study, that of the Bible itself. 
His brother's experience to this day testifies to the 
wisdom of that warning. 

In 1835 he became a licentiate of the Eoyal 
College of Surgeons, Edinburgh. All he had to say 
on his becomings a surgeon was — " The examination 
lasted half-an-hour, and was most satisfactory and 
pleasant to me, I do assure you." After aiding Mr. 
Nasmyth, he joined his father in practice at An- 
struther. His love of anatomy prompted him to 
carry to Anstruther an entire "subject" for dissection, 
a most hazardous undertaking, by coach and steam- 
boat. He turned all his dissections to good account 
by casts ; and those he made of the perineum (1837) 
are now in the Anatomical Museum of the University. 
The Eev. Mr. Goodsir says — "John was endowed with 
the natural gifts of strongly-marked intellectual and 
artistic powers, and with the unwearied assiduity, or 
rather with that capacity of deriving pleasure from the 
exercise of his powers, which is as necessary as the pos- 
session of power itself for the accomplishment of true and 
valuable work." Goodsir became an excellent medical 
practitioner, and occasionally had the opportunity of 
proving his dexterity in operative surgery. He was 



SUCCESS IN PRACTICE. 35 

the third " Doctor John," and considered the highest 
taught of the surgical family. Cases like Lady 

, where consulting physicians failed and he 

succeeded, rang through Fife, and to his great benefit. 
He had a thoroughly practical mind — a great desidera- 
tum in medicine ; but it need hardly be said that 
Anstruther offered no field for a man of his capacity. 
There were bread-and-butter earnings, and home 
amenities — a scanty pabulum, however, to a man of 
craving scientific appetite. His inquiries into the 
teeth, and his general and microscopic examination of 
the Invertebrata, kept him mentally alive ; indeed, his 
scientific habit had become known, as Sir J. Gr. Dalyell, 
in 1838, addressed him as a fellow-naturalist, and 
asked him about the Holothurise, and the mode of 
dredging practised on the Fife coast. In the same 
year he completed his investigations into the develop- 
ment of the teeth, and was pressed — for it was no 
easy matter to persuade him — to communicate the 
results of his inquiry " On the Origin and Develop- 
ment of the Pulps and Sacs of the Human Teeth," 
to the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science. 

Attending the British Association in 1838 was a 
great effort for Goodsir to make ; but when there, he 
had his reward in enjoying high rank among the 
original contributors, and in being appreciated by his 
Beniors in science and the savans of Europe. In 
writing his father on the hearty reception he had me1 
with, lie Baid " I Qeed not tell you the kind of 



36 BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

pleasure one feels in such a sudden change from a 
remote situation, where no one is able to understand or 
sympathize with you in your pursuits, to a place which 
contains within itself all the talent and science in 
Europe, and where every one is eager to acquire and 
communicate knowledge;" and in reference to his 
paper — "that his facts were new to science, and that 
he had completely set at rest the great questions in 
this department of anatomy, so far as human structure 
was concerned." Thus he was satisfied with his first 
public effort, and encouraged to extend his labours. 
It was a great step for a village doctor to make, so 
that Dr. George Johnston, the naturalist, might well 
sympathize with any and every effort of a provincial 
practitioner to help on science, and to rescue men like 
himself and Goodsir from the sort of superciliousness 
with which metropolitans were apt to regard them. 
Scotland has produced other examples as marked as 
Goodsir and Johnston of country doctors extending the 
boundary of both literature and science; and Dr. 
Francis Adams of Banchory, the Oriental scholar and 
translator of Paulus JEgineta, and Dr. Moir (Delta) of 
Musselburgh, may be cited as instances. 



CHAPTER III. 

Memoirs on the Teeth — Jameson's Kindness — Model Museum — Crania 
from Fife Barrows — Fossil Fishes — Dredging with Forbes — 
Natural History and other Papers read to the Societies of St 
Andrews and Cupar. 

This essay, " On the Origin and Development of the 
Pulps and Sacs of the Human Teeth," is an excellent 
and characteristic piece of Goodsir work, and a care- 
fully-studied inquiry into one of nature's peculiar 
operations in the human economy. Though hundreds 
of volumes bore more or less upon the subject, Goodsir 
was alive to the fact that much remained to be done, 
and his experience in dentistry was a fitting introduc- 
tion to the work. The principles of his memoir on the 
teeth existed hypothetic-ally in Goodsir's mind as early 
as the year 1834, when he made the preparations for 
Mr. Nasmyth, and only remained to be fully verified 
by the investigations he was enabled to pursue after 
entering medical practice. He examined the human 
dental arches of different ages, from the embryo in its 
sixth week through every month of foetal and infantile 
life upwards to adolescence, and his observations afford 
abunda.n1 evidence of great research and originality! 

Be divided dentition into three stages : — 1st, the 
Follicular; 2d, the Saccular; and 3d, the Eruptive. 
He also indicated a stage previous to the Follicular 



38 STAGES OF DENTITION. 

during which the follicle or sac does not exist, and the 
future pulp is a simple papilla on the free surface of 
the gastro-intestinal mucous membrane ; this papillary 
stage being of short duration, was included under the 
follicular. About the sixth week of embryonic life he 
found a depression or groove in the form of a horse- 
shoe along the edge of the jaw in the mucous 
membrane of the gum, and this he named the primitive 
dental groove, as the germs of the teeth first appear in 
it. By the thirteenth week a series of ten papillse arose 
in succession in each jaw, constituting the germs or 
rudimentary pulps of the milk-teeth, and which he 
viewed as processes of the mucous membrane itself. 
Each papilla adhered by its base to the fundus of the 
groove, whilst its apex, up to the eleventh or twelfth 
week, presented itself at, or protruded from, the mouth 
of its follicle. The upper jaw was earlier than the 
lower one in respect to this stage. 

The follicles appeared to Goodsir as mere dupli- 
catures of the membrane of the groove, or the general 
gastro-intestinal mucous membrane passing across and 
between the papillse. Each of the individual follicles, 
with its papilla, vascular branches, and nervous twig, 
exactly resembled a large hair-bulb, with its nerve and 
vessels exposed after the hair has been extracted.*"" As 

* This opinion receives confirmation now that the teeth and the hairs 
rank as homologous organs. Professor Huxley viewed them either as both 
endcronic, or Loth ecderonic. The "basement membrane" being found an 
imperfect test, Huxley, guided by the question of growth, considers the hair, 
the teeth, the scales of fish, and probably the " dermal plates" of reptiles as 
ecderonic wfin^.—Siqiplemcnt to Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physioloyy, p. 
176. 



PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT. 39 

the papillae grew, they showed peculiarities of form 
corresponding with that of the crowns of the future 
teeth. After a time the lips of the dental groove and 
small laminae or opercula of membrane developed from 
the sides of each follicle begin to cohere from behind 
forwards, obliterating the groove and converting the 
follicles into closed sacs, and then commences the 
saccular stage of the milk-teeth. 

As these stages proceeded, Goodsir observed seve- 
ral changes in the growth of the human tooth resem- 
bling what is met with in the lower animals, and felt 
disposed to view the opercula of the human tooth fol- 
licle as rudimentary organs, which attain their utmost 
development in the sacs of the elephantoid, ruminant, 
and other compound teeth, under the form of depend- 
ing folds for the secretion of the intersecting enamel and 
cement-plates. As illustrative of the law of progressive 
development, he cited the human molar tooth-pulp — 
first rounded as in certain fishes ; then conical as in 
other fishes and reptiles ; then conical and flattened 
transversely as in the carnivora; and finally, by the 
equalisation of the primary and secondary tubercles 
assuming the shape of the molars in the quadrumanous 
animals and man. 

Wnen bhe 'primitive dental yroove contained ten 
: 1 1 » I » i 1 1 ; i ■ in as many follicles, and lie. -ami' situated on a 
higher level than at first, he denominated it the second- 
ary dental groove. This groove affords a provision 
for the production of all the permanenl teeth, with the 
exception of the first anterior molars: the preparation 



40 CLAIMS TO DISCOVERY. 

is made by little depressions in the form of a crescent 
upon the inside of the mouth of each of the milk folli- 
cles. These depressions Goodsir called "cavities of 
reserve/' furnishing delicate mucous membrane for the 
future formation of the pulps and sacs of the ten an- 
terior permanent teeth — incisor, canine, and bicuspid. 
The sacs in which the six posterior (superadded) per- 
manent teeth, or the three permanent molars on each 
side, which arise from successive extensions of the dental 
groove carried backwards in the jaw posterior to the milk- 
teeth are developed, Goodsir named "posterior cavities of 
reserve," the wisdom tooth being the final development. 

Goodsir looked upon his follicular stage, from the 
first appearance of the dental groove and papillae, till 
the latter became completely hid by the closure of the 
mouths of their follicles, and of the groove itself, as a 
hitherto unknown stage of dentition. He was the first 
to point out the peculiar development and character of 
the anterior permanent molar — the most remarkable 
tooth in man, as it forms a transition between the milk 
and permanent teeth : if considered anatomically, it is 
decidedly a milk-tooth ; if physiologically, a permanent 
one. No observer had noticed the peculiarity of the 
anterior molars that Goodsir established ; he did not 
fail to mark the practical bearing of the growth with 
the decay of the said teeth. 

The careful investigation of the whole process of 
dentition in man, and the clear illustrations given of 
the text, fully justified Goodsir in the conclusions he 
drew from his researches. The milk or deciduous teeth 



C0NTEMP0BARY OPINIONS. 41 

used to be considered as the parents of the permanent 
teeth ; whereas Goodsir showed that they are both laid 
down separately and independently of each other. The 
profession fully agree as to the value of Goodsir's disco- 
very. Mr. Flower, one of the latest authorities on this 
subject, appropriately says — " It should be remembered 
that instead of there being any such relation between 
the permanent and milk-teeth as that expressed by the 
terms 'progeny' and 'parent' sometimes applied to 
them, they are both formed side by side from inde- 
pendent portions of the primitive dental groove, and 
may rather be compared to twin brothers; one of 
which, destined for early functional activity, proceeds 
rapidly in its development, while the other makes little 
progress until the time approaches when it is called 
upon to take the place of its more precocious locum 
te nens." — {Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 1867.) 

From Vesalius to our own times, the milk teeth 
used to be looked upon as the germs of the permanent 
ones. Eustachius was almost the exceptional instance 
to the current opinion ; he believed that the germs of 
both sets of teeth existed in the jaw of the embryo. 
iJuverney and Herissant had a glimpse of the nature 
of the follicles and their relation to the gums, and 
Jourdarrj gave a minute description of the follicle from 
its first appearance in the foetal ja\\ r till the period of 
birth. Blandin considered the teeth as productions of 
i lie mucous membrane analogous t<» the nails and hair, 
and seems to have approximated more closely to (lie 
true conception of the dental follicle than an} "I his 



42 GOODSIU'S WORK COMPLETE. 

predecessors. Serres, the octogenarian, who died in 
January last, and the successor of M. De Blainville, 
like Goodsir in being the son of a country practitioner, 
and still more like him in character and work, advanced 
our knowledge of the embryonic condition of the dental 
apparatus in his able treatise on the anatomy and phy- 
siology of the teeth. He described the germs of the 
two sets of teeth, the membranous folds and partitions, 
and the relative position of the anterior molar to the 
canine, and did much to advance our knowledge quoad 
dentition. Hunter, Baron Cuvier, and his son Fre- 
derick, Purkinje, Miiller, Betzius, Bell, Blake, Owen, 
and Nasmyth and others laboured at different depart- 
ments of odontology, confirming in part the researches 
of Malpighi and Leeuwenhoek, and contributing fresh 
facts to the accumulating stores; but none of these 
eminent men gave that attention to the embryonic 
conditions of the teeth that Goodsir bestowed ; and no 
one succeeded as he did in furnishino' a consecutive 
and complete account of the whole process of human 
dentition. His observations were systematically re- 
corded, and in the most precise way, and this is a great 
desideratum in anatomical science. 

When Goodsir read his paper to the British Asso- 
ciation, he believed that most of his facts were new to 
science, and this was the prevailing opinion at the 
meeting. In a postscript note (vol. ii. p. 51), Goodsir 
explains how he became aware of Professor Arnold's 
discovery of the milk-tooth sacs formed by a duplica- 
ture of the mucous membrane of the mouth, published 



SOME OBJECTIONS TO HIS VIEWS. 43 

in a Salzburg periodical in 1831, and adduced by 
Valentin in his work on Development. That Goodsir's 
researches were made independently, no one doubts, 
and the comparatively isolated observation of Arnold 
in no wise detracts from the larger and more success- 
ful investigations of the Edinburgh student. Arnold's 
views rested on so limited a basis that his own country- 
men had failed to recognise their application. Raschkow 
and Purkinje differed from Arnold's opinions soon after 
these were made known in Germany, as to the dental 
follicles taking their origin from the mucous membrane 
of the mouth. Goodsir's observations were the most cir- 
cumstantial and complete ever put before the profession. 
To claim perfection for Goodsir's work would be un- 
worthy of the physiologist, as his views on the primor- 
dial condition of the dental germs may possibly admit 
of a slight modification ; indeed, objections have 
been raised by Continental anatomists on this spe- 
ciaJ ground. After twenty years of general acknow- 
ledgment of Goodsir's correctness, the superficial and 
open condition of the dental sacs, and the papillary 
commencement of the pulps, were questioned by 
Guillot in the Annates des Sciences Naturelles for 
1850, and in the following year by Messieurs Robin 
and Magitot in the Jour/><</ de la Physiologic These 
gentlemen threw some doubts on the mode of Goodsir's 
dissecting, and attributed some of the five surfaces he 
had described i<> tin' use of the needle or brush upon 
mucous membrane. ELolliker subsequently defended 
('• Isir's main points, not, however, without an ad- 



44 DENTITION OF MAMMALIA. 

mission that in some of his specimens the epithelium 
had been abraded, rendering the follicles and papillae 
somewhat unnaturally open to the surface. Goodsir 
used to say that Monsieur Robin, who objected to the 
open follicles, did not look at the structures (embryonic) 
sufficiently early, and therefore he only saw the follicles 
when they were really closed sacs. Satisfied with the 
general accuracy of his own observations, and seeing 
nothing to shake his faith in them, Goodsir took no 
steps to put himself right with his French contempo- 
raries. The writer of these pages has always looked 
upon Goodsir's Memoir on the Teeth, his first effort in 
developmental anatomy, as his best work, and is happy 
to find his humble opinion supported by the best 
authorities in Britain — Owen, Sharpey, Huxley, and 
others. The minute exploration of the anatomy, the 
historical sequence and application of the data obtained 
to both physiology and pathology, give a character and 
finish to Goodsir's researches, which no special work 
or parts of volumed history on the subject had ever 
furnished. 

In the following year, 1839, he read a paper to the 
British Association " On the Follicular Stage of Denti- 
tion in the Ruminants; with some remarks on that 
process in the other orders of Mammalia," and an- 
nounced the fact, that at an early period of embryonic 
life, the cow and sheep possess the germs of canine and 
superior incisive teeth, the former existing as developed 
organs in two or three genera only of ruminants, the 
latter bein^ found in the aberrant familv of camels, 



JAMESONS KINDNESS. 45 

which showed how general the law of unity of type is 
within certain limits. He drew a distinction between 
those permanent teeth developed from the primitive, 
and those developed from the secondary groove. 

Being requested to publish his essay on the teeth 
in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, he 
visited Edinburgh to arrange the engravings, when 
Professor Jameson souoht" an introduction to him 

O 

through Mr. Nasmyth, and showed him great kindness, 
offering him the loan of one of Ehrenbero-'s famous 
microscopes, the discoveries made with which had 
startled Europe, and soliciting his company to look over 
the Natural History Museum. Fresh from the honours 
of the British Association, and now seated by the side of 
the Wernerian philosopher, implied that the Goodsir 
star was in the ascendant. The joint survey and talk 
about the museum had a meaning that Goodsir did 
not fail to interpret ; indeed, both professor and practi- 
tioner seemed mutually pleased with each other, and 
from that October morning continued in happy alliance 
on the highway of science till the severance of the life- 
link of the aged professor. Though soon back to 
Anstruther and the drudgery of physic, Goodsir had 
resolved to look for a broader platform than " the 
Kingdom of Fife." Not that Fife was commercially 
slow or mentally stagnant, for the University of St. 
Andivws li;nl strong ••■•■lH'tic forces in Sir 1). lirewstcr 
and others of scholarly aims, many of whom had been 
induced by other gales than fortune t<> se1 up their 
Penates in thai retired historic] k sylvestrem tenui 



46 A MODEL MUSEUM. 

rnusam meditari avend. Moreover, St. Andrews had 
its "Literary and Philosophical Society;" and Cupar, 
the county- town of Fife, its " Literary and Antiquarian 
Society," both of which were nourishing, and claimed 
Goodsir as member. 

In 1837 he began a natural-history museum 
alongside of his strictly anatomical and pathological. 
He had been gathering from the second year of his 
medical studies, and now wished to establish a collec- 
tion worthy of the name and his own curatorship ; 
and for this purpose explored the quarries of the 
neighbourhood and dredged the sea-depths towards 
the Isle of May. He had capital hands, and showed 
dexterity and neatness in all his work, and specially 
in preserving the skeletons and skins of fishes. So 
busy was he in this direction that his friends concluded 
he was bent on ichthyology proper. It cannot be said 
that he made great progress in geology, though a 
future page will show that he had a penchant in that 
direction. Owing to its arrangements, classification, 
and display, his museum was talked of as a model one, 
and attracted many visitors — even young men of science 
from Edinburgh. He presented his fossil fishes, sup- 
posed to be gems in rarity and character, to the Lite- 
rary and Philosophical Society of St. Andrews. It 
was a source of regret in after years that he had not 
retained this nucleus of a collection in his own hands, 
as in the course of time its extension would have been 
greatly promoted, and especially after his rise to the 
anatomical professorship. 



FIFE BAEEOWS. 47 

The opening of a barrow at Kingsmuir (Fife) in 
1839, and the presentation of the skulls found in it 
to one of the meetings of the Cupar society, afforded 
Goodsir a fine chance of discussing: the character of 
these exhumed relics of the far past. Whilst betoken- 
ing a familiarity with anthropology that ensured the 
society's attention, he inferred, from the state of the 
teeth in the respective jaws, the nature of the food 
eaten by these early Fife settlers, be they Danes or 
ancient Caledonians. Various opinions, historical and 
ethnological, had been expressed by lay as well as 
medical members of the society regarding the crania 
before them, but no one hazarded a conjecture as to 
the liabilities, or flesh-and-blood conditions of the 
individual possessors during life. Nothing, however, 
escaped Goodsir's eye and discrimination. Having 
examined the pericranial surfaces, he pointed out the 
existence of morbid lesions dependent on a special vim*, 
which had left so marked an impress on the bones that 
a thousand years had in no wise effaced or obscured 
its real character. Having gratified the society by 
the preciseness and originality of his views, he now 
surprised them by showing syphilitic nodes, as mani- 
fest as any modern instance, on one of the crania. 
Had the society been aware that in 1497, about 
four years after the return of Columbus from his first 
yoyage to Hispaniola, the first Scottish edicts were 
issued againsl the new distemper, or "grand gore," 
"pockis," or "French infirmitez," the contents of the 
Kingsmuir barrow with its syphilitic member would 



48 ROYAL STUART RELICS. 

have been looked upon with still greater curiosity and 
attention. " Old Aberdeen/' seeking purity of morals, 
and trying to wash her citizens clean of the " pockis," 
" French infrrmitez," and other perilous stuff, by burgh 
edicts and excommunications, little dreamt that she 
was contending with an old enemy in the land — 
Satanic if not Spanish. Whether the " distemper " was 
old or new, Goodsir's diagnosis proved his surgical 
acumen, and showed how keenly alive he was to the 
science of medicine in all its aspects. To-day a rage 
for the exploration of barrows and the fingering of 
crania exists in Britain, but instead of having guides 
of the Goodsir stamp, divinity talkers, and credulous 
connoisseurs — men without anatomical knowledge or 
a comprehension of the difficulties attending anthro- 
pological pursuits — fearlessly "rush in where angels 
fear to tread." Quousque tandem ? The exploring of 
barrows led David Page (now LL.D. and the distin- 
guished President of the Geological Society of Edin- 
burgh) and others to excavate the burial-ground of the 
ancient Abbey of St, Leonards at St. Andrews, where 
they discovered a cranium of one of the "Koyal Stuarts." 
" The divinity that doth hedge about a king " did not 
protect this cranium from Goodsir's manipulation and 
mouldings. Others quarried for the treasures ; Goodsir 
described them. The desecration of the supposed 
tombs of the Scottish kings got noised abroad, and 
gave rise to official remonstrance and interdict. 

Mr. Goodsir read a variety of essays on Natural 
history to the society at St. Andrews, and at the re- 



COltNCERES QUARRY. 49 

quest of its president, Sir D. Brewster, furnished a 
paper on Cilia. If he commenced with Leeuwenlioek's 
" Continuatio Arcanorum Naturw," and traced the 
history of his subject down to the discoveries of 
Sharpcy and Grant, supplementing them with his own 
work and illustrations, he could not fail to please and 
deeply interest a body of men who lived on the shores 
of a bay rich in ciliated organisms. 

On November 30, 1838, Goodsir described certain 
fossil fishes from the limestone and slates of Corn- 
ceres quarry near to Anstruther. He stated that in 
addition to teeth of the Megalichihys and spiral Cop- 
rolites, he had found a number of entire specimens and 
detached scales of fishes referable to the Lepidoides 
of the Ganoid order of Agassiz ; these latter speci- 
mens contained five species referable to two genera — 
one of these genera was closely allied to Palceoniscus, 
but differed from it in wanting the scaling or false 
rays along the anterior rays of the anal and dorsal fins, 
and on the upper and lower rays of the caudal, and 
also in the anal and dorsal fins being almost opposite 
to one another near the tail, as in Bipterus. To this 
genus Goodsir gave the provisional name Catopterus, 
a1 <»ne time applied by Agassiz to the Bipterus of 
Sedgwick and Murchison, but afterwards rejected by 
himself ; he considered three <>f (lie quarry specimens 
(i> belong to it. The second genus lie viewed as inter- 
mediate between Arnbh/pterus and Eurynotus, ap- 
proaching the former in the form of the body, and the 
latter in the character of the dorsal fin, and differing 

VOL. I. E 



50 PAL.'EONTOLOGICAL RESEARCHES. 

from both in the small size and acuminated shape of 
the anal and ventral fins, and in the extraordinary de- 
velopment of the caudal, the vertebrated portion of 
which rose almost perpendicularly to * one-third the 
length of the animal. From the sail-like appearance 
of the dorsal and caudal fins, Goodsir proposed for the 
genus the provisional name Istiopterus. Two of the 
five species belonged to this genus. These fishes were 
all highly heterocercal, and in none of them was there 
any trace of the pectoral fins. 

At a subsequent meeting he presented another 
fossil fish, also new, from the Cornceres quarry, 
which, in general appearance, approached the genus 
Amblypterus, but differed from it in the fins being 
triangular instead of quadrilateral, and resembling 
more the provisional genus Istiopterus, which he had 
previously proposed. All the ichthyolites from the 
Cornceres quarry were referable to the Ganoid order 
of Agassiz. The coprolites and detached teeth he 
considered indications of the former existence of a fish 
belonging to the Sauroid family of the Ganoid order. 
All the other fossils he showed were referable to the 
Lepidoid family ; and these, nine in number, he 
described particularly. His frequent visits to Corn- 
ceres, and his apt observations of the fossilised forms 
found there, led many of his friends to suppose that 
he was now aiming at palseontology, his initiative in 
that direction of study offering high promise. 

At another meeting he submitted specimens of two 
species Beroe, discovered by his friend Edward Forbes, 



MARINE ZOOLOGY. 51 

in company with Harry Goodsir, on the east sands of 
St. Andrews Bay. One was the Beroe pileus that had 
been imperfectly described by Grant in the Zoological 
Transactions of 1831 ; the other was new, and after- 
wards described by Forbes to the Eoyal Society of 
Edinburgh. Goodsir entered fully into the anatomy 
of these animals, particularly the Cilia, exhibiting 
drawings on a large scale of those interesting organs 
discovered by Sharpey, Purkiiije, and Valentin. 

To the " Cupar Literary and Antiquarian Society," 
in November 1838, Mr. Goodsir submitted a list of ani- 
mals collected, preserved and catalogued by his brother 
Harry, that had been drawn up from living individuals 
gathered upon a surface of land and sea stretching one 
in i It; round Anstruther. The collection of a set of docu- 
ments — zoological, botanical, meteorological, and anti- 
quarian — Mr. Goodsir considered to be peculiarly the 
duty of a county philosophical association, and more 
consistent with the spirit of its constitution and the 
situation of its individual members, than any other kind 
of scientific labour. 

In tin' spring of 1839, Mr. Goodsir read a paper to 
l lie SI. Andrews Literary and Philosophical Society on 
certain peculiarities in the eye of the Cephalopodous 
Molluscs, } >asing his ol iservations on the cuttle-fish. The 
first peculiarity, or exposed condition of the lens, con- 
sidered s<> anomalous by biologists, he held to have 
been common at ;i former period of animal existence, 
with nautili, ammonites, bacuUtes, etc. Be looked to 
the embryonic life <>[ vertebrate minimis for an 



52 DREDGING EXPEDITION. 

explanation of the exposed lens of the eephalopod ; lie 
controverted Owen's opinion as to the eye of the 
animal possessing a perforated cornea and an aqueous 
chamber, and held by Cuvier's description of the 
organs. In reference to the second peculiarity, or the 
glandular body or mass, which Owen and Cuvier had 
viewed as a cushion to guard the optic ganglia from 
pressure, Mr. Goodsir considered it an organ which had 
already performed its functions in the embryo, and 
analogous to the choroid gland of fishes. 

In June 1839, Goodsir and Forbes made an 
excursion to Shetland and Orkney, where they spent a 
fortnight in dredging. They were not so successful in 
their search for air-breathing gasteropods as in other 
directions, wherein they discovered new animals, and 
had the opportunity of supplementing the descriptions 
given by naturalists of some of the rarer species 
belonging to each locality. The results of this 
dredging expedition were laid before the Fife societies, 
and afterwards communicated to the British Associa- 
tion. Amongst the numerous specimens they obtained 
was a zoophyte, the largest known form of its tribe, 
about four inches long, and with a stem half-an-inch 
in diameter. They obtained it in considerable num- 
bers on a sandy bottom, in about 10 fathoms of 
water, at Stromness, Orkney, and supposing it to be 
an undescribed form, proposed to give it the name 
Ellisiajios maris; but, to their disappointment, found 
that it had been discovered a short time previously 
by the Norwegian naturalist Sars, and named Cory- 



FIFE SOCIETIES. 53 

morpha nutans. Their joint papers, read before 

the Fife societies, embraced the ciliograde animals 

found in the Orkneys, St. Andrews Bay, the Isle 

of Man, and Ballycastle Bay in Ireland. They also 

gave a systematic account of these Ciliograda to 

the British Association meeting the same year (1839), 

and described a new species of Alcinoe, which they 

had found in Kirkwall Bay, Orkney, by the name of 

Alcinoe rotunda, with the following characters : — 

Ovate, rounded, crystalline ; tentacula rounded at 

their extremities ; natatory lobes forming half the 

animal. 

Goodsir's own and joint contributions with Forbes 

were the most frequent made to the Literary and 

Philosophical Society, so that St. Andrews had a fair 

chance of being au courant with the progress of 

science, and of knowing the men whose aspirations 

might be directed to the approaching vacancies in 

their ancient University. These Fife societies were 

favoured in a high degree. With Sir D. Brewster as 
© © 

president of the one, the Goodsirs and Forbes as 
anatomists and naturalists, David Page as geologist, 
Playfair, Adamson, Buist, and others as members, 
I In' Cupar and St. Andrews meetings almost rivalled 
the scientific societies of Edinburgh in the variety 
and originality of the papers introduced for con- 
sideration. (! Isir entered into the historical phases 

of his work, and showed familiarity with the labours 
of Cuvier, Audouin, Milne Edwards, Mnller, and 
Agassiz abroad ; and of Owen, Fleming, and Sharpey, 



54 SYMPATHETIC NERVE. 

and other British authorities. Above all, he showed a 
painstaking research and originality of purpose. Sir 
D. Brewster used to speak of him as a man of superior 
culture, and one of the most rising men in science. 

With the growing feeling that manifested itself at 
this period in various parts of the country in favour 
of popular lectures, the "Men of Fife" joined very 
heartily. Forbes gave a short course on natural 
history. Page and Adamson treated their special sub- 
jects, and Goodsir lent a helping hand, though it can- 
not be said that popular lecturing was much in his line. 
He lectured at Cupar on " The Conditions of Health ;" 
and it is believed that he gave addresses on more 
strictly physiological subjects at St. Andrews, but the 
titles of his lectures cannot be correctly ascertained. 

As evidence of his mind not being exclusively 
devoted to natural history proper, Goodsir read, on 
3d February 1840, a paper to the St. Andrews 
Literary and Philosophical Society " On the Cephalic 
Termination of the Sympathetic Nerve," a title of 
itself to show that he was prepared to battle 
against Cruveilhier's opinions. Goodsir viewed the 
ganglia forming the linear series along the verte- 
bral column as centric ; those scattered through 
the system or viscera, the excentric ganglia of the 
sympathetic. He had no difficulty in showing the 
relation of the sympathetic with the cyclo-vertebral 
elements of the spinal column and the intestinal tube ; 
but in proving a similar relation of the nerve to the 
cyclo-vertebral elements of the cranium and the 



THE AZYGOUS GAJNGLLA. 55 

cephalic extremity of the said intestinal tube, he had 
to assume the vomer to be the anterior element of the 
cyclo-vertebral system in man. In maintaining this 
opinion he had the support of Carus and G. St. 
Hilaire's observations on the vomer in mammal em- 
bryology, and the higher interpretation of the same 
bone or laminated bar in the cranial structure of fishes 
and reptiles. Looking upon the basilar portion of the 
occipital, the body of the sphenoid, the vomer, and the 
median intermaxillary bones as cyclo-vertebral ele- 
ments of the cranium, and these bones in close con- 
nection with the upper part of the intestinal tube, he 
inferred that in the immediate neighbourhood of these 
combined systems (vertebral and cephalic), the linear 
series of the ganglia constituting the cephalic portion 
of the sympathetic should be found. He fixed upon 
an azygos ganglion — the naso-palatine as the anterior* 
and the ganglion impar as the posterior termination of 
the linear series of the vertebral ganglia. The otic, 
ophthalmic, and sub-maxillary ganglia were ranked by 
him with the cardiac and semilunar, as terminating 
in their proper organs, and not linear but excentric 
ganglia. He showed the analogy of this view of the 
human sympathetic nerve to the double gangliated 
row and terminal azygous ganglia which constitute 

* Fontana, Birzel, and Arnold believed thai they traced filaments of 
nerves from the cavernou plexus to the pituitary body; if bo, this bodj 
would !»■ more entitled than the na o palatine ganglion to hold a cerebral 
relation to the sympath a that the ganglion impar or coccygeal does 

to the pinal portion. Bock, Weber, and others, have not confirmed the 
\ lews of Arnold. 



56 THE HIGHER ANATOMY. 

the entire nervous system of the diplo-neurose sub- 
kingdom. This essay, resting a good deal on the 
osteogenesis of the human cranium, showed a large 
acquaintance with the German and French schools of 
medicine, and was probably the first marked indication 
of his study of the higher anatomy of Goethe, ably 
extended by GeofFroy St. Hilaire, and the subject of 
much comment and interpretation by Knox. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Habits of Animals — The Brotherhood of Friends of Truth — Goodsir 
returns to Edinburgh — The rising Men of the Medical School — 
Reid, Simpson, Barry, etc. — Goodsir's Appearance and General 
Character — His co-operation with Edward Forbes. 

The habits of animals, from the polype to the ape, were 
a special delight of Goodsir's. A golden eagle was 
obtained from the Orkneys, and suitably caged at 
Anstruther in 1838. It was a sight to watch this noble 
bird kill its prey; as dead meat or carrion failed to 
preserve the beauty and grandeur of its plumage, the 
villagers were pleased to bring live animals for the 
purpose of seeing the eagle fed. Goodsir used to 
describe what took place when a cat was thrown into 
the eagle's cage : the fiercest feline was at once cowed ; 
the eagle, perched in regal dignity, first cast a glance 
at its prey, then suddenly pounced upon the cat, 
striking the back with the talons of one foot, and 
paralysing the body below the stroke, and as the head 
of the feline was raised, it was at once enclosed within 
the talons of the other foot and crushed in a similar 
fashion, causing immediate death. Homer's description 
would well ;ipply — 

dX/.d r t : T* a\jr'jj 
((fauTo, xal 76 /x/v wza "ha fro 6ufl6v. 

Wad, vriL 677-8. 



58 THE EAGLE AND ITS VICTIM. 

With the mastery of his victim came forth the display 
of his own excited nature, in the elevated head, the 
feathers of the neck stiff and erect, the wings flickering 
and spread to make the victory complete ; then the 
epigastric section by its beak with quick despatch of 
thoracic contents, the disembowelling and carrying the 
strings of the intestines to its mouth with a rapidity 
worthy of the hungry Neapolitan swallowing mac- 
caroni, and finally tearing off the muscular parts and 
leaving but skin and skeleton as vestiges of the feast. 
What a study of animal life within the Anstruther 
cage ! The eagle in royal ease, the cat appalled, the 
descent from the perch, the clutch and death- stroke ; 
the nobility of triumph evidenced in eyes of light, 
coloured radiance, and high feather ; the evisceration, 
the feasting amidst hot blood, and the steamy vapours 
of vitality and quivering muscles mocking life in death, 
— constituted a picture as generic as it was grandly 
exciting and picturesque to behold. The eagle's love 
for things of the flesh would have caused the death of 
a child incautiously brought by its mother too near 
the cage, the wooden paling of which gave way under 
the impetuous dash of the ravenous bird, had not 
Harry Goodsir come to the rescue. 

The brothers Goodsir tamed a seal and fed it on 
milk ; it had its reservoir of sea-water. Then there 
were the great king-crab, chameleons, and other animals, 
which constituted a small menagerie and fresh sights 
for the privileged folk of Anstruther. 

On February 18, 1839, Edward Forbes writes to 



THE MAGA CLUB. 59 

Goodsir — " You were unanimously united with us 
in the Brotherhood, so I now hail you as Frater." 
In offering an explanation of this laconic and mysteri- 
ous note, the writer has to revert for a moment to 
Forbes's student - life, and his relationship with 
Goodsir, that being marked by a hearty co-operation 
in science and much pleasant sociality. In 1834-35, 
Forbes and a few other students formed themselves 
into a " Maga Club," w T hose objects were literature 
and good-fellowship — the latter for a time was pro- 
bably the more demonstrative. The literature of 
the Club found vent in the " University Maga" — 
a weekly sheet of poetry and prose, and felicitous 
portraiture of lecturers, students, and snobs — that 
delighted every son of A Ima Mater. Forbes, though 
foremost with both pen and pencil in the Maga, and 
distributing healthy satire and fun broadcast, was 
alive to a higher feeling of association than "Club 
nights," with Maga toasts and "Kule Britannias." 
He and his friends C. E. Stewart and D. Macaskill, 
therefore, resolved to found a brotherhood for mutual 
help and encouragement in their several spheres of 
occupation, be it Ait, Literature, or Science. The 
Brotherhood, or " Order," as it was called, had a 
freemasonry repute among the uninitiated; and the 
words, oino^, r.i><>;-, MA0H2I2 (wine, love, Learning), 
were adopted as the watchword. As symbolic of 
i In- "Order/' tli«' members wore across (lie breasl a 
narrow silk ribbon, rose-coloured and black, with 
the mystic Letters 0. E. M. worked into its texture. 



60 WINE, LOVE, LEARNING. 

At the meetings of the " Order," the higher-class 
brethren wore a small silver triangle, with the 
favourite Greek triad engraved thereon. By out- 
siders, the men of the brotherhood were generally 
called "the red-ribbons," or " Oineromaths. " The 
"good-fellowship" brethren, vinously reticent of the 
principles of the " Order," brought it into ridicule, if 
not contempt, so that, in 1838, it was needful to 
weed out those whose " bosoms glowed with oinero- 
mathic fire," and to have the earnest lovers of truth 
planted in the foreground ; and these alone entered 
"The Universal Brotherhood of Friends of Truth."* 
Scrupulous care was exercised in the admission of 
new members, and of those only who had proved 
themselves worthy by works done, or by the show 
of a diligent pursuit after truth, and no less by 
the possession of a genial and hearty spirit to 
further the interests of the brotherhood. There 
were gradations in the "Order;" "frater," "triangle," 
and ceremonial officers — ex. gr. "the Bearer of the 
Mystic Lyre" and "Arch Magus." Forbes, after two 
years abroad, returned to Edinburgh (Nov. 1838) ; 
and among the first acts of the " Brotherhood" was 
the election of John Groodsir as "frater;" in Novem- 
ber of the same year he rose to the honour of 
"triangle." The brotherhood consisted of men of 
different callings, — artists, scholars, physicians, natu- 

* This title originated with Monsieur Jalabert, of St. Etienne, a staunch 
" frater," who got the beautiful ribbon of " the Order " manufactured in his 
father's silk establishment. 




Efje Gluteal Brotfjedjootr of jfrientrs of SErutfj. 



This Brotherhood is a Union of the Searchers after Truth, for 
the glory of God, the good of all, and the honour of the Order, 
to the end that mind may hold its rightful sway in the world. 

It is a Fellowship demanding of its Members earnestness, 
ability, and philanthropy, and recognising among them no dis- 
tinctions of nation, party, rank, or profession. 

Works done and approved, a sincere and loving spirit, and 
the energy to act, are the qualities required of the Candidate. 

Love for the good and the beautiful is demanded of the 
Brothers, as well as the determination to seek for truth, and urge 
others to the search. Charity to all earnest opinions, kindness 
to all living creatures, and thankfulness for the blessings by which 
we are surrounded, are inculcated on the Brethren. 

Co-operation in research, assistance in danger and adversity, 
advice and firm friendship, are extended by the brethren towards 
each other. * 

The Triangle, symbolical of learning, love, and fellowship, 
and the Roseate Band, emblematical of their union, are the out- 
ward signs by which the brethren recognise each other through- 
out the world. 



A NEW BROTHERHOOD. 6 1 

ralists, poets, priests, and mathematicians. Less 
would have been said on this subject had not Goodsir 
come to be the alter ego of Forbes in the " Brother- 
hood," and given the last touches to the amended 
principles issued in 1841, a copy of which occupies 
the preceding page. 

Goodsir was a noble example of the brotherhood 
that sought to bind man to man in ties of home 
and friendship, love and goodwill ; he was a brother 
of help and of counsel in scientific research, and 
free from petty misgivings and jealousy of his com- 
peers. No man, after Forbes — the Archimagus — 
showed a more catholic spirit in maintaining the 
principles of the "Order;" no one was more eager 
for the interpretation of truth, and few, if any, had 
greater hopes of a day of promise and fulfilment 
awaiting the patient investigation of organized bodies. 

With these fraternal bonds came a renewal of 
the fraternal workings of Goodsir and Forbes, cither 
at Anstruthcr or in Edinburgh, when the former 
could be spared from his father's practice. It was 
pleasant to sec these men together — the Scot, of 
quiet demeanour, staid and studious ; the Manxman, 
with long shining black hair, moustache, smart attire, 
sailer-freedom of manner — having so much in com- 
mon, and such similarity of pursuits, so thoughtful 
at work, highly observant and gentlemanly. For a 
time marine zoology engaged them; but- as years 
rolled over, tin' double star affinities of their scientific 
course diverged more and more. Human anatomy, 



62 TWO OFFERS IN EDINBURGH. 

pathology, and morphology, occupied Goodsir ; whilst 
starfishes and the invertebrata so largely claimant of 
his earlier days, were no longer so exclusive with 
Forbes, extending his natural history survey over 
Europe, and with felicitous results in the Mediter- 
ranean. 

In April 1839, Dr. Knox, anticipating the loss of 
his " Brother Fred's " services, solicited John Goodsir 
to join him in the anatomical lectureship, or, failing 
that, to arrange for his brother Harry taking charge of 
the "Practical Rooms." Being desirous, above all 
things, of lecturing in Edinburgh, Goodsir would at 
once have acceded to Knox's proposal, had he not been 
at that time in negotiation with the Dean of the Medi- 
cal Faculty regarding the conservatorship of the Uni- 
versity Museum. That Goodsir expected to move to 
Edinburgh, is shown by his taking No. 21 Lothian 
Street in May 1839 as a residence for himself and 
Forbes. Harry could not be spared from his father's 
practice. 

The meeting of Professor Jameson with Mr. Good- 
sir in October 1838, alluded to in a previous page, and 
the growing belief that the museums of the University 
required reformation to meet the wants of anatomical 
and natural science, initiated a conference of the 
Medical Faculty. Early in 1839, the said faculty 
reported to the patrons of the University that the 
preparations of human and comparative anatomy, 
healthy and morbid, should have a special conservator. 
Professor Syme, who took untiring interest in the pro- 



THE MAN FOR THE WOKK. G3 

ceedings, communicated with Goodsir from time to 
time, and in October asked his views as to salary, it 
being taken for granted by the medical professors that 
he was the man for the work. Some difficulties arose 
as to funds for the new project; the lawyers got their 
fingers in, and the season passed. Jameson, full of 
hopes as he was of good-wishes to the conservator in 
posse, wrote to Goodsir, November 12, 1839 : — " It has 
occurred to me, that as you will ere long be with us 
here, you might get up a paper on Comparative Ana- 
tomy for the 'Wernerian Natural History Society.' 
This will serve as an introduction to you, and let you 
be known in the College generally." As further proof 
of Goodsir's provisional engagement to the University, 
Jameson mentions his conferring with Alison and other 
colleagues, and adds — "It will also be desirable that 
you make as complete a series of marine mollusca, 
articulata, and zoophytes as you can for the collection 
here. I presume you have been busy with fishes." It 
was May 1840 when the money for the conservator- 
ship was said to be soon coming, and full summer before 
Goodsir felt it judicious to leave Anstruther for his 
new vocation in Edinburgh. 

Changes of import had taken place in the Edin- 
burgh school of medicine since he left in 1835. A 
Large majority of the extramural lecturers, in fellow- 
ship with the Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, had 
constituted themselves a " Queen's College," in hopes 
of .i phalanxed unity helping their interests. The 
University, though needing fresh blood, had mosl ex 



64 "young physic" promising. 

cellent representatives in Alison, Sir C. Bell, Christison, 
Jameson, and Syme. A monthly periodical was about 
to be started under the able editorship of Dr. Cormack, 
and in the ranks of " young physic " were observed 
graduates of great promise. The " Royal Medical So- 
ciety," on the approach of its centenary (1837), had its 
presidential chair filled by such men as Drs. J. Y. 
Simpson, John Reid, Martin Barry, W. B. Carpenter, 
J. H. Bennett, and John Percy ; the " Royal Physical 
Society " still maintained its eminent position ; and 
the " Hunterian Medical Society " had for its senior 
president Dr. Samuel Brown — a host in himself. Drs. 
James Duncan and William Henderson, and others who 
cared less for the public display of societies, were no less 
worthy in illuminating the paths of progress, and pro- 
moting the fame of their " Alma Mater." Engaged in 
healthful rivalry, the men, and, it may be said, the 
societies generally, gave a happy direction to each 
other's efforts, and could not foil to be more or less 
formative of the school itself — a school of high reputa- 
tion, but, like all institutions of historical maturity, 
wanting fresh breath and fresh indoctrination. 

Though Goodsir had lost part of his bashfulness by 
lecturing at St. Andrews, and taking so active a part 
in Fife Societies, he still wore an air of reserve and the 
appearance of a closet student. The times were pro- 
pitious to his casting off the rustic habiliments of his 
nature, and his associates, by their stirring example, 
were still more conducive to that end. Another day 
of biological discovery was dawning over Europe, and 



DR. JOHN REID. 65 

Germany caught the first tangible ray— in the cell- 
genesis or theory of growth ; and minds loyal to science 
were everywhere on the qui vive for the new develop- 
mental anatomy upon which to found a new physiology 
and pathology. Of his companions or coursers in the 
race it is needful to speak, as their example and work 
tended much, if a photographic simile can be allowed, 
to develop the Goodsir " negative " — to educe the finer 
lines, and to give breadth of tone to his scientific por- 
traiture. 

Dr. John Eeid was at this time (1840) lecturing 
on physiology and acting as pathologist to the Royal 
Infirmary — his rooms there being the rendezvous of 
a circle of hearty friends.* His statistics on the 
comparative weights of the different human viscera, 
his observations on fever, and other pathological in- 
quiries (in some of which he was associated with Dr. 
Henderson), proved the good use he made of his 
hospital position ; his monograph on the eighth pair 
of nerves, and numerous original contributions to phy- 
siology, made him known to Europe. As the disciple 
of Haller, the pupil of Alison, and the promoter of new 
work, he did right good service. His rare modesty, 
mature judgment, and decision, were grafted upon a 

I M (his drclfi only five members and the writer survive ; the cheery Forbes, 
the 'solid Cloudsir, Ihe gracious Duncan, the brothers Newbigging, along with 
tin' central figure Reid, are gone. The writer maybe permitted t" say, in 
memoriam of so dearly valued a friend as John Reid, whose friendship and 

private confidence he enjoyed from l.s.'jt; to the dose of his life, that his hearty, 
i le t, and genial nature, his love of science ami truth, marked him as one "i 

nature's true nobility. 

Vol.. 1. V 



66 DR. J. Y. SIMPSON. 

hearty noble nature. As a truth-seeking son of science, 
he exhausted the literature of his subject before he 
attempted a line of his own, hence his great success as 
a truth-finder and honest historian in physiology. He 
was an able critic of other men's opinions, and no less 
able expositor of his own — a German in toil, a Scot in 
caution, and ever averse to the rash and sensational 
French school headed by Magendie. Goodsir spent 
many an improving hour with Reid, to whose vigorous 
mind his own bore great affinity. 

Dr. William Henderson, the pathologist and able 
diagnostic physician, obtained large and well-merited 
esteem among his compeers. He and Goodsir used to 
meet in the hospital to examine morbid products, and 
as rising men in the school were bracketed together as 
worthy of the professional elevation they afterwards 
attained. Though Goodsir was looked upon as an 
anatomist, he was exceedingly partial to pathology, 
and his observations on the fever of Anstruther 
enabled him to show the existence of those intestinal 
lesions which Louis and Chomel had described, but 
which few British observers had met with. 

Dr. James Y. Simpson, the protege and assistant- 
lecturer of John Thomson, was in the flowing tide of fame 
in 1840. An encyclopaedist in medical lore, of winning 
manners and great natural abilities, and the writer of 
numerous original essays, he raised himself to the 
Professorship of Midwifery, and this distinction was 
but the prelude to his greater achievements in the 
medical art. His discovery of the anesthetic power 



DR. MARTIN BARRY. 67 

of chloroform, and likewise of acupressure — Doric 
columns of the new temple of conservative surgery — 
his special insight into disease and his novel appliances 
to alleviate the sorrows of womankind, have materially 
aided in promoting a higher life and a happier social 
status. To-day Sir James Y. Simpson, Bart., stands 
alone in modern medicine, nor is he less distinguished 
in the collateral sciences — in archaeology and the 
world of letters. 

Dr. Martin Barry, so much esteemed by Goodsir, 
was a man of silence and " of drab," yet ever true and 
philosophical. Quakerism has had within its ranks 
John Dalton the chemist, and Thomas Young, the 
natural philosopher, both of whom adorned the highest 
paths of science ; Martin Barry might be claimed as 
its greatest physiologist. He graduated in Edinburgh 
in 1833, and was the twelfth Englishman to ascend 
Mont Blanc (September 1834). He travelled much 
and studied more, wrote ably on embryology, and 
helped to indoctrinate the British mind with the new 
anatomy of the French and German schools. Barry 
and Goodsir may be said to have worked in the same 
field of inquiry; the latter practised his usual assiduity, 
but rarely attained greater success than was awarded the 
accurate and painstaking Quaker. They were loving 
friends, and their names arc to be found associated in 
the field of histology and embryology ; the latter was 
Barry's /'mic, soinctinns culled his earthly idol. No 
man in Britain helped more to extend the horizon of 
cell-discovery during the firsl years of its history than 



68 BR. ALLEN THOMSON. 

Dr. Martin Barry, whose researches are to be found in 
the Transactions of the Koyal Societies of London and 
Edinburgh. His experienced use of the microscope, 
his indefatigable inquiries — sacrificing 150 rabbits to 
ascertain one fact in physiology, being almost equal to 
Haller's 190 experiments to determine the single point 
of muscular irritability — and thorough knowledge of 
developmental anatomy were of the greatest service 
to Goodsir. If any one of his contemporaries is 
to be pointed out as of more significance than the 
rest in calling forth Goodsir's higher aims and 
work, Dr. Martin Barry is the person entitled to the 
honour. 

Dr. Allen Thomson — the son of John Thomson 
who wrote on various medical subjects, but is best 
known, as he is distinguished from his kinsmen, as 
" Inflammation Thomson" — was an anatomical lecturer 
in Edinburgh,- who sought to extend his fame be- 
yond his inheritance of good medical blood. He had 
been a colleague of Dr. Sharpey's, and continued his 
mode of teaching after his friend was transferred to 
University College, London. In elucidating the mys- 
teries of the ovum, he was the rival of Barry ; and now 
it may be said that no British name is more histori- 
cally associated with embryology than his own. 

Affecting his collateral studies, Goodsir rejoiced in 
the friendship of Dr. Samuel Brown, a young chemist 
of the highest promise. This " Brother of the Order " 
was a delicate, almost feminine-framed person, of manly 
heart and high mental endowment, who joined in the 



DR. SAMUEL BROWN. 69 

poetic exaltations of Shelley, the erudite and metaphy- 
sical views of Coleridge, and the transcendentalisms of 
Goethe. Versed in the abstract, the abstruse, and the 
alchemical past of the Bacons and Van Helmonts, and 
daily sifting the current doctrines of Lavoisier and 
Dalton, he longed for a higher analysis than had been 
obtained by Cavendish, Priestley, or Davy, and the 
laying of a more permanent foundation for his glorious 
science. With the faith of Paul and all the zeal of 
Palissy, he sought, with saintly fervour, to break down 
the septum between man and the unknown, and to 
penetrate the arcana and very adyta of nature's 
temple. He was a profound thinker, with the hopes 
of a theoretical seer, heralding the time when the com- 
posite organic and inorganic worlds would be resolved 
by man to a simple element, and the subtle agencies 
of light, caloric, and magnetism to one entity. He 
worked at the transmutation of metals, not figuratively 
seeking the philosopher's stone that would reveal the 
unit or seminal principle of the world's constitution — 
the atom in the mighty chaos, the parthenogenesis or 
nidus of organic forms ; or the molecule, isomorphic in 
relation or constructive of the earth's crust, and pro- 
bably the foundation of universal orbs bearing the 
stamp of the Great and the Infinite. 

Another chemist, Dr. George Wilson, ;i Is. > Hoiirislicd 
in the Forbes and Goodsii "brotherhood" — a man of 
admirable talents, and \\«'ll known for his biographical 
cliuils, having a faculty <»!' description in science 
;ui<l technology. Goodsir lived in close bonds with 



70 GOODSIR's PERSONALITY. 

Wilson, but lie looked to Brown as the coming man of 
the new chemical philosophy. 

Goodsir had a strong will and a disciplined mind, 
and no small share of ambition, and the cue to its pro- 
motion was within the circle of friends just described ; 
there were other attached companions, of whom it is 
not necessary to speak in this general narrative. 

His personality may be glanced at here, as he is 
shaping his plans within doors and busy preparing for the 
display of his best energies in a field largely competitive 
and exciting. He was now (1840) in the strength of 
his adolescence, and presented a tall, gaunt frame, 
whose height (75 inches) towered above all his friends. 
There was a grave if not sombre tone in his looks, 
increased by his brown hair combed downwards over 
his capacious forehead, his stooping shoulders, and down- 
cast visage. His face, however viewed, was striking 
from its size ; his prominent nose, deep and thoughtful 
eyes, large mouth and chin, and general expression, 
showed power, calmness, and perseverance. Walking 
along the street, he seemed entirely absorbed with his 
own thoughts, as if not living among the men of the 
world, but in a world of his own making. Yet there 
was an emphatic pronunciation of feeling in every- 
thing he did, and a manly consciousness of individu- 
ality; and in all his mental manifestations, an 
organized distinctness of feature or plan. If not al- 
ways lucid in statement or bright in expression, he had 
nevertheless a thorough knowledge of his aim and 
work. In public societies he sat more like patience 



BRAIN AND HANDS AT WORK. 71 

on a monument than a scrutiniser of the proceedings ; 
in private life he was disposed to taciturnity, except- 
ing at home and among his own fraternity, where he 
enjoyed the humorous and the jocular with as much 
pleasure and risibility as his neighbours. His brain 
was large, and this active organ was engaged for six- 
teen or eighteen hours a-day, and often at high pressure 
— that damaging speed to humanity hastening to the 
goal of scientific discovery. In the ordinary relations 
of the world, he appeared retired and unassuming ; but 
in the unreserved freedom of confidential intimacy, he 
showed himself possessed of a fair estimate of his own 
powers. It is no disparagement to say that he recog- 
nised his own talents, for the consciousness of power 
is not undesirable as a useful weapon with which to 
fight the battle of life. He possessed intellectual su- 
periority, and was not without ambition to display it ; 
occasionally the belief in his own powers carried him 
1 H'vond his strength or hopes of attainment. In future 
pages it will be seen that the variety as well as num- 
ber of his tentative efforts stood in the way of his 
rendering them so perfect and complete as they should 
have been, if he aimed them to be historical. His 
hands, colossal in size and muscular power, and not 
less line in delicacy of action, were fitting instruments 
to his brain, and often in happy co-ordination witli its 
manifold manifestations. "When discussing seieiwe or 
theology, where the argument became warm and he 
w.i- fairly in earnest, the big hand was raised signifi- 
cantly to Bupporl In.- dictum or his dogma. 



72 ST. ANDREWS PROFESSORSHIP. 

He had not been a month in Edinburgh when 
the chair of anatomy and medicine at St. Andrews 
was declared vacant, and for a time it was supposed 
that by subdivision two professorships — "Anatomy" 
and " Natural History" — might be established. Good- 
sir and Forbes, in the belief that their lectures at 
St. Andrews and scientific contributions to Fife 
societies had given them a locus standi, were aspir- 
ants for the vacancies in contemplation. They took 
no public action in the matter, and were not 
ostensibly in the field of competition, so that the 
medical world of Edinburgh were not aware of their 
designs ; nevertheless, " feelers " were thrown out by 
Goodsir's friends, and Forbes consulted some of the 
patrons of the University of St. Andrews. Of the 
candidates who appeared with testimonials, Dr. John 
Reid was the most popular and deserving, and in 
April 1841, he obtained the chair in its entirety, and 
with all its ancient privileges. 

At the British Association Meeting at Glasgow 
(1840) Goodsir and Forbes read a joint paper on 
Pelonaia, a new genus of Ascidian Mollusca, and 
" Further Researches on the British Ciliograda" As 
partners in science and with congenial affinities, yet 
not without the contrasts of sentiment that improve 
social relationship, some of their friends approving 
highly of their services at this meeting expressed 
a wish to see them continue their joint labours as 
collaborateurs in natural history. Goodsir was ana- 
tomical, dry, and undemonstrative, whilst his colleague 



MANX BEAUTIES. 73 

was artistic and full of joyousness. Forbes's love 
of fun was strikingly seen in the first number of bis 
work on starfishes, with the portrait of a pretty girl 
as a vignette. In writing Goodsir on the subject of 
introducing other Manx beauties, Forbes remarked — 
" That's rather a novelty, isn't it, Goodsir ?" and 
assuredly to no man could the novelty have appeared 
greater than to the non-gallant anatomist. The Manx 
naturalist, whose line was more artistic than scientific, 
claimed the right to embellish the dry facts and 
drier technicalities of his zoological essays with his 
pencil ; and the faces of pretty women were better 
than starfishes in more ways than the sesthetic. 



CHAPTER V. 

Wernerian, Royal Medical, and other Societies — Curator and Lecturer 
at the Royal College of Surgeons — Museum Work — Brief Sketch 
of the Cell-question — Goodsir's Claims — Virchow at Fault — Latest 
Doctrines. 

In the full expectation of making a position in Edin- 
burgh, and no doubt encouraged by Professor Jame- 
son, who, along with Dr. Neill, proposed him, he 
became a member of the " Wernerian Society " on the 
29th March 1840. His first contribution to the society 
(12th December 1840) was "On certain Peculiarities 
in the Structure of the Short Sunfish (Oriliragoriscus 
mola), as observed in a large specimen captured in the 
Firth of Forth, near Alloa." He also gave an account 
of a species of parasite, which he termed Gymnor- 
hynchus liorridus, which affects it. The " Wernerian " 
being presided over by Professor Jameson, and ranking 
among its members every Scottish and many foreign 
naturalists, offered the best advantages to the young 
aspirant for honours in natural history. From time 
to time, and extending over a period of at least six 
years, Goodsir contributed a large number of papers 
(fifteen in all) either individually or along with his 
brother Harry and Edward Forbes. Thus in 1841 he 
read a paper on the Natural History of the Echinus 
and Thalassemia, two genera of Echinodermata ; and 



BOTANICAL SOCIETY. 75 

in March 1846 a paper on the characters and anatomi- 
cal structure of the Hyperoodon dalei, taken from a 
specimen stranded during the autumn of 1845 near 
Alloa; and in February 1847, on the Morphological 
Constitution of the Skeleton in Sponges ; he and his 
brother Harry read papers on the Metamorphoses of 
Cancer Mcenas and Cancer Bernhardus, with descrip- 
tions of some species of Caprella in April 1842 ; and 
on a new Crustaceous animal, Erineus splendens; and 
on the Larvae of Balanus tintinnabulum in April 
1843. The greater part of his researches in compara- 
tive anatomy from 1840 to 1847, his description of 
" the Natural Features of the Dornoch Firth," and his 
observations " On the vast Accumulation of minute 
Marine Animals which precede the appearance of a 
Herring Shoal off the Isle of May," were laid before 
the Wernerian Society. 

In the year 1840 he furnished his friend Mr. W. 
Thompson with an account of the anatomy of Limnams 
involutuSj which was printed in the Annals of Natural 
History, vol. v. p. 23. 

His juvenile penchant for botany — of which no 
mention has hitherto been made, as zoology, physic, and 
palaeontology, had proved too absorbing studies in Fife 
to permit of its growth and expansion — became revived 
by his residing in proximity to Arthur's Seat and the 
Braid Bills, and in having the "Royal Botanical 
Gardens" lying in the direction of the Birth of Forth. 
Be joined the Edinburgh Botanical SociHv in 1841, 
;iinl became its secretary in L842, which office In- ln-M 



76 HIS CONTRIBUTIONS TO 

till 1848, when he was chosen vice-president. His 
description of the fungus found on the gills of the 
gold-fish {Cyprinus auratus), and his papers on the 
Sarcina ventriculi and the potato-disease, were read 
to the Botanical Society.'" 

Goodsir joined the Eoyal Medical Society in 1833, 
but it was the session of 1840-41 before his presence 
became known in the hall of debate. Every one, 
however slightly acquainted with the Edinburgh 
school, knows the high status of the " Eoyal Medical," 
and that upon its roll are inscribed the honoured names 
of Thomas Addison, Richard Bright, Marshall Hall, 
Henry Holland, and others of metropolitan fame, with 
those of equal distinction associated with the Scottish 
and Irish universities and colleges — the men, in short, 
who have been most prominent in the history of 
British medicine and discovery during the last hundred 
years. In November 1840 Goodsir read his "Dissert- 
ation " to the society " On Changes produced in the 
Caecum by Ulcers and Abscesses," in which he set 
forth that the partial obliteration or contraction of 
size in the caecum and appendix vermiformis takes 
place according to a certain plan ; and further, that 
" the normal and abnormal obliterating of organs and 
parts of organised bodies is conducted according to 
certain laws as definite as those which regulate their 
development." As the general result of his observa- 
tion, he concluded — 1st, That the caecum and appendix 

* An obituary notice of John Goodsir, from the pen of his loving friend 
Professor J. H. Balfour, is recorded in the Transactions of the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh, vol. ix., 1866-67. 



THE EOYAL MEDICAL SOCIETY. 77 

vermiformis may be partially or wholly obliterated by 
the contraction resulting from ulcers and abscesses ; 
and, 2c////, That this was effected, in the cases which 
have been under my observation in a definite manner, 
by folding of the walls of the organ, and subsequent 
ulceration of the attached edges, and the two surfaces 
of these folds. — {Printed in Cormack's Monthly 
Journal of Medical Science, April 1841). He read 
a paper on continued fever in April 1842, marked 
by a full symptomatology of the disease, and a 
cautious observation as to the pathology being charged 
upon " molecular " or " structural lesions." The de- 
pletive system was in his eyes " the treatment sug- 
gested by common sense (a faculty of more use to the 
practical physician than all the science of Newton) 
and approved of by the experience of every age." 
Again — "A proper decision as to treatment requires 
experience, tact, and hng-headedness." He was con- 
vinced that in time the country would be mapped 
out, so that the type of fever, cephalic or abdo- 
minal, prevailing in or rather peculiar to each dis- 
trict and town, will be ascertained by inspection of 
the map ; and, lastly, believed that the type of fever 
varied according to circumstances, social, meteoro- 
logical, and geological, with the laws of which we 
were not yet acquainted. He was elected Senior 
Presidenl of the Royal Medical Society in 1841-2, 
and continued in office the following year t « » every 
t. He's satisfacl Lon. 

'l'hc •• Anatomical and Physiological Society," 



78 ROYAL PHYSICAL SOCIETY. 

founded by Knox in 1833 and for a time in abeyance, 
was resuscitated in the session 1840-1 ; Goodsir 
resumed bis membership in the society and became 
president in 1841-2. He made several communica- 
tions to the society of minor interest, and in April 
1842 for the first time gave his views on the structure 
of the liver and kidney. 

He became a member of the Royal Physical Society 
in December 1841, and in the spring of 1842 read 
papers on the Development of the Skeleton in the 
series of invertebrate animals — the skeleton of the 
Radiata he illustrated by various preparations and 
diagrams. He also gave an account of the medusa, 
its method of producing its kind, both by its polypes 
and perfect forms. On the 12th December 1849 he 
was elected one of the three presidents of the " Royal 
Physical," and remained in office for three years — until 
November 13, 1852. He should have delivered the 
opening address in November 1851, but was prevented 
by indisposition. His paper on the structure and 
economy of the " Compound Tunicata," his exhibiting 
a specimen of a new genus Syntethys from the Hebrides 
in March 1851, and giving a few anatomical details 
of the new species of Malapterurus in April 1855, 
constituted, with the essays mentioned above, the 
whole of his contributions to the Royal Physical 
Society. 

The appointment of Mr. Macgillivray * to the chair 

* There were several applicants for the Aberdeen chair, and much pressure 
brought to bear upon the Government. Macgillivray modestly contented him- 
self with sending copies of his works on birds and natural history, along with 



COLLEGE OF SURGEONS CURATOK. 7.9 

of natural history in Aberdeen caused a vacancy in the 
conservatorship of the museum of the Royal College 
of Surgeons, Edinburgh. Goodsir felt anxious for the 
post, and in setting forth his fitness for it stated that 
he had practised every department of preparation and 
conservation ; that he had considerable experience in 
modelling in clay, plaster, and wax, and in the use of 
microscope and pencil ; moreover, his own collection 
of preparations in human, comparative, and morbid 
anatomy exceeded 400 in number. The character of 
his testimonials and the weightier credentials of work 
done and exhibited rendered all competition useless, 
with the exception of a local candidate of good claims, 
who, finding the prohibition of surgical practice a sine 
qua non in the conditions binding the curator, also 
withdrew his name before the day of election. Good- 
sir therefore succeeded Macgillivray on the 21st April 
1841. In the matter of pay the situation was wretch- 
edly poor, but the opportunities it afforded for study 
and investio;ation made it rich and valuable in Good- 
sir's eyes. His letters on his appointment sounded 
of the Io triumphe strain, not without a prospective 
Alexandrian spirit of more worlds to conquer. Those 
who knew but the outside of the man in his reserved 
; 1 1 1 i tudes would never have dreamt of such a feeling of 
exultation pervading Goodsir, much less of the joy lie 
exhibited on obtaining a curatorship of £150, minus 

,-i iK.tr t.i Lord ETormanby, the Home Secretary, who, throwing aside party 
con idi ration , promoted ilii^ true lover of the natural sciences i" tin 1 chair ■ 
,.,,, acknovi tedgmenl of ma it on the pari of ;i minister of the crown as honour- 
able as it wa . judiciou ly and hand torni Ij done, 



80 HIS WORK APPROVED OF. 

certain deductions for assistant, leaving a net income of 
£120 a-year! The Surgeons' Museum, containing the 
Barclayan collection of comparative anatomy, great num- 
bers of highly valuable preparations by John and Charles 
Bell, and numerous contributions of the Fellows of the 
College, afforded a large and instructive field for obser- 
vation. Goodsir benefited by the labours of his prede- 
cessors in office, and notably by those of Dr. Knox, who 
in 1825 had classified and catalogued the physiological 
and natural history series, and aimed at a new order of 
things, illustrating human and comparative pathology 
— the utility of which, though not recognised at the 
time, cannot fail to be appreciated now. 

About this time he sold his pathological prepara- 
tions, many of which illustrated the intestinal lesions 
which he had studied with such care at Anstruther, 
and which had enabled him to give so full an account 
of the fever of his home locality. 

On the 16th May 1842 the committee of curators 
reported favourably of Goodsir's work in the museum 
during his year of office ; and at the same sederunt 
the College accepted his offer to deliver a course of 
lectures on subjects that could be illustrated by the 
collection, in the hope that his lectures would extend 
the usefulness of the museum and promote the in- 
terests of the College generally. He gave a dozen 
lectures during the summer ; and it could not fail to 
be viewed as highly complimentary to him as a 
curator that they were attended by professors, medi- 
cal practitioners, and advanced students. It was 



HIS LECTURES AT THE COLLEGE. 81 

sound policy on his part to appear as a public 
lecturer, for without some proof of his capabilities in 
that direction several avenues would be closed to his 
progress — the very avenues he longed to see open to 
fair competition. To practise public speaking, and 
to give a prominence to his knowledge of several 
points in anatomy and pathology, were strong motives 
for his making the attempt — naturally a bold one — 
before an audience composed of the elite of the 
medical profession in Edinburgh, whose presence 
indicated their hopes of getting information, and 
breadth and originality of views, from the curator. 
As a lecturer at the College of Surgeons, it was said 
that Good sir's matter was very much better than his 
manner. Not aided by dress, or deportment, or even 
personal appearance, wanting in rhetoric, devoid of 
gesture, and dealing out monotonous sentences for 
upwards of an hour together, were severe drawbacks 
to his success ; nevertheless, Goodsir had the art of 
engaging his audience and keeping up the number of 
his class to the end of the course. No one could fail 
to see his extensive knowledge of the subjects he 
discussed, his appreciation of the collection under his 
charge; his practical or rather surgical aims, along 
with liis cultivation of the higher anatomy; and 
Professor Syme, on moving a vote of thanks (<> him at 
the finish of tli«' course, but echoed the general senti- 
nciii of ill*' benches, in saying that Goodsir's lectures 
had been highly instructive ami valuable. 

<; Isir's work in the museum partook more of a 

vol-. I. G 



82 FRESH DEMONSTRATIONS. 

refitting and renewing of the old than any building up 
or re-construction of new materials. Skeletons were 
rearticulated, osseous specimens were mounted on 
stands, wet preparations were restored and redisplayed 
in spirit; and an improved appearance given to the 
entire collection. The new preparations put up by 
him are included in the manuscript of the general 
catalogue, written in his own handwriting — Nos. 
2222 to 2270, including 29 pathological (both surgi- 
cal and medical), and 20 specimens of comparative 
anatomy, principally from the conger eel, dog -fish, 
and the American ostrich. The character of his work 
is visible enough for its neatness and the clear 
exposition of what should be made apparent in 
each preparation. In November 1842 Goodsir pro- 
posed to the curators to demonstrate the preparations 
in the museum to the medical students on Satur- 
days — a great boon to those who wished to avail 
themselves of a thoroughly practical acquaintance 
with the collection. These demonstrations assumed 
very much the character of lectures, and not unlike 
those given in summer. 

If the College of Surgeons' Museum benefited by 
the Goodsir curatorship, the curator himself derived 
considerable advantages during his tenure of office. 
The variety and extent of the collection afforded 
much light to a man gifted with precision of observa- 
tion, and that observation materially heightened by 
the use of the microscope. Possessing experienced 
manipulative and good ocular powers, Goodsir sue- 



GOODSIR LOOKS BEYOND. 83 

ceeded in clearing up the nature of several prepara- 
tions and gathering a clue to the unsolved problems 
affecting their history. Each cclaircissement afforded 
a fresh starting-point to further inquiries, and Goodsir 
was not the man to slacken the rein or spare the 
whip as goal after goal came into view, indicating the 
terminus as still beyond. The night's study at home 
hardly kept pace with the daily observations in the 
museum. From time to time the societies were 
informed of his work, for Goodsir, looking beyond his 
present status (1842), had become persuaded that he 
should lose no opportunities of obtaining public acknow- 
ledgment and approbation. " The times" were as ad- 
vancing and aggressive in the biological as in the politieal 
world. No man of enterprise or ambition thought of 
hiding his talents under a bushel in the midst of such 
competitive forces as existed in the Medical School of 
Edinburgh, of which a sketch has been given in the 
previous chapter. Moreover, in his special walk of 
anatomy great strides were being made, and notably 
in Germany and France— which nations, along with 
Italy and England, constitute the four "Great Powers" 
of science in Europe. 

Historians seem agreed that each grand epoch in 
the art or science of medicine has derived its first 
impulse from a new anatomy, originating a higher 
physiology and theory of disease Galen, though 
learned in the philosophy of Plato, the physics of 
Aristotle, and the aphorisms of Hippocrates, was little 
known for these acquirements; but his anatomical 



84 TEE COSMIC ATOMS. 

pursuits in the school of Alexandria gave him a living 
reputation and a permanent niche in the temple of 
iEsculapius. He was ranked as an innovator in his 
time. The same fate surrounded Vesalius, whose 
anatomical light shone like an eastern star upon 
Europe after mediaevalism had passed away. Nor 
did Harvey and Bichat escape the imputation 
that befel their predecessors. All of them were, 
happily for science, innovators on the past. And 
here it may be well, however cursorily, to notice 
another innovation upon the old domains, as Goodsir 
took a very prominent part in the work, and rested no 
small share of his reputation upon the Anatomy of 
Tissues or Histology. 

The curiosity of ages as to the cosmic atoms, the 
corpuscles, and genetic forces of life, came to be solved 
in the manner that Sir Isaac Newton had antici- 
pated — namely, by the use of the microscope. In 
1838, Schleiden and Schwann announced their dis- 
covery of the primitive organic corpuscle or "cell," 
and to them every honour is due ; nor is there any 
desire to detract from their merits in saying the 
groundwork of their observations was indicated in 
1825, when, at the jubilee of Johann Friedrich 
Blumenbach's graduation, celebrated at Gottingen, and 
echoed throughout " The Fatherland," Purkinje of 
Breslau announced the germinal vesicle in the ovarian 
ovum of birds. Purkinje's discovery received further 
amplification at the hands of Von Baer and E. 
Wagner, and subsequently in the viviparous animals, 



THE GERMANS EN AD\'A> 85 

by Von Baer, Prevost and Dumas, Valentin, and others. 
Had W. Hewson's observations on the " central particle 
of the blood (1773), and E. Brown's on the nucleus 
of the vegetable cell (1831), been fully extended, 
England would have anticipated Germany in the 
cell-discover}'. Though Mlillers recognition of the 
cellular structure of the chorda dorsalis, and the re- 
searches of Henle and Valentin on the epithelium and 
animal textures, as well as those of Mirbel on plants, 
had been published, and though eminent enibryologists, 
including those named above, and Eathke, Barry, 
Bischoff, and Allen Thomson, had the primitive organic 
structures under observation, it was left to Schleiden 
and Schwann to establish the first base-line of the new 
histological survey. It soon came to be recognised 
that, however diversified in character the tissues of 
organized bodies might be to the eye, the microscope 
revealed a remarkable uniformity of character in their 
growth and construction ; and further, that all vege- 
table structures, and many animal, originate in minute 
corpuscles having more or less of a vesicular structure, 
named " cells." These cells, constituting the germs of 
the tissues, are embryonic elements, and the history of 
their growth and metamorphosis corresponds in a great 
measure to the changes observed in tracing the germinal 
vesicle in it- progressive Btages of development into 
tin- different textures of the animal organism. 

The discovery of the Germans came at a good time 
to refresh the physiological mind of Europe. Though 
doing ;i lair amounl of work in biology, England 



86 BICHAT AND HIS SUCCESSORS. 

seemed satisfied with Sir C. Bell's discovery of the 
functions of the nerves, and Dr. Marshall Hall's exposi- 
tion of an " Excito-motory System " — the extension and 
application of the views of Whytt and Prochaska to 
modern theory and practice, as her great achievements 
in the century. In anatomy she furnished no works 
equal to those of Beclard, Tiedemann, and Cruveilhier ; 
while her physiology was much indebted to Blumen- 
bach, Mliller, and others. The English Cyclopcedia of 
Anatomy and Physiology, edited by Dr. Todd, was a 
step in advance, for each fasciculus of the work indi- 
cated the rise of men worthy of honours in the country 
of Harvey, Hunter, and Bell. In comparative anatomy 
England owed to Bichard Owen her high position in 
Europe ; and though entitled to a fair share of the 
felicitous observations gracing the field of physiology, 
she seemed more or less disposed to rest on her oars, 
apparently reticent as to the belief that each decade 
should make its own impress on the century's scroll, 
and that without such impress history becomes nega- 
tive, letterless, or nil. 

Bichat's Anatomie Generate — a work enough for 
any man's immortality — had satisfied more than one 
generation ; but with the advancing spirit of the age, 
and a better use of optical appliances, arose the Pur~ 
kinjes, Von Bacrs, Midlers, Browns, Schleidens, Barrys, 
and Sharpeys, to illuminate the large field of biology. 
It was not the tissues, per se, as seen by the naked 
eye, or in their chemico-physical relations, but their 
embryonic genesis, elaboration, and metamorphosis, 



A NEW EPOCH IN SCIENCE. 87 

that were now to engage anatomists. The lens and 
the doublet were discarded for the compound micro- 
scope, and this has afforded a new revelation to men 
of eyes and brain, exploring the minute structures of 
organisms. As another eureka in history, the discovery 
of the " Cell " or organic corpuscle merited " All Hail 1" 
but it would be no less hasty than unphilosophic to 
claim for it the ne plus ultra of man's aim in the field 
of physiology. To-day the words of Laplace are as 
appropriate as when he uttered them on his deathbed — 
" Ce que nous connaissons est peu de chose, ce que 
nous ignorons est immense." Moreover, fresh problems 
in physiology, quite as much as in physical science, 
are continually presenting themselves for solution, and 
one discovery is but an introduction to many others, 
as startling as the "All Hail!" or the regal shadows 
crossing Macbeth's vision : — 

" And yet the eighth appears, who bears a glass 
Which shows me many more." 

As the century entered its fourth decade, " the 
cell-question," viewed phytologically and zoologically, 
constituted a new epoch in science ; whilst in import, 
in scope, character, and excellence, the microscope rose 
to a higher and higher perfection. "With cell-growth 
as a primary fact in the tissues of organized 1 todies, 
nil thai was aeeded was a true and fervid cultus on the 
pari of intelligent minds to render the epoch worthy of 
its appliances, Its aims, and its destiny. Every one, it 
may be said, owes something i<> bis epoch ; some men 
owe their happy lines ld life entirely to theirs; and iiol 



88 SHARPEY AND THE BRITISH SCHOOL. 

a few in these latter days have assiduously sought and 
gained reputation through the agency of the microscope 
applied to the investigation of organisms. The reve- 
lations of this instrument came as a great tide in 1840 
that wafted Goodsir and many others to havens of dis- 
covery, and those proud positions in science which 
many seek but few obtain. Though Germany took the 
lead, many able cultivators occupied English ground. 
Ranking with the London school, and early in the 
field, Sharpey,"' Bowman, Carpenter, Gulliver, j" Busk, 
Simon, and Paget may be worthily cited as represent- 
ing every department of the cellular theory ; whilst in 
the Edinburgh school Martin Barry and Allen Thom- 
son shone in embryology, and J. Hughes Bennett in 
both physiology and pathology, and Goodsir traversed 
a wider range human and comparative. Of late years 
the list of those who have aided the cause of cell-inter- 
pretation, or added to the general stores of histological 
facts and hypotheses, is greatly extended ; indeed of 

* Dr. Sharpey lectured on anatomy in Edinburgh from 1832 to 1836. 
He systematically used the microscope for the purpose of illustrating his 
anatomical course. Previous to 1830, he made his valuable observations on 
"Cilia," and used Woollaston's doublet l-20th of an inch focus. Dr. Allen 
Thomson followed Sharpey's method of teaching, and his embryological re- 
searches demanded the use of the microscope. Goodsir had an Oberhaeuser to 
aid him in his inquiries into the development of the Invertebrata of the 
Firth, and also the occasional use of Dr. John Keid's microscope, and one of 
Charles Chevalier's manufacture belonging to the writer, and probably also that 
of Dr. Martin Barry. 

+ Mr. Gulliver's translation of Gerber's Anatomy in 1842, and his own 
notes and observations and defence of the English School of Anatomists, 
served an excellent purpose. In editing the works of William Hewson, F.R.S., 
Jur the Sydenham Society in 1846, he indicated that Hewson had nearly anti- 
cipated Schwann's discovery of the cell as far back as 1773. 



THE CELL AND THE PHILOSOPHERS. 89 

the advocates and partisans of the new doctrines carried 
to a legitimate issue, or possibly somewhere beyond, it 
may be truly said, " the cry is still, They come." 

Like all the early observers of " the cell," Goodsir 
met with difficulties. Granted a cell, with its walls, 
its contents, its nucleus and nucleolus, what then ? 
Did the formation of cells depend on an endogenous 
or exogenous growth, a fissiparous division, or a gem- 
miferous thrusting forth of new cells or materials ? 
Theory often ran in advance of observation, and Good- 
sir, too anxious for a foremost place in the race of com- 
petition, went boldly onwards ; for, with too many of 
that period, instead of comparing microscopic observa- 
tion with the data furnished by the test-tube and the 
philosophical balance, the desire was to be able to cry 
"Eureka!" before your neighbour. This mode of pro- 
cedure could excite no surprise; histology was an 
almost untrodden field, the explorers of which were 
enthusiastic and impressionable. The new develop- 
mental anatomy attracted dilettanti and idealists, 
as well as the legitimists in science, and came to be 
viewed in the highest light as an Archimedean lever to 
the biological world — a consummation devoutly to be 
wished by the physicist, physiologist, and positivist, 
all of whom took part in the discussion of a subject 
tli.it seemed specially to concern the anatomisl alone. 
The geometrician saw tin; fundamental form of nature 
represented in the cell ;i hollow spheroid or ellipsoid; 
the physiologisl would have it that all the processes 
engaged in the vital functions resl upon ;i combination, 



90 goodsir's observations. 

recombination, or multiplication of cells ; and Comte, 
rising with his philosophy still higher, found in the 
life of the single cell a type and the source of not only 
the functions of individual man, but also of the grand 
etre — humanity. Even the lover of the sesthetical, 
struck by the histological elements, both in their origin 
and coalesced functions, glorified them into a form of 
beauty charmingly consonant with his beau ideal of 
life, and his higher aspirations towards the primitive 
sesthetic standard. Goodsir, no less speculative than 
scientific, was not the least conspicuous supporter of 
the new doctrines that bid fair, at one time, to make 
the cell the whole science of life. 

Of the lectures delivered in the theatre of the Koyal 
College of Surgeons in the summer of 1842 and winter 
1842-43, a portion was devoted to the considera- 
tion of practical subjects — ex. gr. surgical pathology ; 
another portion embraced anatomical and physiological 
questions of current or rather special interest to the 
younger members of his audience, and were afterwards 
woven into a work — "Anatomical and Pathological 
Observations," (vide vol. ii. p. 387). The prominent 
doctrines enunciated by Goodsir in these lectures mainly 
rested on the existence of centres of force connected 
with the nutritive and reproductive changes in the 
normal and pathological processes. The term " centres 
of nutrition," or " germinal centres," as employed by 
him, obviously possessed a similar signification to that 
which at this time is attached by Dr. Beale to his 
" germinal matter/' and by various anatomists of the 



ON CELL GROWTH AND CHANGES. 91 

most modern German school to their masses of nuc- 
leated protoplasm. The allocation to these definite 
"centres," not only of the forces engaged in the nutri- 
tion of the textures, but in the reproduction of new 
forms both in normal and pathological processes — a 
doctrine which has been in its special relations to 
pathology so systematically pursued by Virchow and 
his disciples — was unmistakably present in the mind 
of Goodsir, and also articulately expressed in the patho- 
logical papers in the series now referred to. This, it 
must be remembered, was at a period when the origin 
of new cell-forms by a process of precipitation, or mole- 
cular aggregation in a fluid blastema or exudation, was 
the doctrine prevalent in the schools. 

Of the part which the nucleated cell plays in the 
processes of nutrition, secretion, and reproduction, 
normal and otherwise, it may perhaps suffice to refer 
the reader to the paper on " Centres of Nutrition," to 
that on " Absorption and Ulceration, and the Struc- 
tures engaged in these Processes," and " On the Process 
of Ulceration in Articular Cartilages ;" to the memoir 
on " Secreting Structures," and the short essays on the 
" Structure and Economy of Bone," and on the "Mode of 
Reproduction after the Death of the Shaft of a Long 
Bone." Corroborative evidence may also be met with in 
his memoir " On Diseased Conditions of the Intestinal 
Glands," and the paper on the " Structure and Patho 
logy <>f the Kidney and Liver." In these various essays 
the presence of the products of secretion within cells; 
the increase which takes place in the size <•! the cells, 



92 VIRCHOW AND GOODSIK. 

and the multiplication of their nuclei when influenced 
by morbid changes ; the rupture of these enlarged pro- 
liferating cells, and the discharge of their nucleated 
contents ; the destruction, scooping out, and solution of 
textures by the action of the forces residing in these 
new formed structures ; the presence of soft nucleated 
masses in the lacunae and Haversian canals of bone, 
and the part which they play in the absorption of 
bone ; and the changes which take place in nucleated 
cells in connection with cyst-formation — all testify to 
the largeness of his observation of cell-life, both phy- 
siologically and pathologically. 

In the first of these memoirs not only does he advo- 
cate the importance of the cell as a centre of nutrition, 
but argues that the organism is subdivided into a num- 
ber of departments, " each containing a certain number 
of simple or developed cells, all of which hold certain 
relations to one central or capital cell around which 
they are grouped." This idea has since been freely 
made use of by Professor Virchow, though, it must be 
admitted, without a due acknowledgment of the quarter 
in which it was originally stated, and it has obviously 
influenced many of his physiological and pathological 
speculations. This reticence is the more strange, as 
Virchow dedicated his work on Cellular Pathologic 
to the Edinburgh professor in the following compli- 
mentary terms : — " To John Goodsir, F.R.S. etc., as 
one of the earliest and most acute observers of cell-life, 
both physiological and pathological, this work on 
Cellular Pathology is dedicated, as a slight testimony 



VIRCHOW AT FAULT. 93 

of his deep respect and sincere admiration, by the 
author." As Professor Virchow has travelled over 
much of the ground that had been previously 
cultivated by Goodsir, it is no less remarkable than 
disappointing to find in Virchow's volume of 433 
pages but one reference to Goodsir, and that in con- 
nection with an observation the merit of which might 
be more fairly ascribed to Dr. Martin Barry. This is 
scanty civility to a scientific confrere whom he has 
called " one of the most acute observers of cell-life," — 
one whose labours he has availed himself of, and whose 
opinions and words he has occasionally adopted. 

In his paper on the "Morbid Changes affecting 
the Glandules Aggregatse of the Ileum in Fever," 
Goodsir (vol. ii. p. 377) describes these changes to be 
of the following nature — viz. " the development of cells 
within the constituent vesicles of the patches to such 
an extent as at last to burst them, or cause their 
solution ; the continued increase in the number of the 
cells proceeding from as many centres as there are 
vesicles in the path ; the conglomeration of the whole 
into one mass above the sub-mucous and under the 
mucous membrane, the distension of the latter, and 
the necessary ulceration and sloughing of the mass 
arising from this circumstance." This is clearly Vir- 
chow's "proliferation of cells." Then, in p. 390 of* the 
same volume, Goodsir, speaking of simple or developed 
cells holding certain relations to one central or capital 
cell, says — " Ii would appear thai from this centra] 
cell all the other cells of its department derive their 



94 RIVALS OF THE CELL. 

origin. It is the mother of all within its own ter- 
ritory." If the reader will be at the pains to compare 
the whole paragraph from which this passage has been 
quoted with a paragraph at p. 14 of Mr. Chance's 
translation of Virchow, that terminates with the word 
" cell-territory " (zellen-territorien), he cannot fail to 
see the close following or copying of Goodsir. Vir- 
chow, however, makes no reference to the source from 
which he has obtained his cell-territory."''" 

Various opinions on the nature of the cell have 
passed current during the last thirty years, and almost 
each quinquenniad has had a theory of its own. Thus 
Schwann looked upon the vitelline membrane as the 
outer cell-wall, the yelk substance the contents, the 
germinal vesicle the nucleus, and the macula or 
maculo? the nucleolus or nucleoli. Wagner and Henle 
regarded the germinal vesicle as the true cell, and the 
other parts of the ovum as of the nature of superadded 
structures. Goodsir and Virchow held the cell to be 
the ultimate morphological element in which there is 
any manifestation of life, and that the seat of real 
action must not be transferred to any point beyond 
the cell. Still finer distinctions have been drawn of 
late years> and much said on " plasms " and " proto- 
plasms " or " plasmodiums " as rivals of the cell. The 
observations of the eminent phytologist Hugo Von 
Mohl on the " Primordial Utricle," Cienkowsky's views 

* This question was fully discussed in the British Medical Journal 
(Jan. 12, 1861), in a leading article — "Cellular Pathology, its Present 
Position " — being a review of Virchow's work as translated by Chance. The 
passages referred to in the text above are placed in parallel columns. 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF MATTEE. 1)5 

on the monads, espoused by Professor Huxley in his 
lectures on the Invertebrata, and Professor Haeckel's 
" Protogenes," may be cited in proof of the opinions 
afloat and pertaining to the ultimate atoms of organ- 
ized bodies. The protogenes of the Jena professor is 
described as "simply a minute drop of living jelly, 
simpler even than a white blood-corpuscle, having no 
nucleus, no nucleolus, no contracting vesicle — ' no 
nothing' in fact, except the property of flowing in 
various directions, and of protruding innumerable fine 
processes or pseudopodia." Here is a living substance 
devoid of all but molecular structure, yet showing by 
its pseudopodia the actions attributed to the lower 
forms of animal life — ex. (jr. the Amccha, The ques- 
tion will now arise, If Haeckel's views be admitted, is 
plasm endowed with a formative and selective power 
in the building up and the disintegration and decay of 
organisms ? Has science revealed a potential or pan- 
theistic force — the universal Archeus — pervading every 
form of organized matter ? Is it to be inferred that 
life is originally stamped on the amorphous and 
elementary molecule, that the molecule is advanced to 
a distinct and tangible organization in the cell as in 
the amorphozoa — the perfection of tissue being a 
further process of the cell in its entirety — anatomical 
and physiological ? However this maybe — and all 
1 1 1,1 1 pertains to molecular morphology 45 ' is likely to 

* "A Sketch of a Philosophy Part II. M.ctt. i ami Molecular Morpho- 
logy," published by Williams and Norgate, L868, will furnish abundanl 
materials to those interested in these inquiries. The chemical or elementary 



96 DOGMA AND DISBELIEF. 

undergo a thorough inquiry — Dr. Macvicar and others 
have space and verge enough in determining the in- 
tricate philosophy of matter. In all speculations rest- 
ing on molecular and cellular growth, it may be well 
to remember that the dogma of to-day may come to 
rank with the disbelief of to-morrow, or even be clas- 
sified with an antediluvian past ; and it is not less 
necessary to keep in view what history has oft re- 
corded and repeated, but in vain, that the eccentricities 
of one age may become the wisdom of the next. 

synthesis, rather than the anatomical and physiological relations of molecules, 
are discussed in this remarkable brochure. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Domicile of the Goodsirs, its Peculiarities and Attractions — 
" Noctes Lothianco" — A New Curatorship — Salmonidae — " Sar- 
cina Ventriculi " and other Inquiries — Demonstrator and Chief 
Curator. — His Theories Modified. 

The domicile of the Goodsirs in No. 21 Lothian Street, 
adjacent to the University of Edinburgh, was aj)proach- 
ed by a public flight of stairs, to which six different 
families had access, and consisted of the half of a top 
flat or storey, with attics — rented at £17 a-year! In 
character it ranked with the dwellings of petty trades- 
men, and though the rooms were small they accommo- 
dated two or three brothers Goodsir, Edward Forbes, 
George E. Day — all very tall men, also their visitors, 
and a housekeeper or cook, and two lads who acted as 
anatomical assistants in the museum and as grooms-in- 
waiting at home. Man was not the sole occupant; 
other living things — biped, quadruped, manuped, and 
nulliped — had their share in the fortunes of the house- 
hold. "Jacko" the monkey,* "Coco" the tortoise, 

* "Jacko "was a droll customer, with a keen eye to Lis physical coni- 
Looking upwards in the Bcale of being, <>r "aping his betters," be 
would bare a vapour-bath, and in a mode that indicated neither propriety nor 
decorum. Watching bis opportunity when the pot of boiling potatoes was 
removed from the fire, he used to warm his hips over the steaming rapoura 
Mr. Day having canghl him in the act, rowed he would ea1 no more potatoes 
unle • pri anted in their drj jackets. After Goodsir observed the parasite 
Vol.. I. II 



98 " JACKO PLAYS TRICKS. 

" Csesar " the dog, " Doodle " tlie cat, and occasionally 
guinea-pigs and urchins, had their freedom of run in the 
establishment ; the birds were caged, and the great eagle 
stood Prometheus-like on his Caucasus ; whilst shut up 
in the attics, or claiming part of the cook's precincts, and 
in improvised aquaria or vivaria, were frogs, fishes, 
molluscs, echinoderms, and various odds and ends of 
Invertcbrata. These animals were nearly all meant for 
physiological observation, and occasionally furnished the 
anatomists with a blood-globule, a muscular fibre, and 
ciliated epithelium. As the ranks of this living motley 
fell away- — for amidst such a marine, aerial, and laud 
population life flowed and ebbed, and oft departed — 
the organisms, on ceasing their physiological functious, 
obtained the obsequies of the scalpel, the injecting- 
syringe, the spirit -jar, or macerating -tub ; and, as 
mementoes of once familiar faces, skins and crania for 
conservation might be seen hansrino; like banners on 

o too 

the outward wall or attic's roof. This semi-menagerie 
and its mortuary relics, conveying to more senses than 

on the gill of the haddock, Mr. Day came to have douhts as to the validity 
of fish in general ; and as haddocks and potatoes were staple dishes in the 
establishment, his gastronomic sqneamishuess could only be allayed by Good- 
sir's assurance of the parasitic freedom of every fish, and the cook's declaration 
that "Jacko" was chained up during the preparation of the "gentlemen's 
dinner. " 

"Jacko," in a roving humour, descended by the spout on the outside 
wall to a lower storey, and finding the kitchen-window open walked in, to the 
great dismay of the female inmate. Knowing nothing of the curious house- 
hold above, and being much engrossed, as nearly all Scotch folk were at the 

time, with the threatened disruption in the Kirk, Mrs. looked upon 

the intruder, whose presence was as mysterious as his person was horrid in her 
eyes, as "spiritually uncanny;" nay, as "the chains were broken," had not 
" the thousand years " ended, and here was " Beelzebub liimsel' ! " 



A CHAOS OF CONCEITS. 99 

one decided anatomical impressions, bore a faint resem- 
blance to a portion of the monastery of the Capuchins 
in the Piazza Barberini at Rome, where, however, the 
genus homo, and not the genera animalium, constituted 
a more degrading demonstration. Along with house- 
hold furniture, boxes, big tomes, portfolios, fossils, 
geological and archasological specimens, were strewed 
about the rooms ; the finer sorts of things occupied 
shelves ; and these again variously set off by dried 
starfishes, shells, trophies of the chase, meerschaums, 
and the artistic or grotesque fancies of Forbes. As in- 
discriminate as the Paris chiffonniers, the Goodsirs 
fraternity hoarded up organic forms and their special 
idols, till they realised what appeared to bystanders a 
chaos of natural history and domesticity only to be 
surpassed by the oddest curiosity-shop in the Cowgate 
of the ancient city. With the owners, however, 
there was method in the midst of strange confusion, 
besides much pleasantry in the conceit, and a kind of 
aesthetic halo that crowned all the dust and cobwebs 
of their domicile. 

Men born in the purple or nursed in the lap of 
comfort have no notion of the homes and habits of the 
student whose science is his stay and staff of life. The 
.ihovc sketch, though derived from a special instance 
]» resenting peculiarities apart from the general lone of 
things, will nevertheless, in its broader features, indicate 
the status quo prevailing thirty years ago in Ekiinburgh 
quoad men of philosophic aims unblessed with pecu- 
niary resources. The Goodsirs and Forbes had been 



100 PHILOSOPHERS IN THEORY. 

trained or educated for a profession, but their natural 
habitat was science, and to that they gravitated with- 
out counting the cost or the sacrifice. They were 
like Sir C. Bell, who, in reference to his first settling 
in London, said — ■" I was as romantic as any young 
man could be, though the prevailing cast of my mind 
was to gain celebrity and independence by science, and 
perhaps this was the most extravagant of all." It was 
not choice or eccentricity, but the hard lines of the world, 
that drove them to set up their " household gods " in 
the attics of Lothian Street. Philosophers in theory, 
and full of adolescent hopes as to merit having its due 
reward, they had yet to learn that philosophy seldom, 
if ever, pays its own expenses in this country. Science 
they found to be the direst of economists, imperative in 
its demands for books, instruments, and other agencies, 
and more imperative still of brain-power, health, and 
vitality ; yet the earnings it yielded in a highly 
materialistic age were but as Roman denarii compared 
with the " old Spanish dollar " and the fruits of com- 
merce. 

These naturalists had to trust to their brains and 
fingers, and these so actively and deftly occupied did 
not bring in £100 a-year. They were citizens of a 
free country — the wealthiest in the world — a country 
that hails scientific discovery as a mighty contribution 
to the national glory, yet seems to be unmindful of the 
arduous steps which have led to the consummation of 
the national boast. They loved science for its own 
sake, and the nulla dies sine linea of their lives was 



SCIENCE NOT RECOGNISED. 101 

their chief solace, heightened by a pleasant intercourse 
with men who, like themselves, could dine cheerily at 
a tavern for half-a-crown a-head, or on haddocks, 
potatoes, and whisky-toddy at home — even without 
the paterhum salinum.* 

" Vivitur parvo bene, cui paternum 
Splendet in mensa tenui salinum ; 
Nee leves somnos timor aut cupido 
Sordidus aufert." 

England, with all her Keform Bills, had not come to 
recognise science, however ably and earnestly culti- 
vated by her sons. Thus Harry Goodsir went out 
with Sir John Franklin to the Polar Seas in 1845, not 
in the capacity to which everybody knew he was cre- 
dited, and for which not a dozen persons could be found 
in Britain so well suited, but ostensibly as assistant 
surgeon, whose duties could have been discharged 
equally well by hundreds of men. The Government 
were afraid to speak of a paid naturalist ! With such 
an example at headquarters, the Universities pleaded 
poverty for their non-recognition of science ; and to 
descend lower, neither the tribunes nor the people 
afforded encouragement to the pursuit of natural 
history. Forbes might well record— "The mass bestow 
more kicks than halfpence on science." 

* The Goodsira were oot withoul the silver emblems of success in medical 
practice, and a very handsome enp presented to the patriarch "John." 
betokened the high esteem in which he was held by grateful patients. The 
"horned lantern," however, carried by "Grandfather John" to light np the 

dark paths of Fife, was quite as significant an heir-loom of the ' I Lairs, and it 

Btoodon the mantelpiece in Lothian Street as a balance to a quaint Mm\ tan- 
Kim! possibly tin- In ir I I Edward Fori 



102 "our palace at Edinburgh." 

Harry Goodsir designated No. 21 Lothian Street 
" The Barracks ;" Edward Forbes, in his humbler strain, 
named it " The Attic," or in his higher flights, " Our 
Palace at Edinburgh." " The Barracks " and " Our Pa- 
lace " seem very antipodal, but the estimate formed by 
these two men of their locus in quo was correct and 
characteristic enough. There was all the life, indivi- 
duality, and colouring of a barracks in their domicile, 
from whence also the " Arch-Magus " and " Triangles " 
issued their edicts, and in kingly mood basked in the 
sunshine of their own enjoyment. The court-circle of 
" Our Palace " was highly select, and none but men of 
status in science, literature, and art could obtain an 
entree. The choice spirits of Alma Mater assem- 
bled in Lothian Street to talk and joke and expound 
the argument, and many an encounter of steel against 
steel clashed under the Goodsir attics. There the ob- 
server could have noted in full measure that which 
Benjamin Franklin had spoken of in his time as pecu- 
liar to men educated in Edinburgh — a disputatious 
tone, a proneness to keen discussion, with much loqua- 
city and occasional dogmatism ; there also, as accom- 
paniments of a hearty symposium, were skirmishes 
of wit and repartee, along with the more technical 
and scientific debate, not unfrequently setting the 
table in a roar. In scanning the panorama of 
the medical school, with its moving figures and 
scenes of life, in commenting upon the wars 
of the hospital surgeons and the contending 
claims of the physiologists, " The Barracks " found 



A LAUGH AT "OLD FOGIES." 103 

gossip, fun, and laughter. The " old fogies," with 
cocked hats, stiff ruffles, and gold-headed staffs, had 
disappeared, even the last of the Hamiltons — the great 
obstetrician who styled himself "Junior" James in his 
seventies. Relics of the past, if such a term be appli- 
cable to humanities, were still visible — e.g. the senile 
professor, whose course, for any good got from it, 
mioht have been Sanscrit readings instead of " Cullen's 
Lines," the hour being filled up with his coughing, and 
hemming, and the uproarious sounds of his class ; the 
evergreen tertius professor who unconcernedly at noon 
ate cranberry tarts in the midst of grinning students at 
a small pastry-cook's, and with digestion unimpaired 
the next hour read his grandfather's essays on Hydro- 
cephalus as part of an anatomical course ; and the 
quaint botanist and would-be philosopher who gave 
lectures in a sunless cul-de-sac of an old-fashioned 
square, and whose stock-in-trade was a beggarly ac- 
count of unbleached paper-covers, enclosing tattered 
leaves and stems, and whose " fresh specimens for the 
class " were taken from the crown of his hat, once a 
gay and lofty beaver, but after countless years of ser- 
vice had become shapeless, napless, brown, and greasy, 
not the less in character, however, with the colour, 
dirt, and decadence of the man, his premises, and his 
l'ii lections. How John Goodsirused to hold his sides, 
and Bany make the welkin ring with laughter, when 
more finished pictures than tin- writer's sketches were 
presented for their recognition and amusemenl ; w<>nl 
painting hardly sufficing without the imitative man- 



104 LIFE IN "THE BARRACKS." 

ner and style, to depict the eccentric representations of 
the medical school. 

Of the men who assembled at " The Barracks," note 
only can be taken of a few"'" of them in this sketch. It 
was no small treat to listen to Dr. Knox on his favoured 
subjects; his African experience of the Dutch Boer in 
contiguity with the agile Kaffir, or his special discours- 
ings upon the history of race — his taking up for the 
nonce the credited unity of species, as biblically re- 
corded, to show up, with greater force and a keener 
prophetic air, the racial divergences, dissensions, and 
antagonisms. It was not less rich to see Knox and 
Dr. Samuel Brown engaged in a passage at arms, be 
the subject of their controversy the atoms of Democri- 
tus, the vagaries of the " Illuminati," or the philosophy 
of Leibnitz. Within " Our Palace," history, ancient 
and mediaeval, was fully canvassed and weighed in the 
balance of modern thought ; and as every man con- 
vened to its tapestried reception-room had more or 
less of a speciality of pursuit, he got the opportunity 
of playing his favourite part, not seldom incited 
thereto by the quiet interrogations of John Goodsir, or 
the seductive leadings of Forbes. There John H. Bal- 
four, redundant of botanic Ufe, then as now, compared 
notes with the Manx herbalist; there John Goodsir 

* Among the distinguished foreigners who ascended the long flight of stairs 
in Lothian Street, mention may be made of the famed Agassiz, who made his 
visit there after the British Association Meeting at Glasgow (Sept. 1840). 
Forbes wrote to a friend — "Agassiz was in ecstasies with the living urchins, 
star-fishes, and ophiurae I showed him, and confessed he had never seen them 
alive." 



MINSTRELS AND PHILOSOPHERS. 105 

and David Page resuscitated the quarries of Cornceres, 
the synods of Fife, and the bickerings of St. Andrews ; 
there Forbes and J. H. Bennett revived their students' 
days, and sang their students' songs, of which the fol- 
lowing stanza, part of an " Oineromathic " song written 
by Forbes, may be quoted : — 

" Then whilst we live we'll spend our hours 
'Mid all that's bright and fair ; 
In learning's fields we'll gather flowers, 

To wreathe in Beauty's hair ; 
For wisdom's hoary locks we'll twine 
A crown of myrtle and of vine. 

Hurrah ! hurrah for the Rosy Band, 
Hurrah for the Holly Tree!"* 

Other minstrels of note visited the palace, and 
added to the charms of its many-coloured society by 
their presence, their songs, or their conversation. 
Among these may be mentioned Theodore Martin, 
of " Bon Gaulticr " ballad fame, the able classic 
and man of letters, whose visits were more For- 
besian ; James Ballantine, the author of "The Gaber- 
lunzie Wallet," whose poetic muse partook of the 
Btrain of Burns, and whose heart is still warmer than 
the sentiments of his songs ; and Professor Blackie, 
exuberant in nationality and Homer's poesy, and 
keenly antagonistic of democracy. In " Our Palace" 
Dr. Day, afterwards Professor of Anatomy and Medi- 
cine at St. Andrews, was a resident, who ofl displayed 
his skill of fence and facetiousness to the delight of 

• The " I.'" ] Band " and " Holly " formed part of the insignia of " Tie 
Brotherh I of the Friends of Truth." 



106 NOCTES LOTHIAN.E. 

George Wilson, who possessed a fine susceptibility 
of the humorous ; there^Dobie, the artist and designer 
of the beautiful " Oineromathic " emblem given on 
a previous page, enjoyed the Punch-like cartoons 
of natural history by the arch-magus; there Dr. 
Samuel Brown, with his bright, penetrating, and trans- 
mutative character, had his outpourings of wondrous 
talk, charming to listen to, along with his analysis of 
the new chemical philosophy then dawning upon his 
brain — a philosophy of which everybody believed he 
was one day to be its high priest ; there John Keid, 
in rubicund glow and fun, chaffed Harry Goodsir for 
assuming to have made the discovery of a separate 
sexual system in the barnacle, when both the male 
and female animals knew the fact, and had enjoyed 
the loves pertaining to the fact, thousands of years 
ago ! 

The Nodes Ambrosiance — fiction or fact — found an 
historian of bold utterances who amused the readers 
of Blackivood with political gossip and fierce partisan- 
ship ; the Nodes Lothiance were of bond fide character, 
and breathed less of the oracular and denouncing, and 
more of the rational and philosophic. Forbes, writing 
from London, might well revert to the "tranquil, 
merry, and philosophical days and nights," spent in 
" Our Palace," and long to sing his favourite songs to 
an applauding audience. The writer, with his feeble 
pen, has no pretensions to record the Memorabilia of 
these Goodsir and Forbes " Noctes," he can but take a 
glance at those inspiriting scenes in which he played a 



FORBES LOVES THE ATTICS. 107 

humble part ; and conscious that such examples of 
" feasts of reason and no wings of soul " can have no 
revival to him on this side of the Stygian shore, 
claims indulgence for looking back upon them, much 
as the Eastern traveller homeward bound casts a 
lingering view upon the classic lands disappearing 
below the horizon, and bids them a last adieu. 

Edward Forbes, when cruising in the Mediter- 
ranean on board of Her Majesty's ship " Beacon," from 
April 1841 to November 1842, wrote to Goodsir from 
various parts of the Eastern Archipelago, noting the 
droll creatures brought up by the dredge, and adding 
in one of his letters — " I often wished that you had 
been with me, as the structure of many of these un- 
preservable creatures would require your hand and 
knife to work them out." Nor did Forbes forget " the 
Brethren," to whom he sent love and greetings in every 
letter. Neither the ruined cities of Lycia, nor dredging 
the iEgean, nor contemplating the classic and biblical 
lands of the East, could efface his love for " the Order," 
and the delights of Edinburgh. Thus he wrote from 
the coast of Asia Minor — " I often heartily wish myself 
once more sitting over a tumbler of toddy, munching 
a Finnan haddy in our palace in Lothian Street." 
What charms existed in that top flat of a dingy 
thoroughfare compared with Eastern skies, Alpine 
scenery, and tin- grand historical? Forbes heart was 
responsive f" its pole; humanity carried the day, and 
(iondsir's attic and social intercourse stood forth as 

palatial and glorious I <>n his return Forbes visited 



108 A NEW CURATORSHIP. 

Edinburgh to arrange with the Goodsirs for the ana- 
tomical display of his collection as illustrative of the 
zoology of the iEgean Sea. 

In June 1842, Goodsir was asked to go north to 
the Dornoch Firth to examine its zoology, so as to give 
in a report, and to furnish evidence in an important 
trial about salmon stake-nets. He was accompanied by 
Mr. James Wilson, and enjoyed his visit exceedingly. 

In January 1843 John Goodsir was asked by 
Forbes to go before the Justiciary Court of Edinburgh, 
and save Mr. Yarrell the trouble of leaving London, and 
there explain the difference between a sprat and a 
herring ; an anatomical question resting on the 
number of vertebrae * — the sprat having forty-eight, the 
herring fifty-six- — the position of the ventral .fin and 
serrated abdominal line in the sprat, the carinated but 
not serrated belly in the herring, and other minor 
points — as Dr. Neill considered sprats grew into her- 
rings and that difference of vertebras was a mere dif- 
ference of age. 

On the 12th May 1843 Professor Syme wrote from 
the University to Goodsir, offering him the curatorsliip 
" of the collection that has been or may be formed, 
through the means placed at the disposal of the 
Medical Faculty — salary £150 a-year, the appointment 

* Some fishermen of Lord John Scott's had been summoned for netting 
herrings when fishing for sprats in the Firth of Forth, hence the trial before 
the court. Lord John remarked on Dr. Neill's opinion, that he never heard 
Methuselah had more vertebrae in his back-bone when he died than when he 
was a little boy, and that he was sure it was a ruse on the part of the old 
doctor in favour of the cormorants of Canonmills. 



THREE BROTHERS — GOODSIR. 109 

to be renewed annually ; the curator to work five 
hours a-day in the museum, and five days each week." 
He was engaged to prepare a series of dissections 
illustrative of comparative anatomy and physiology, 
with a set of additional specimens of surgical patho- 
logy. As the emoluments were greater, and the 
position more desirable, than that which he occupied, 
he at once accepted Mr. Syme's offer. The salary of 
£150 a-year for the best man in Scotland, and perhaps 
the only man throughout the length and breadth of 
the land fit for the work, will sound strange to English 
ears ; the fault rested not with Mr. Syme or his col- 
leagues, for the funds of the University were not at 
their disposal. The College of Surgeons received Good- 
sir's resignation on the 16th May, and unanimously 
recorded " their perfect satisfaction with the great 
ability, faithfulness, and zeal with which he had dis- 
charged his duties, and of the very great and manifest 
improvement which the collection had undergone since 
it had been placed in his charge." His brother Harry 
succeeded him in the curatorship, and entered on his 
duties on the 31st July of the same year. It is worthy 
of remark, as illustrative of a family trait and special 
;i] it itude, that when Harry Goodsir vacated the curator- 
ship in April 1845 for the Franklin polar expedition, he 
was succeeded by a younger brother, Archie, who acted 
for some months till the college could find a suitable 
person — Archie himself being bent on studying at 
Leijisic and Vienna ; bo that John, Barry, and Archie 
Goodsir successively occupied the position of curator 



110 THE SALMON QUESTION. 

to the Edinburgh College of Surgeons between the 
spring of 1841 and the autumn of 1845, and did their 
work well. 

In the summer and autumn of 1842, and onwards 
to the spring of 1843, Goodsir had much commu- 
nication with Mr. A. Young, the Duke of Sutherland's 
salmon-fisher at Invershin, near Bonar Bridge, relative 
to the development and characters of the salmon in its 
progressive stages of growth till it became a mature fish. 
Mr. Young sent numerous specimens for Goodsir's 
inspection and preservation. A grilse was caught on 
the 21st of June going down to the sea that weighed 
9 lbs., into the fins of which a copper wire was twisted ; 
when the same fish was caught on the 5 th of April of 
the following year it weighed 14 lbs. Another that 
was marked on the 9th January 1842, about 4 lbs. 
in weight, was caught on the 14th July, and weighed 
9 lbs. Several smolts that had been marked by cutting 
off the dead-fin of the back were sent in their grilse state. 
The first of these smolts grown into grilse came early in 
the season and was only small in size; a second was 5 lbs. ; 
a third was 7 lbs. The numbers forwarded to Edin- 
burgh Mr. Young hoped would satisfy Goodsir as to the 
growth of the salmon from the smolt to the grilse and 
full fish. In February 1843 quantities of spawn were 
also sent to Goodsir for examination and experiment. 
Dr. Knox and others had sought information of Mr. 
Young, but without success, as he wished his views to 
remain a secret till he could furnish more abundant 
proofs ; moreover, he was partial to Goodsir following 



CHEMICO-PHYSIOLOGICAL, 111 

out the inquiry in extenso, and dealing honourably by 
him ; for in one of his letters he says to Goodsir — 
" You have the right end of the tether, if you hold on 
fair." The various specimens John received were sent 
off to his brother Harry at Anstruther to stuff in his 
usual way for preservation — John cautioning him to 
do them well, as so many people were interested in the 
business, and to be sine to keep the wire in the fin. 
Considering the great interest attached to the subject, 
it is remarkable that Goodsir made no use of Mr. 
Young's strong " tether," and that he left no papers or 
memoranda indicative of strengthening it. As late 
as the 27th October 1855 Mr. Young asks Goodsir if 
he had written anything on the history and habits of 
the salmon, as he had promised years ago. He had 
thought of writing on salmon and fishes in general, 
and frequently visited an Edinburgh fishmonger's shop 
for aid to his work ; but this, like many good and 
useful plans, had fallen through when no longer pos- 
sessed of health and strength to do justice to his in- 
tentions. 

Goodsir 's many-sided nature led him occasionally, 
and not always wisely, to wander from his own 
domain. Not content with the enlargement of the 
" cellular theory," and the various subjects engaging 
his attention in the museum, he took a fancy to 
chcmico physiological inquiries, and hoped, in con- 
junction with Dr. George Wilson, to give a course of 
lectures on this, an almost untrodden field since the 
days of the great French Revolution. Possibly his 



112 SARCINA VENTRICULI. 

thoughts ran in the direction that had yielded such 
large promise to Lavoisier, Laplace, and Bichat. For 
Lavoisier not only created chemistry, but explained 
the nature of the chemical phenomena in organisms ; 
and he and Laplace were the first to show that the 
physico-chemical actions taking place in living bodies 
rested for their manifestation on the ordinary laws of 
physics and chemistry ; whilst Bichat crowned the edi- 
fice of the new physiology by his Anatomie Generate, 
in which he sought to establish for each special tissue 
a physiological property of its own. Dr. Wilson was 
very sanguine as to the results of a co-operation with 
Goodsir, whom he styled " a noble fellow, a most ex- 
cellent and original inquirer, and one of the most 
amiable and lovable of men." The anatomist, how- 
ever, did not find time to carry out his wishes ; it is 
doubtful if he ever made a beginning. 

His contributions to the different societies in Edin- 
burgh (1841-1844) show how earnestly he laboured 
for a front place in the ranks, hoping by all laudable 
methods to put himself in a favourable position for 
any more lucrative or substantial appointment which 
might cast up. One of these contributions relating to 
the Sarcina ventriculi in cases of pyrosis or " water- 
brash "—a pretty discovery of itself for any man to 
make — helped to disclose much that had been obscure 
and enigmatical in digestion. The perversity of the 
stomachic functions, caused by the presence of organ- 
isms which no gastric juice could control, was viewed 
as strangely curious. The Sarcina attracted most 



ENTOPHYTA AND ENTOZOA. 113 

attention in England, where stomach complaints 
disturb the gastronomical " John Bull," as the " sair 
head " does the plodding Scot, and " smotherings about 
the heart " affect the Irish Celt. The discovery at- 
tracted many by its novelty, though parasitical growth 
had for some time been a matter of discussion. In 
this country, Professor Owen (1832) detected the 
presence of a greenish vegetable mould in the lungs of 
the Phcenicopterus, and was led to infer that internal 
parasites embrace entophyta as well as entozoa. 
Italian, French, and German observers, and notably 
Meynier, Schonlein, and Langenbeck, had written on 
parasitic growths ; and Gruby of Vienna (Valentin's 
Repertorium, 1841) had given a complete history of 
them, bestowing special attention on the crusts of the 
Tmea favosa made up of Mycodermata. Hughes Ben- 
nett in Edinburgh, Eayer and Cazenave in Paris, con- 
firmed Gruby s views. Mr. George Busk gave an 
excellent review in the Microscopic Journal (December 
1841) of all that had been done, and embodied his 
own researches with it, so that parasitic formation was 
one of the questions of the day when Goodsir dis- 
covered the stomachic enemy/"' As Sareina affects all 
phases of life, from Lazarus at the gate to Dives in the 
palace, G-oodsir became involved in a large amount of 
correspondence with doctors and patients soliciting 
LnformatioD and curative means. The history of the 

' IF Edinburgh v< vie acquainted with the Sia/rcina, so was its 

rnaZ the first to convey to the world, inl819, SirJ. Hei 
■--ill hypo mlphifr alts of such significance in counteracting 
the parasite. 

Vol.. I. I 



114 THE ACTION OF THE NUCLEATED CELL. 

case gave him position and authority as a minute and 
accurate observer in little explored fields, and where 
natural history pursuits afforded light to strictly 
pathological questions. 

In May 1844 Goodsirwas appointed Demonstrator 
of Anatomy to Professor Monro. In October 1845 
he furnished the curators of the University Museum 
with a long report of the progress made during his 
period of office as their assistant, and offering large sug- 
gestions for the further improvement and application 
of the museum to the wants of the different medical 
professors in their teachings. Two months sub- 
sequently (December 1845), on the resignation of Mr. 
Mackenzie, the Medical Faculty appointed him the 
curator of the entire museum. As demonstrator and 
curator he had now attained an excellent position. 
During this session he gave a course of twelve lectures 
to the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution on Human 
Physiology, not without a protest being made by Pro- 
fessor Monro against his doino; so. 

The work done by Goodsir during these five 
laborious years (1840-45), and mainly recorded in the 
second volume, will speak for itself, and no doubt 
will receive a just interpretation at the hands of men 
of science. His papers on " Centres of Nutrition " and 
"Secreting Structures " are among the most valuable 
and original of the series. In the first-named he 
awards the initiative steps and discovery of the parent 
cell to his friend Martin Barry. His numerous 
observations, extending over a wide range of glandular 



" GERMINAL MEMBRANE." 115 

structure, fully confirmed the idea that cells are the 
structures which perform the process of secretion, and 
that the functions of nutrition and secretion are essen- 
tially alike in their nature. His own estimate of the 
paper read to the Royal Society of Edinburgh was 
conveyed to his father thus : — " I have proved in it 
that secretion is exactly the same function as nutrition, 
and therefore regulated by the same laws." Goodsir's 
views on the nucleated cell as the great agent in 
absorption, nutrition, and secretion, have been gener- 
ally accepted, and now constitute established data in 
the science of physiology."" 

To one form of "nutritive centres" as arranged 
both in healthy and morbid parts, he gave the name 
of "a germinal membrane," of fine transparent 
character, and consisting of cells with their cavities 
flattened, so that their walls form the membrane by 
cohering at their edges, and their nuclei remain in its 
substance as the germinal centres. This was a new 
reading to Mr. Bowman's " basement membrane " 
(" On the Structure and Use of the Malpighian Bodies 
of the Kidney, &c." — Phil. Trans. 18-42). Concerning 
this "germinal" of Goodsir, and "basement membrane" 
of Bowman much variety of opinion now exists, and its 
existence as a distinct isolable membrane is denied. 

* See the article "Secretion," l>y Dr. Carpenter, in the Cyclopaedia of 
Anatomy and Physiology, and Dr. Sharpey's mosl excellent history of general 
anatomy, constituting the introductory chapter of Quain'a Anatomy, jointly 
edited by himself and Drs. Thomson and Cleland by far the besl work on 
human anatomy that has ever appeared in an English dre i, and most creditable 
to it i di tingui ihi d authoi i, 



116 PLACENTA. 

The fibro-cellular framework of the kidney as 
described by Goodsir, or, as it is now termed, the " con- 
nective tissue," though denied by some observers, has 
been subsequently confirmed, and is now generally 
admitted. Goodsir abandoned the views he originally 
published as to the shedding of the epithelium from 
the surfaces of the intestinal villi during absorption. 

The observations of Owen, Sharpey, Weber, Eeid, 
and Dalrymple, had greatly extended our knowledge 
of the structure of the placenta and formation of the 
decidua, more especially as regards the enlargement 
of the follicles of the uterine mucous membrane, and 
the arrangement of the blood-vessels. Goodsir pur- 
sued these inquiries, described several modifications in 
the vascular arrangements, pointed out the relation of 
the capillary tufts of the placental villi to certain cells 
which he described, and recorded the changes which 
take place during gestation in the interfollicular portion 
of the uterine mucous membrane. With these ar- 
rangements Goodsir associated theoretical opinions in 
conformity with his- ideas of cell function, and consi- 
dered that the placenta performs; as is always admitted, 
not only the function of a lung, but also that of an 
intestinal tube. 

He investigated the process of ulceration in arti- 
cular cartilage, and pointed out that lesions of that 
tissue resulted from changes in the shape and size of 
the cartilage corpuscles with multiplication of their 
nucleated contents. He showed that the destruction 
of the cartilage might take place not only at its free 



ULCERATION OF CAETILAGE. 117 

surface, but by the passage into its substance of nipple- 
shaped vascular and cellular processes from the bone 
on which it rests. The subsequent very extended 
series of observations of Professor Eedfern * of Belfast 
have added to and modified our knowledge of this 
subject. . He considers that the vascular membrane, 
which Goodsir described as concerned in absorbing the 
cartilage and causing ulceration, to be the changed 

DO' O 

substance of the cartilage itself, which goes on to form 
the cicatrix. He also directed attention to the changes, 
such as the formation of fibres, in the intercellular 
substance, and considers that ulceration is a process of 
molecular disintegration not necessarily attended by 
any change in the cells. 

With rare exceptions, Goodsir held by his own 
views of the cell in growth, metamorphosis, and decay, 
and with great tenacity, as if heedless of those who 
followed him in the same path of inquiry ; and he was 
not less reticent of the diversity of opinion prevailing 
in the schools — a diversity approximative to the quot 
homines tot sententicB. 

* Professor Redfern on "Anormal Nutrition in Articular Cartilages" — 
(Monthly Journal of M . 1S49-1850). 



CHAPTER VII. 

Contest for the Anatomical Chair — Calvinism alarmed — Potato-Blight 
— His system of Teaching and its Kesults — Loved by his Class — 
The Success of his Pupils — Surgical Practice — Veterinary Rela- 
tions and Agriculture. 

From 1842 onwards, Mr. Goodsir had an eye to 
Monro's Chair of Anatomy. His College of Surgeons 
lectures, his contributions to different societies, and 
these published in extenso, or in an abstracted form in 
the medical and other journals, constituted the sign d la 
mode. To be aye doing something in literas 'pahlicas 
referre guided " Young Edinburgh " in its professional 
look-out. Each observation made a line in a testi- 
monial, and lengthy testimonials weighed with a Town- 
Council looking for pennyworths of labour, as offerings 
for their big-pennyworth of University patronage. 
His list of publications showed a fine array of armoury 
for the professorial contest. As anatomical demon- 
strator and curator of the museum, Goodsir possessed 
a footing in the University which could not fail to ad- 
vance his interests on the retirement of Dr. Monro 
early in the spring of 1846. He was first in the field 
for the vacancy ; his credentials of work done presented 
no less than twenty-seven essays, singly or jointly, on 
human, comparative, and morbid anatomy ; and his 



AUT C^SAE, AUT NTJLLUS. 119 

testimonials, home and foreign, were unexceptionably 
good. There were other candidates averred for Monro's 
chair, and notably the name of Professor Sharpey of 
London was mentioned. The presence of Sharpey and 
Goodsir in the field deterred Professor John Eeid and 
some others from applying. The happy relationship 
of Sharpey with his Alma Mater, his exalted position 
in the metropolis and eminent fitness for the chair, 
were fairly adduced by his friends as strong claims 
in his favour, and considerately used in the hope of 
withdrawing Goodsir from the contest, particularly as 
Sharpey's best friends were also his. On being made 
aware of what was expected of him, Goodsir, with no 
small emphasis, declared that he would not yield his 
claims to any man in Britain except Professor Owen, 
and that he would stand or fall on his own merits. 
With the bold son of Fife it was aut Ccesar, aut nullus. 
As Dr. Sharpey was not the man to present himself in 
humble suit to a Town-Council, and use flattering 
unction to consequential " Baillies," his Mends with- 
drew his name from the contest some time before the 
election. 

Whilst matters were still sub judicc, a smothered 
feeling existed that Goodsir was not quite orthodox, or 
;il any rate not very demonstrative of his religious be- 
lief. As one of his competitors stood high with the 
evangelical community —and thiswent for a great deal 
in ,i city that prided itself on its Calvinism Goodsir 
had to bestir himself in other walks than the scientific 
to prove his fitness for anatomical teaching. Ther< 



120 RELIGIOUS BIGOTRY. 

was nothing new in this covert attack upon a man of 
philosophic character; the practice is as common as 
the rising of the sun. Keligious bigotry has ever 
shown a fear or jealousy of scientific research question- 
ing divine rights and ecclesiastical prestige. The know- 
ledge of common things, or the devices for acquiring 
money-hoards, no matter how, can pass current as un- 
exceptionably Christian ; but the science that looks to 
the heavens above, or to the earth beneath, or the 
arcana of life in its myriad forms around, has too often 
had hard lines assigned its culture, or rather its cul- 
tivators. To appease the Gods, Socrates had to seek his 
quietus in the poisoned cup ; to avoid the thunderbolts 
of the " Infallible Church," Galileo had to recant his 
belief in nature's unalterable physics ; and so the world 
has gone on from the man-God exactions of Nilotic 
Thebes to the evangelical persecutions of these latter 
days. It was not enough for Goodsir to prove his 
philosophy and morals ; he must show a clean bill of 
orthodoxy, or go to the lazar-house of a perpetual 
quarantine. Tests not truth, Westminster Confessions 
and not scientific capacities, ruled the patrons of the 
University, even in the appointment to a strictly sci- 
entific professorship ; and they, as a Town-Council, 
were but the reflex of a Scottish feeling of disquietude 
as to philosophy in its relations to revealed religion. 
" The Institutes of Medicine " chair — closely allied to 
the anatomical one — had been contended for in Edin- 
burgh only a few years previously by men of undoul >ted 
eminence ; but the Unitarian physiologist, now vice- 



GOODSIR ELECTED PROFESSOR. 121 

president of the Koyal Society, London, could not get 
a single vote — perhaps he blessed himself that he 
escaped the fate of Servetus ; and the pious Quaker, 
though his claims were largely European, had to with- 
draw from the compromising and indefensible requisi- 
tions of "Tests" and "Oaths"! In Goodsir's case no 
harm arose ; he was a Presbyterian of the Established 
Church, and sound to the core of Scottish beliefs, and 
more partial to the Bible than vast numbers of its 
teachers, of whom he complained for their scanty use of 
the " Book " in public worship. On the day of election 
to the anatomical chair, Mr. Goodsir obtained 22 votes, ■ 
and Dr. Handyside 11 votes. 

In January 184G Goodsir communicated a paper 
to the Royal Society, London, " On the Supra-Renal, 
Thymus, and Thyroid Bodies," that was read by Pro- 
fessor Owen; and on the 11th June he was elected a 
Eellow of the society. It was said that his application 
for the honour of a seat in the Royal Society was 
signed by the most eminent anatomists and naturalists 
of the day. He does not seem to have done anything 
for "The Royal" after obtaining its fellowship, and his 
visits to the metropolis were by no means frequent. 

The potato-blight that so frightfully ravaged the 
crops of Great Britain and Ireland from 1845 to 
1 84 7, and broughl famine and fever to the land, was 
of too grave an import bo escape Goodsir's attention. 
Be Btudied and read a paper on the subject to the 
Botanical Societ} of Edinburgh (February L2, L846) \ 
an abstracl <•! it, and iln- discussion thereon, is to be 



122 A REVIVAL OF THE SCHOOL. 

found in the Annals of Natural History, vol. xvii. 
p. 275 (1846). Goodsir looked upon the potato- 
disease as an epidemic, and that there was a general 
resemblance between the rise and progress of epi- 
demics and the appearance or non-appearance of fungi 
from season to season. From this analysis Goodsir 
conceived that, in attempting to explain the nature of 
the potato-disease, the fungi in the diseased tubers 
should not be overlooked. He held that the brown 
matter met with in the diseased potato was organic ; 
his belief being based upon its peculiar forms and 
position in the cells. 

On attaining the chair of the Monros, the pedestal 
of his highest ambition, Goodsir looked forward to the 
revival of the anatomical school, to its being made 
worthy of the exalted position that characterised it 
during the regime of the Monros 'primus et secundus, 
and more worthy still of the advancing progress mark- 
ing biological science in his own times. To extend the 
basis of his distinguished predecessors, and to improve 
the superstructure of Barclay and Knox, influenced 
Goodsir s thoughts from the day he entered upon his 
professorship to the last session of his occupancy. 
Standing in the main vestibule of the iEsculapian 
temple, and vested with the responsibility of pre- 
paring the minds of the novitiates for the higher 
cultus of medicine within, he felt the gravity of his 
position, and sought, with all the fervidity of his 
nature, to exalt anatomy as a science, and to make his 
prelections fresh, practical, and suggestive. 



ANATOMICAL TEACHING. 123 

Whilst climbing up the steep of his anatomical 
Olympus, he gladly laid hold of every aid to the 
ascent; but, on obtaining the chair, he was much 
more wary and greatly less discursive with his pen, 
as if afraid of lessening the fame of his position by 
hazarding the publication of anything rash and specu- 
lative. He was now more solicitous about the 
completion and perfection of his researches than the 
number and variety of his papers. Now and then he 
contributed to the archives of the Koyal Society of 
Edinburgh and the British Association ; but these 
public appearances were to be viewed as manifesta- 
tions of his ability to cope with the higher problems 
of his science, and to show that the successor of the 
Monros could hold his own in the advancing tides of 
a newer philosophy. 

Anatomical teaching now became the predominant 
fact in Goodsir's mind, and he longed to make it 
consonant with the march of the science, so as to place 
his pupils on the boundary-line of modern thought 
and discovery. His first aim was the extension and 
improvement of the dissecting-rooms, which he placed 
under the superintendence of an active staff of 
demonstrators and assistants. His experience of the 
Edinburgh school made him alive to the fact that 
much of his success as a professor would be dependent 
on the character and amount of instruction afforded 
his pupils iii the practical anatomy course. Saving 
organised a thoroughly good system of teaching de- 
scriptive and surgical anatomy, he fell the ueed of 



124 THE TUTORIAL SYSTEM. 

making the structural or histological part of his lectures 
equally complete. This he accomplished not merely 
by an exposition in words, or by the aid of diagrams of 
the minute anatomy of the tissues, but by demonstrating 
the structures or tissues under the microscope — the only 
true, nay essential mode. 

His partiality for the " Tutorial System " in full 
force in the English Universities, and viewed by him 
as an important adjunct to the professor's teachings, 
made him solicitous to try a similar mode of preparing 
his pupils for the higher studies of anatomy. By this 
system of instruction he proposed (1.) To afford a 
more favourable opportunity of seeing and examining 
the structures exhibited and described in the public 
lectures on anatomy ; (2.) To facilitate the attainment 
of more precise information than can usually be pro- 
cured from a lecture ; and (3.) To assist the student 
in keeping up with the public lectures, so that he may 
not fall behind the progress of the course. His com- 
jolete course consisted of — 1st, His lectures on anatomy, 
in which the structure of the body was systematically 
described ; 2d, Anatomical demonstrations by his chief 
assistant, in which the body was demonstrated topo- 
graphically, and from the surface inwards; and 3d, 
Practical anatomy under the superintendence of the 
professor and his demonstrators. 

It took him five years to organise his plans. His 
system of teaching, when completed, came to be looked 
upon as the best that ever regulated the anatomical de- 
partment of any British university or medical school. 



DEMONSTRATION OF TISSUES. 125 

For a time lie conducted the microscopic demonstrations 
himself. Dr. Drummond, the author of the article 
" Sympathetic Nerve" in the Cyclopcedia of Anatomy 
and Physiology, was his first assistant to be entrusted 
with the duty, and for eleven years (1856-67) the course 
was conducted by Mr. Turner — the present professor 
of anatomy. Goodsir looked upon the demonstrations 
of tissues not as a separate subject, but as a depart- 
ment of anatomy constituting an essential part of his 
course. Perfect teaching was his great aim, and this 
he believed and often emphatically expressed could 
only be accomplished by employing the microscope, 
it was this feeling, no doubt, which induced him to 
place on the first page of his " Dissecting-Koom Note- 
Book " the Horatian maxim — 

" Segnius irritant amnios demissa per aurem, 
Quam qua) sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus, et quae 
Ipse sibi tradit Spectator." 

Bis systematic teaching, marked by conciseness 
and method, was well calculated to call forth the 
energies of the student ; and each year afforded larger 
and larger proofs of its entire success. There was 
nothing wanting in his system of instruction, and 
nothing better had been offered than the Goodsirian 

i ie of furnishing the anatomical mind with a high 

standard of knowledge both theoretical and practical. 
A a lecturer, Goodsir appeared less happily endowed. 
||< had no smartness of manner, no captivating cour- 
tesy, n«» rhetorical flourish, to win the favours of a 
, |,i- -. \ el M" profi - "i \\ as more popular in the I ni- 



126 GOODSIR AS A LECTURER. 

versity, or had so many attached pupils. It is true 
that he had the advantage of having them around 
him, and knowing many of them personally in the 
rooms ; but it was in proving his thorough fitness for 
his office, and his painstaking efforts to indoctrinate 
their minds, that won him the confidence and high 
esteem of his students. They looked upon him as a 
master of his art and a philosopher in science. They 
were first led to believe in him, then they came to 
admire and love him. His singleness of purpose, his 
devotion to duty, his conscientious wish to elevate the 
thought of his pupils and to promote the interests of 
the university at large, were deserving of all praise. 

In aiming at distinctness, and a rigid demon- 
stration of the anatomy, a formality or preciseness sui 
generis became a dominant feature in Goodsir's lec- 
turing. He was fond of treating his subject in a 
series of propositions, and in a way that recalled the 
inexorable logic and precise style of the Scottish meta- 
physician of a bygone day, without flow of language 
or any special diversion or enlivenment. In mani- 
festing his earnestness, directness, and completeness — 
his three great attributes as a teacher — it may be said 
that neither rhetoric nor poetic brilliancy could much 
avail him ; it was otherwise with Knox in his histori- 
cal flights. Though imperceptible to others, Goodsir 
was not without a vein of. poesy mingled with a large 
aesthetic feeling that enhanced the beauty of form 
in his eyes, and rendered more patent the loveliness 
and adaptation in the mechanism and physiological 



HIS INFALLIBLE PNEUMA. 127 

operations in the varied structures of organisms. Of 
the imaginative and ideal he had a larger share than 
he ever ventured to express publicly, even when treat- 
ing of subjects capable of being illuminated by a 
lively sentiment. But he stuck close to his technical 
teaching and his teleological doctrines. Berkeley and 
Coleridge but rarely gained a Goodsir utterance ; 
Shakespeare and Milton never crossed his path. As a 
matter-of-fact person, he continued the even tenor of 
his way, and seldom entered the arena of debate or 
controversial disputation. The marked exceptional 
instance to this equanimity of purpose was his buck- 
ling on the armour of orthodoxy to counteract the 
threatened inroads of human science upon the domain 
of his infallible Pneuma. In protesting against the 
new doctrines or hypotheses quoad man's origin and 
place in nature, he came forth in the strength of the 
Psalmist of old, not however in the language of Eastern 
imagery, but in bold Scottish vernacular, admitting of 
no compromise. There was not a shadow of doubt in 
Goodsir's mind as to the teachings of science sniidine 
man to the borders of a higher region, and the standard, 
which he held aloft, was inscribed Divine Eevelation, 
and no surrender. 

Holding himself to be a guardian of his pupils, 
and Bhowing a kindly interest in their well-doing, his 
teachings imperceptibly diffused a beneficial influence 
over the great majority of them, and in other walks 
tharj tin' Btrictly anatomical. I If possessed the faculty 
of inspiring others with his own enthusiastic love of 



128 SUCCESS OF HIS TEACHING. 

science ; hence the good results attending his precept 
and example. Previous to Goodsir's time in the 
University", few medical students had formed a taste 
for biological science beyond the requirements of phy- 
siology to illustrate the theory and practice of their 
art. He awakened a new feeling by making his ana- 
tomical teachings broader and more comprehensive, by 
a constant recurrence to comparative anatomy, and 
so gave a direction zoological -wards to numerous 
graduates of the University. A great change was 
wrought in this respect; before the year 1850, 
" Theses " on anatomical subjects were rare, if not ex- 
ceptional, but after Goodsir's system of tuition came 
into operation, they ranked with the more common 
themes. His favourite pupils obtained either honorary 
distinction, or the gold medals awarded by the 
University for the best Theses; and many were no 
doubt led by his encouragement to make a position in 
the world of medicine. A few of his pupils imbibed 
his natural-history feeling, and pursued zoology with 
great enthusiasm. In proof of his success in imbu- 
ing his pupils with that love of science that marked 
his own career as teacher and museum conser- 
vator, it may be noted that no less than four of his 
young assistants obtained appointments in the Hun- 
terian Museum of the Eoyal College of Surgeons, 
London — viz. Hallett, Lizars, Drummond, and Petti- 
grew. Goodsir was in the habit of altering his sys- 
tematic course of lectures each year. Unlike other 
teachers, he could not go over the same ground two 



ANATOMICAL CLASSES. 129 

years in succession, and so spare his energies ; but 
always sought for a new exposition of the matter on 
hand ; this variety had a refreshing effect upon those 
who attended two courses in succession. 

He commenced his first winter session, 1846-47, 
with a class of 275 students, which number gradually 
increased, so that in 1852-53 (the year before his 
illness obliged him to go abroad) it numbered 368. 
On his return the numbers were somewhat diminished, 
but in 1860-61 it had reached 354 students; about a 
similar number would be enrolled by the second 
Monro at the dawn of the century ; whilst Dr. Knox 
had one year the unrivalled class of 504. 

In 1845, when demonstrator of anatomy, he inti- 
mated that he had "A System of Dissections" in the 
press. This promised work was to form a " Dissecting 
Manual," to be issued in parts, and with plans or simple 
outline drawings as guides in each stage of dissection, 
the whole to form a progressive series of studies for 
the Practical Rooms. Several years elapsed before he 
made a start, and then only to the extent of a few 
p.i-vs and no more. To issue a work entitled " Studia 
Zoonomica, by Members of the Anatomical Establish- 
mentof the University of Ei linl rnrgl i , " was one of his pro- 
jects for stimulating the wrdor scientice of those around 
liini in 1860; it was among the lasl efforts of bis fer- 
tile brain to exall tin' character of his class and the 
fame "i" his I rniversity. 

Tin.: more intelligenl members of the anatomical 
class have always spoken in exaltation of the philoso- 

VOL. I. K 



130 EXCELLENT TEACHING. 

pliic teachings of the professor, and maintained that 
his published writings afforded no clue to his oral 
teaching, and the beneficent operations of his own 
mind over those of his audience. His lectures were 
like finished work from a master's hand ; it was an in- 
tellectual treat to see the building up from day to day 
of a beautiful scientific structure upon an anatomical 
basis. His teaching, like true art, embellished and 
adorned his work ; and of the youths who crowded in 
hundreds to his anatomical fane, not a fractional part 
of their numbers found fault with his ministrations ; 
whilst the large majority seem to have been inspired 
by the constancy of purpose and love of science that 
possessed the Goodsir breast. 

The dissecting-table was Goodsir's place ; there he 
impersonated the diligent inquirer and true learner. 
After a full demonstration of a region, he kept turning 
over the parts of the anatomy as if the very handling 
of them would respond to his interrogations of nature. 
His head and hands always worked together. When 
his mind was absorbed in close investigation, nothing 
disturbed him — like Laennec at the bedside of a 
patient diagnosing the delicate bruit or rdle, despite 
the crowds of students and the noise of sabots along 
the brick floors of the hospital-wards. No one knew 
human myology better than Goodsir; yet in 1841 
he solicited the writer to get him an adult male for the 
purpose of making a complete dissection of the muscles, 
so as to study the functions and relations of these to 
surgery and comparative anatomy. As lately as the 



MYOLOGICAL STUDIES. 131 

autumn of 1858 lie dissected a fine muscular subject* 
and took casts of the different layers ; these casts are in 
the anatomical museum, and constitute a complete 
series. Thus he continued a student through life, 
even of forms considered of commonplace note in the 
economy ; to him, however, the muscles were viewed 
as capable of a higher interpretation than had hitherto 
been assigned them. In showing a strong bent in some 
directions, it implied no narrowed ground or belief ; 
special structures were but the starting-points to the 
occupancy of a larger field of investigation, and the 
attainment of a broader generalisation in his science. 
He loved his art for his art's sake, and longed to apply 
his science for the science and the truth's sake. 

Brought up to physic from his teens, and being 
early initiated in its practical departments, he all along 
desired to be engaged in the active pursuit of his pro- 
fession ; and as his own powers were enlarged and 
strengthened, John Hunter, the anatomist and surgeon, 
became more and more his ideal and historic example. 
In his letters, in his conversation, and not less in his 
anatomical teachings, there was a clear declaration in 
favour of practice as the aim and purport of medical 

* This subject, the body of an Edinburgh cartel- of intensely whisky habits, 
who, in a drunken state, fell from bis earl and died on the Bpot, remained free 
from decomposition during thirty days of a hot August! Qoodsir was much 
..tiiiek with the fact, considering the mode of death of the person. Had the 
whisky taken during Life proved an antiseptic post mortem, t The case is in- 
ter ting in connection with the detection of free alcohol in the brain of 
drunkards by Dr. John Pel I tion Thesis, Edinburgh 1838), now the 

distill-in ted Profe tor of Metallurgy al the School of Mines, Jermyn Street, 
London. 



132 HIS EFFORTS TO OBTAIN 

education. In the spring of 1843, addressing his bro- 
ther Harry, then pushing forward in science beyond 
most persons of his age, he admonishes him not to 
overlook practice ; for though one man only, as far as 
he knew (John Hunter), ever combined science and 
practice, it was to be done by self-command and early 
rising— the latter being a sine qua non to eminence 
in scientific medicine. He pointed to Dr. Abercrombie 
of Edinburgh — " a perfect clock, as rich as a Jew, and 
a great physician besides." During this year he talked 
of a house in the New Town for practice purely ; and 
in 1847, when he took up his residence in George 
Square, he did not hide his aspirations to become a 
consulting surgeon. He viewed practice in its broadest 
relations as a means of research, and of greater or more 
immediate usefulness as a co-operator with science, 
joining with it a complete circle of medical training 
which it behoved a teacher in high position like him- 
self to expound and inculcate. He believed that ana- 
tomy, physiology, and pathology could never be ad- 
vanced in a proper way without the daily consideration 
and treatment of disease. Referring to personal consi- 
derations in 1843, he thought that the Goodsir family 
of doctors, having been eighty years in the east of Fife, 
should be transplanted, and that his brothers Harry 
and Archie should settle down with himself in Edin- 
burgh, where they would form a " formidable trio." 

After these hopes of family centralisation had 
vanished, Goodsir was no less desirous for his favourite 
conjunction — the teaching of science illustrated by 



SURGICAL PRACTICE. 133 

practice. As few professors in the Scotch universities 
have private means apart from the emoluments of 
office to carry on scientific pursuits efficiently, Goodsir's 
adhesion to practice was of twofold aim. To uphold 
the chair of anatomy as he began and carried on its 
management from first to last was exceedingly heavy 
upon his purse, and as the wider range of scientific 
research could only be accomplished by an addition to 
his income, he wished to strengthen his hands by other 
professional means. Practice also, by withdrawing 
him from too rigid a pursuit of science, would have 
been a healthful and useful relaxation of the highest 
import. Above all other considerations, however, in 
his eyes was the command of wards in a surgical 
hospital to enable him to illustrate his professorial 
teaching, and to make it more largely efficient and 
beneficial to the interests of his class. With these 
established data in his mind he applied for the first 
vacancy of assistant- surgeon in the Koyal Infirmary of 
Edinburgh* in 1848, but unluckily did not obtain it. 
He was much disappointed, and so expressed himself 
to the managers of the institution, whom he believed 
to have acted on a foregone conclusion rather than on 
the merits of the applicants. An obstacle had been 
thrown in his way when, as he thought, there was 
room for all the Labourers in the field, if ;i true gene- 
rosity and foresightednesfi \'<>r ultimate good had pre- 
vailed in the decisions of the governing body. The 

He became a Felloe of the Royal College of Surgeons this year (1848), 
in m11 probability to provide himself with the needful qualification of hospital 

'M tO 111' Roj 'I I 1 1 ! 1 1 I: 



lol VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

Goodsir medical inheritance of eighty years, the John 
Hunter ideal, or that of Monro sccundus, his personal 
ambition to become a great surgeon, the good and ad- 
vancement of the medical school, and all the cherished 
hopes of a large and exultant promise, were scattered to 
the winds by this refusal of his services in an institution 
that he could not have failed to benefit. Sensitive to a 
degree, he keenly felt what appeared to him to have 
arisen from a narrow-minded opposition, and from 
that day eschewed all relations with the Edinburgh 
Infirmary. 

In 1848 Goodsir became a member of the Highland 
and Agricultural Society, and for many years acted as 
chairman of the veterinary department, and assisted at 
the annual examination of Professor Dick's pupils for 
the veterinary surgeon's diploma. He used to be 
frequently consulted on strictly agricultural matters ; 
thus the Marquis of Tweeddale (June 1855) wished 
his opinion on the feeding qualities of turnips that 
were known to contain 90 per cent of water in their 
composition. The Marquis had drawn off 25 per cent 
of the water, and found that cattle ate the turnips with 
the same relish. Goodsir, viewing the turnips as arti- 
ficial food — grass being the natural aliment of the ox — 
advised, as Flourens' experiments in feeding sheep 
with carrots reduced to a fine pulp indicated, the 
crushing of the turnip into a pulp, in the expectation 
that it would pass to the third or fourth stomach and 
save the chewing of the cud. The water he did not 
object to, as it might be necessary for the economy of 



" I LOVE THE HORSE. 135 

the animal. He had studied the horse as carefully as 
any veterinary surgeon, and rejoiced in a fine animal, 
such as the Arabian he got from the Duke of Hamilton 
and petted for years. Speaking of horses one day to 
Mr. Turner, he said — " I love the horse ; I love the 
horse/' — laying great stress on the word love, and then 
added without any pause — " I've dissected him twice." 
It was a new mode of showing love for a beast, and 
the remark on this head was a genuine Goodsirian 
declaration. In March 1849 he presented a cast of the 
dissection of a horse to the Eoyal Institution in Edin- 
burgh, and received the thanks of the directors for a 
work " executed with so much spirit, and capable of 
being of so much value anatomically to students." 
His last appearance, in 1866, as president of the 
annual examination of the candidates for the veterinary 
diploma was a terrible effort, and each night he returned 
home quite exhausted ; and this ended in one of his 
most severe attacks and a prostration of strength for 
weeks. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Zoological Studies — Lectures on Comparative Anatomy — Knox's 
Opinions — The ^Esthetic Club — Defence of Anatomy — Lectures 
for Jameson — 111 Health — Ou the Continent — Joints — Nerves. 

Zoology as a science seems to have found but few 
cultivators in Britain after the death of John Hunter, 
or they were non-demonstrative of their labours, seeing 
that, with the exception of Yarrell, Macgillivray, and 
others in special walks, the fourth decade had dawned 
before the general works of Professors Grant and 
Rymer Jones on comparative anatomy were published in 
England. France was rich in her Daubentons, Cuviers, 
and St. Hilaires ; and Germany ranked with France 
in the number of her monographs and periodicals 
devoted to natural history. England had been more 
disposed to look at anatomy as a means to an end — 
medical practice — than as a science in its broader 
philosophical relations. Goodsir may be said to have 
started with the fresh start, and grown up with the 
strong growth of comparative anatomy ; he appeared 
at a time when individual effort could readily assert 
its claims, and when there was a dearth of workers in 
a country rich in opportunities — rich in seas, rivers, 
and unquarried palaeontology. His early love for 
zoology never waned, but rather increased with ad- 



THE CETACEA AND ELECTRICAL FISHES. 137 

vancing years. In Fife, fishes and molluscs engaged 
a good deal of his attention ; in Edinburgh, his zoolo- 
gical studies were as widely divergent as the extremes 
of monads and monkeys. In the midst of this variety, 
however, the Knox indoctrination became visible in 
his investigations of the Cetacea, Salmonidce, and 
Clupeidce, of which there were abundant supplies in 
the Scottish seas and estuaries. At one time Goodsir 
talked of writing a monograph on the Cetacea, and 
this idea was entertained on the Continent, as the 
naturalists of northern Europe frequently interrogated 
him on the history and structure of these mammals. 
If the Cetacea, inter alia, engaged the earlier years of 
his professorship, electrical fishes came to be of greater 
import to him in his meridian. He spared neither 
money nor pains to obtain these rarer treasures, and 
as his pupils were scattered over the globe he obtained 
many specimens, though frequently at great expense. 

A knowledge of comparative anatomy was a great 
desideratum with Goodsir, who aspired to rank with 
Hunter of the past and Owen of the present day ; be- 
sides its practical application in furnishing variety and 
colouring to his systematic course of lectures. Having 
no sympathy with the artificial aids to memory, or 
what was styled popular teaching by diagrams, as 
often incorrect as misleading, when trusted to per sc, 
he sought the higher ground of comparative anatomy 
and physiology as adjuvantia t<> his prelections. 
Iluin.in osteology Btudied alongside thai of i!i<' highei 
mammalia, extant or fossilized, became of deep interest 



138 IN VERTEBKATA. 

to a class. Goodsir had large resources of his own, 
and these, strengthened by his acquaintance with the 
researches of Owen, Hugh Falconer, and others, were of 
infinite service to him in his practical teachings and 
illustrations. 

In the summer of 1847 Goodsir delivered a series 
of systematic lectures on the comparative anatomy of 
the Invertebrata, in which he expounded the leading 
facts and principles then known, and tested and com- 
pared them with what he himself had observed over a 
wide field of zoological inquiry. These lectures were 
carefully transcribed by Mr. C. H. Hallett, one of his 
assistants, and intended for publication, but in seeking 
for a high standard of excellence in the particular work 
in which he was then engaged, as in every department 
of science, and being pressed by more varied work, 
the manuscript never reached the printer's hands. It 
may not, perhaps, be considered out of place in this 
memoir to give a short summary of some of his views 
taken from the MS. copy now before the writer; it 
will serve to indicate the general tenor of his obser- 
vations. 

Sponges. — He described the animal matter of 
sponges as composed of innumerable amsebse, which 
being unable to support themselves require organs of 
support, or, in other words, a skeleton, which may be 
either bony, siliceous, or calcareous. 

Echinodermata. — His lectures on the Echino- 
dermata were of a very complete character, and illus- 
trated by numerous dissected specimens prepared 



ECHINODERM ATA. 139 

under his superintendence, and which now constitute 
part of the comparative anatomy collection of the 
University of Edinburgh. He was particularly suc- 
cessful in his injections of the water-vascular system 
of those animals, specimens of which he exhibited to 
the Wernerian Society in 1846, and was led therefrom 
to agree with those authorities who considered that the 
vascular and water- vascular systems were not distinct 
and independent, but parts of one great vascular 
system connected together into one system by 
communications. For he found that when an in- 
jection was forced into the water-vascular system of 
tubes, it did not confine itself to them, but passed into 
and distended the other systems also without any 
rupture of vessels. He believed that in the sea- 
urchins, the blood moved in various directions without 
any regular current, and that the direction was in- 
fluenced by circumstances. For these animals have 
several series of arnbulacral holes and protrusible feet, 
and his injections of the system of vessels provided for 
the protrusion of the feet, displayed fine vessels passing 
along each arnbulacral segment which did not pass 
directly into the inner part of the suckers, but first 
subdivided into a double scries of triangular lamina?, 
or vascular plates arranged on each side of the am- 
bulacra! holes. These vascular laminae contain a very 
rich network of vessels, from which the feet procure 
the fluid by which they were distended in the in- 
jections. 

He described, with great care, from observations 



140 HOLOTHURLE. 

made on the living animal, the respiratory movements 
in Holotliurice. Suppose the animal desires to take 
in a quantity of water, it first contracts the anterior 
end of its body, and then forces all the water it may 
contain into the posterior end, which now bulges out- 
wards. A fixed point for the action of the numerous 
small muscles which pass between the outer surface of 
the cloaca and inner surface of the fleshy envelope of 
the animal is thus provided ; these muscles then con- 
tract and distend the cloaca. The sphincter fibres sur- 
rounding the anus then relax, and the sea- water rushing 
through the opening completely fills the cloaca. Then 
the anus firmly closes, and at the same time the aper- 
ture of the intestinal canal is shut. The muscular wall 
of the cloaca then contracts, and presses the water into 
the respiratory tree through the aperture at each side 
of the terminal part of the intestinal canal. The ani- 
mal respires, when active, four or five times in a minute. 
He described also the existence in Holotliurice of a 
twisted calcareous tube close to the tube which con- 
veys away the secretion of the genital organs ; this he 
regarded as homologous with, the jointed tube which, 
in the star-fishes, connects the madreporiform tubercle 
with the water-ring. 

Distoma. — In his account of the anatomy of Dis- 
toma hepatica, he considered, contrary to the opinion 
generally held by anatomists, that it contained a cavity 
in its interior like the cavity of the Holotlmriadce, in 
which the viscera of distoma were situated. 

He gave a careful description of that curious para- 



BEAUTIFUL DISSECTIONS. 141 

site which infests the nervous system of the haddock 
and the cod, but as his views on the structure of this 
animal appear in vol. ii. p. 497, it is unnecessary 
to dwell upon them here. In his account of the 
Trichina spiralis, he states that from the winter of 
1843 to the date of his lecture in 1847, no subject 
infested by this parasite had been received into the 
anatomical rooms of the University, curiously con- 
trasting with the frequency noticed of late years in 
Germany. 

In his lectures on the annelids, insects, and Crus- 
tacea, he argued that the dorsal vessel of these animals 
is homologous not with the aortic trunk of the Verte- 
brata lying beneath the spine, but with the heart and 
primitive aorta. 

His lectures on the tunicated molluscs were illus- 
trated by many beautiful dissections, some of which 
had been exhibited to the Wernerian Society in January 
1841. As the tunic of Phallusia vulgaris possessed 
so many vessels, it was found, on injection, to assume a 
bright vermilion tint. He had succeeded in injecting 
both the vein and artery which enter the outer tunic 
of the animal, and had recognised a free and frequent 
anastomosis in its substance. Where this outer tunic 
was adherent to any object, it gave off, as it were, nu- 
n mi. >ux processes or prolongations, wliieli projected from 
the genera] surface, and in these the ramifications and 
anastomoses of the blood-vessels were most numerous. 
Bence this tunic was to be regarded as something more 

than a mere cuticle. 



142 GOODSIR GRATEFUL TO KNOX. 

From time to time Knox corresponded with Goodsir 
on scientific subjects; and in October 1845, being 
asked to translate M. De Blainville's work on the Ver- 
tebrata, solicited his old pupil to join him in issuing a 
quarterly fasciculus based on the text of the French 
professor, and incorporating the latest British discoveries 
in anatomical science. Nothing came of the proposal. 
In December 1852 Knox presented a copy of his 
Manual of Anatomy to Goodsir, who acknowledged 
the pleasure he had in reading it, and added — "I 
have been astonished to find how much of what I have 
been in the habit of conceiving as peculiar to my own 
course of lectures I had derived long ago from you. 
I assure you I have always been deeply grateful to you 
as my teacher, and I have always, in public as well as 
in private, expressed myself to this effect, and shall not 
less continue to do so henceforward. I have strongly 
recommended your book to my pupils." Knox consi- 
dered Goodsir to be his most distinguished pupil"" in 
anatomy, and naturally attached great value to his 
opinions on anatomical subjects. 

An .^Esthetic Club was established in Edinburgh in 
1851 ; its chief promoters were Professors Kelland and 
Goodsir, Messrs. D. E. Hay and James Ballantine, 
and it included Professors J. Y. Simpson, Laycock, 
and Piazzi Smyth, and also Dr. John Brown (Rab 

* Knox, in his application for the Chair of rhysiology in Edinhnrgh 
(1841), begged the attention of the patrons to the following list of distinguished 
pupils whom he had educated : — "R. Boyd, W. Fergusson, T. W. Jones, John 
and Harry Goodsir, Henry Lonsdale, John Reid, J. H. Balfour, James Dun- 
can, Douglas Maclagan, Patrick Newbigging, John H. Bennett, etc." 



THE ESTHETIC CLUB. 143 

and his Friends), E. S. Dallas (author of The Gay 
Science), Sheriff Gordon, and four or five artists of 
distinction. The number of the club was limited 
to twenty, and its members met at each other's 
houses once a-month to discuss their subjects and to 
enjoy an aesthetic symposium with Scotch tipple. 
Goodsir read two papers " On the Natural Principles 
of Beauty," based on D. E. Hay's work — " Geometric 
Beauty of the Human Figure."* These essays must 
have been pleasantly viewed by the author, judging 
from the fact that they were printed wholly or in part ; 
but, for reasons best known to himself, he would not, 
though earnestly solicited by the club, consent to their 
publication. It is to be regretted that he destroyed 
these papers, which had cost him so much thought and 
no less labour to develop by both pen and pencil. 
Among other contributions was one " On Actual and 
Kelative Beauty," which Mr. Hay read in his absence at 
Mr. Ballantine's house ; this was also in a complete 
form, and considered a worthy effort. He read several 
other papers — e. g. " The ^Esthetics of Smell," and an 
" Inquiry into the General Principle which regulates 
the Approbation or Disapprobation of Sounds ;" occa- 
sionally his work occupied two nights' discussion, so 
that he appears to have been one of the most pro- 
miiit hi members of the club. 

* I>. II. Bay owed a greal deal to (; I ir. Devoid of anatomical know- 
edge, Hay could ii"t have carried on1 the principles of his theory to a legiti- 
mate issue withonl the aid of an anatomist, and one imbued with large aesthetic 
vision. I ; ""'l ir fulfilled thi se indications, and uol only helped the purport as 
well, bul furnished the anatomical details for Mr. Hay's remarkable book. 



144 ^ESTHETICS OF THE UGLY. 

His essay " On the Esthetics of tlie Ugly " — the 
most remarkable of all his contributions — was read in 
the spring of 1853, and occupied two evenings. In 
treating of the ugly, his aesthetic survey embraced 
various types and forms in nature, also the senses of 
smell, vision, and taste, as well as the physical ugli- 
ness to be met with in man and brute. This striking 
title — ^Esthetics of the Ugly — curiously enough had 
been adopted the same year by Carl Eosenfranz in 
his work — Aestlietik Des Hasslichen— published at 
Konigsberg in 1853. In many respects the views of 
the Scot and German agreed, the work of the latter 
being an amplification, or rather a treatise on the 
subject, whilst the former had only glanced at the 
general theory. Goodsir, like all men of true aesthetic 
feeling, would readily mark any deviation from his 
aesthetic standard, such as the inconsonant sounds, the 
anormal lines, and every questionable antagonism to a 
thing of beauty being a j oy for ever. All living things he 
held to be more or less beautiful if looked upon in a pro- 
per light. Thus the " ugly and venomous toad," as the 
poet called it in respect to the popular dread, was in 
his eyes, as in those of all men of cultivated taste, the 
most beautiful of creatures, not as observed on the 
table of the anatomist or in confined artificial areas, 
but seen in its natural habitat on the grassy margin of 
a pond, in close proximity to the grey lichened stones, 
or under the umbrageous greenwood tree ; there the 
animal could be viewed in its true aesthetic relations, 
and specifically marked in high relief, with eyes 



ANATOMY AND SCEPTICISM. 145 

resplendent — nay, more brilliant than diamond surface 
or stones of ruby. 

The death of D. R Hay and the retirement of 
Goodsir materially affected the interests of the ^Esthetic 
Club ; it no longer exists. It may be mentioned here 
that Mr. Hay, wishing to show his high appreciation 
of Professor Goodsir's aid and counsel in many direc- 
tions, presented him with Dyce's Cartoon of the 
Judgment of Solomon. Looking upon the cartoon as 
calculated to foster a love of art among students, 
Professor Goodsir, soon after Mr. Hay's death, offered 
it for the acceptance of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
who evidently prized the gift, and gave it a place on 
the walls of the Eoyal Institution, Edinburgh. 

Late in the autumn of 1852 some of the leading 
minds in Edinburgh established an association for the 
removal of " Professional Tests in the Lay Chairs of 
Scottish Universities." The religious community took 
alarm at this charitable proposal, and one of its bigoted 
members wrote a furious letter to The Edinburgh 
Evening Post and Scottish Record, concluding his argu- 
ment for the conl i nuance of the most rigid tests by 
stating thai "no infidel could desire a better channel 
for the insinuation of scepticism than the class-room of 
moral philosophy, or the lecture-room of anatomy." 
This was a strong dose of ruffianism for any man to 
bear, and musl have been very galling to the profes or 
of anatomy t who bad proved a severe religious ortho- 
doxy \'"V >i\ years in bis chair, and all bis life stuck to 
the backbone. of Calvinism, lie took up bis pen in 

VOL. 1. I. 



146 galen's hymn. 

defence of anatomy as a science that had afforded the 
most numerous and the most satisfactory arguments in 
natural theology; "that knowledge or rudiment of 
knowledge, concerning God, which may be obtained 
by contemplation of his creatures." The anatomist, 
" lingering amid the harmonies of law and symmetry, 
constancy and development," as Goodsir said, "takes 
his part freely in the religious hymn in honour of the 
Creator, to which Galen so gladly lent his voice, and in 
which the best physiologists of succeeding times have 
ever joined." That among anatomists there would be 
differences of opinion he admitted freely, "but that 
anatomists, from any peculiarity of their science, 
should be less susceptive of religious conviction, and 
more opposed than their scientific brethren to the 
Christian faith," appeared to Goodsir " an unfounded 
and most hurtful prejudice." 

Owing to the failing health of his colleague, Pro- 
fessor Jameson, Goodsir was induced to deliver the 
course of lectures on natural history during the sum- 
mer session of 1853. This course, which was mainly 
zoological, was prefaced by a series of lectures on what 
he termed " General Zoology," the comprehensive na- 
ture of which may be gathered from the following 
titles : — 

1. On the psychological condition of the Brute as 
contrasted with that of Man. 

2. On the condition of Human Thought ; or Per- 
ception, Conception, Language, Logic, and Science. 



A WELLINGTONIAN SPIRIT. 147 

3. On the condition of Animal and Human Life. 

4. On the characters of Organised and Inorganised 
Bodies, and on the general arrangements, structures, 
and uses of the Textures and Organs. 

5. On the Principles of Classification and Geogra- 
phical Distribution. 

Wearied with the heavy labours of a long winter's 
session that had just terminated, and having his usual 
summer course on anatomy to look to daily, there was 
no professor in the' University so unfortunately circum- 
stanced as to time, labour, aud health ; yet he made 
no demur to his colleague's wish, and offered no claim 
of exemption from so large a responsibility as the con- 
ducting of the natural history chair for three months. 
Though his own health was manifestly impaired, he 
could not bear to see Jameson's class in abeyance ; 
moreover, he looked with a Wellingtonian spirit to the 
" carrying on " of the medical department of the Edin- 
burgh University in all its entirety. He would not 
read Jameson's lectures, or be content to illustrate his 
notes to the class, as everybody but himself would nave 
done, acting as a locum tenens, but struck out a path 
of his own altogether independent and five. 

The course was strictly Goodsir's. The lectures 
were original in character and in force, and the fcreal 
ment <>f the whole subject strikingly aovel. They 
excited large attention in the University, .-it thai time 
rich in clumbers of good students, many of whom raised 
themselves t<» eminence both al home and abroad. 



148 LECTURES GREATLY PRAISED. 

The men of this period were lavish in their admiration 
of the anatomical professor, whose lectures not only 
created an exaltation of feeling that pervaded the whole 
school, but are still spoken of among the memorabilia 
of the University in the last decade. All his energies 
were brought into play to render this course of lectures 
worthy of himself and the high position he occupied. 
Every alumnus could see in the shaky limbs and pallid 
visage the overtaxed man of labour struggling with 
giant efforts to carry on a special class, and to conduct 
it in a special way ; for Goodsir's zoological views were 
presented to the observer as so many facets — new, well- 
defined, and prismatic. 

On referring to the titles of these lectures, it will 
be seen that he had taken a wide and comprehensive 
ground for illustration. It was not anatomy, not zoo- 
logy per se, or as embracing principles of classification, 
but the psychological conditions of man as compared 
with the brute, and the highest exercise of the human 
faculties — perception, logic, and science. Here he was 
touching the heels of the metaphysician — only, how- 
ever, as collateral to the strictly physiological and 
psychological. The Scotch pupils, cautioned by their 
kirk against the scepticism of science in general, and of 
anatomical teachers in particular, were struck with the 
pious exhortations of the professor as much as the whole 
class was delighted with the zoological course, illustrat- 
ing his fine acumen, individuality, and broad general- 
isations. These lectures cost him an infinite amount of 
thought and labour, and at the end of the course he 



SICKNESS AND SUFFERING. 149 

was shrunk in features, worn in body, shattered in 
nerves, and almost a helpless invalid. Professor 
Edward Forbes, on his deathbed, said the Bailies of 
of Edinburgh, in forcing him to lecture immediately 
on his appointment to Jameson's Chair, had killed the 
goose that laid the golden eggs ; and under circum- 
stances almost as pressing and destructive of health, 
Goodsir, occupying the same chair pro tempore, was 
sacrificed beyond the power of restoration. 

At no time was Goodsir so strong in health as he 
appeared ; he suffered from cynanche tonsillaris, dys- 
pepsia, boils, and impaired strength caused by incessant 
labour and neglect of the most common hygiene. On 
one of his summer visits to the writer in 1850, and after 
spending a day in examining the estuary of the Solway, 
he felt numbness and coldness of the extremities and 
general depression. This seems to have been the ear 
liest manifestation of his disease. As years rolled on, 
the movements of his lower limbs were visibly affected ; 
there was occasional stumbling, difficulty of going clown 
stairs, and want of power in balancing himself, especially 
in the dark, when his eyes had nothing to rest upon. 
Now and then he suffered from neuralgia. These phy- 
sical ailments were increased by any mental disturbance, 
and troubles of all kinds induced great irritability of 
manner and feeling. He persisted in work, and spurned 
every friendly ;i«K ic- lill L853, when li«' himself came 
to recognise the need of resl and a sojourn on the Con 
tin. 'Hi. In Aii'ju-t of thai 5 'in- be wenl to Wildbad 
in the Black Forest, and pined himself under the care 



150 HARRY GOODSIR MOURNED FOR. 

of Dr. Fallati. In September a consultation was held 
on his case by Dr. Fallati, Dr. Spiess of Frankfort-on- 
the-Maine, and Professor Baum of Gottingen, and 
Goodsir was recommended to spend the winter at Nice; 
there he remained till May 1854 under the care of 
Dr. Travis. He again returned to Wildbad, to the 
use of the baths, and an occasional cupping over the 
loins. His case was viewed by his Continental friends 
as an incipient paralysis of the inferior extremities, ori- 
ginating in overwork of body and mind, and demanding 
absolute rest In the autumn Goodsir returned home 
in better spirits. 

During his year's absence it was arranged that Dr. 
John Struthers, then the extra-mural lecturer on 
anatomy, now professor of that subject in Aberdeen, 
should have the management of the class, which he 
conducted so well as to claim from Mr. Goodsir on his 
return the expression of his high satisfaction. 

Of those who hoped, and hoped so long in vain, for 
the return of the Franklin expedition that left the 
shores of England in the summer of 1845, none were 
so sanguine as Lady Franklin, the noble-minded and 
affectionate wife of the master mind of the exploring 
party, and Professor John Goodsir. It was 1854 before 
Goodsir could realise the untimely fate of a long-looked- 
for brother, whose life, if spared, would have been so 
precious to science. Dr. Martin Barry, with true con- 
sideration, wrote (October 25, 1854), from Beccles in 
Suffolk, the following letter : — " I beg to offer my 
friend Professor Goodsir a line of deep condolence. 



GEOMETRY APPLIED TO ANATOMY. 151 

For however preferable decisive intelligence may be to 
never-ending suspense, I well know that the relief must 
be dearly bought when obtained by means that unmis- 
takably connect long-continued sufferings with the 
last days of a brother ! M. Barry." 

If Goodsir s fondness for mechanics was a leading 
feature in his youth, and aided him in the practice of 
surgery, his general knowledge of physics served him 
a good purpose in elucidating the operations and 
functions of the structures which enter into the forma- 
tion of joints. Next in import to his labours in the 
field of cellular physiology and pathology, and of 
morphology, was his study of geometry applied to 
anatomy or natural organisms. His papers on the 
mechanism of the joints, one of which was read to the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, got him great eclat, as 
tiny were viewed as highly successful efforts, even ad- 
mitting their basis as resting on the antecedent labours 
of the Webers and Meyer. Goodsir maintained that 
the articular surface at the end of a bone, although a 
continuous surface, is yet subdivided into distinct areas 
and facets, and that each facet performs its proper 
part in the movements of the joint; thus, in the 
movement of extension, corresponding facets on oppo- 
site articular surfaces arc in apposition, whilst in the 
movement of flexion these surfaces may be widely 
separate, and other facets are brought into play or 
contacl with each other. No better notion of this 
could be given than in his description of the patella. 
Be al o pointed «iut th.ii the. folds of the synovial 



152 THE KNEE-JOINT. 

membrane enclosing fat, so frequently met with in the 
joints, act " as movable stuffing pads which not only 
smear the synovia over the opposite cartilaginous 
surface, but steady the movements of the joints by 
passing into the spaces left between the surfaces during 
action." Another notion of Goodsir's was that the 
movements of the joints were of a spiral character. 
In the knee-joint, to which he devoted much attention, 
he regarded the combined gliding and rolling move- 
ments of flexion and extension, as performed between 
two conical double-threaded screw-combinations, an 
anterior and a posterior — the anterior being a left- 
handed screw, and the posterior a right-handed screw 
in the right knee-joint ; the anterior a right-handed and 
the posterior a left-handed screw in the left knee-joint. 
He acknowledged his obligations to Meyer's labours, 
and gave a larger interpretation to the anatomy and 
mechanism of the joints than the German had done, 
and showed that the history of these important struc- 
tures still afforded abundant room for inquiry. 

The numerous interesting observations made by H. 
Muller, Corti, Kolliker, Rudolf, Wagner, and others, a 
good many years ago, on the termination of the nerves 
both peripherally and centrally,""' the discovery of the 

* The writer may be pardoned for alluding to his own observations in the 
same direction, and his discovery of the loopdike termination of the nerve- 
fibres, medullary and cerebral. Vide Edinburgh Medical and Surgical 
Journal, vol. 60 p. 324, October 1843 (Dr. Lonsdale's " History of a Case of 
Monstrosity "), where will be found a general reference to the labours of the 
French and German anatomists who had investigated the minute anatomy of 
the nerve-structures. 



NERVE FILAMENTS. 153 

peculiar bodies in the retina and cochlea, and the 
relations of the nerve-fibres to the nerve-cells, early 
attracted his attention. He repeated these investiga- 
tions, and held that nerve filaments are provided both 
centripetally and peripherally with current exciting 
structures, by means of which alone their functional 
currents can be initiated. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Morphology — Goethe and Others — Good sir's Views and Influences — 
The Anatomical Museum — Social Eeforms — Death of Forbes — 
Holidays — Philosophical Apparatus. 

Jean Jacques Rousseau, so exuberant in sentiment- 
ality, had also a vein of true philosophy in his 
composition. His diligence in the field made him a 
botanical discoverer ; and this, conjoined with his 
closet studies, afforded him " a glimpse of those trans- 
formations which hide under multiple forms the more 
simple forms from which they are derived." If Lava- 
ter and Zimmerman enticed Goethe from poesy to 
nature, the writings of " Jean Jacques" gave him the 
text to a new philosophy — vegetable morphology. 
Under Loder of Jena Goethe took to the study of ana- 
tomy ; and the picking up a sheep's cranium led him 
to infer the existence of an intermaxillary bone in the 
human skull — an idea probably present to the mind 
of Caspar Friedrich Wolff, if not Vesalius and Winslow 
■ — of great import in the study of the vertebrate 
head. Guided by his belief in the unity of organic 
composition, or the existence of an anatomical type 
according to which organised beings may be said to be 
constructed, Goethe laid the foundation of animal 
morphology as far back as 1791, but did not then 



THE MOUPHOLOGISTS. 155 

publish his opinions. In his general introduction 
to Comparative Anatomy founded on Osteology, 
he proposed " to establish an anatomical type, 
a sort of universal image, representing, as far as 
possible, the bones of all animals, to serve as a circle 
for describing them according to an order previously 
established;" and he carried out his views by a 
laborious comparison of each piece in the series of 
adult animals. Somewhat similar ideas originated 
independently in the mind of Oken, who published his 
views in his celebrated "Programm" in 1807. Boja- 
nus, Spix, and Cams, then followed in the same direc- 
tion ; and this branch of general osteology has been 
successfully pursued by Meckel, Cuvier, Geoffroy St. 
Hilaire, Owen, and Huxley. The morphological aspect 
which Goodsir viewed as the complement of the 
chemico-physical in the pursuit of anatomical science, 
has been indirectly advanced by Pander, Von Baer, 
Pathkc, Johannes Miiller, Wagner, Reichert, and Bis- 
choff, who, by the investigation of the development of 
the embryo in man and animals, have evolved a series of 
morphological laws, which constitute the basis of the 
morphological department or aspect of organic science. 
The anatomical methods adopted by G. St. Hilaire in 
France appeared to Goodsir as fantastic and fruitless 
as those of Oken; but, in the feud between St. 
Hilaire and Cuvier respecting their methods of 
anatomical research, the co-ordinate importance of the 
doctrine of final ••auscs and tin- duclrine of type was 
established. By the combinations of the teleological 



156 sir d. brewster's obligations. 

and sound morphological methods the present French 
school of zoology and comparative anatomy has 
attained that high reputation which it owes to the 
labours of Audouin, Milne Edwards, and their 
pupils. 

When Sir David Brewster was preparing a review 
of the " Scientific Biography of Goethe," for the North 
British Review, February 1864, he applied to Professor 
Goodsir for his opinion of the German, and for an esti- 
mate of the value set by Modern Anatomists on Goethe's 
speculations on Comparative Anatomy and Osteology. 
Goodsir, always ready to aid his friends, went carefully 
over Goethe's work, and compared it with that done 
by his own countrymen as well as his French contem- 
poraries, and thus was enabled to furnish Sir David 
with a resume of Goethe's history, quoad Science and 
Morphology. Goodsir 's estimate of Goethe is ingeni- 
ously woven into Sir David's review, but the source 
from which Sir David derived his morphological ideas 
was not acknowledged in the course of the article. 

Goodsir, whose early love for morphology has been 
noticed in preceding chapters, kept his eyes open to 
every new datum furnished to the science ; and all along 
seems to have had a desire to emulate Bichard Owen, 
whom he esteemed more highly than any other British 
authority as a teleologist and comparative anatomist. 

On referring to his essay " On the Morphological 
Relations of the Nervous System " (vol. ii. art. v.), it will 
be seen that Goodsir viewed the inquiry as demand- 
ing " constant reference to the series of embryo as well 



A NEW NOMENCLATURE. 157 

as of adult forms ;" that " the morphology of any one 
organic system in the annulose or vertebrate animal 
cannot be safely or satisfactorily investigated without 
constant reference to the others," on the ground " that 
all the organic systems are dependent on one another 
in the constitution of the organism." He further 
showed . that in morphological inquiries into the 
skeleton, the relations which the vascular and nervous 
systems bore to the osseous had to be considered, and 
that those relations aided the inquirer materially in 
arriving at a proper conception of the morphology of 
the part. It was in the application of the above 
principles that he was led to infer that the upper limb 
was not an appendage of the head, but that its posi- 
tion was to be regarded as an appendage of the lower 
part of the neck, as it receives its nervous supply from 
that part of the spinal cord; and further, that the 
linib is not necessarily an appendage of a single seg- 
ment of the body. 

He was in favour of a " more extended and precise 
system of nomenclature for this department of the 
science," he offered a new terminology, and gave sub- 
stantial reasons for its adoption. It may be said of his 
" sclerotome " that it is more comprehensive than the 
term " skeleton," and may be more conveniently applied, 
as it embraces a greater number of objects limn the 
word skeleton, Professor Owen, with his characteristic 
good humour, dialled (ioodsiron his " syssomatomes" 
being a trespass on the domain of the Burgeon, who 
made use of the terminal syllable tome for some of his 



158 THE VERTEBRATE HEAD. 

instruments — e.g. Mthotome ; otherwise Owen thought, 
as others have done, speaking with authority, Goodsir's 
nomenclature unobjectionable. 

His essay (vol. ii. art. vi.) " On the Morphological 
Constitution of the Skeleton of the Vertebrate Head " 
was read at the Cheltenham meeting of the British 
Association in 1856, and occupied three hours in 
delivery. It cannot be epitomised with advantage. 
Historical in its survey, highly elaborate in construction 
and detail, and exemplifying a fair criticism of the 
labours of his predecessors, it is characteristic of the 
man of great diligence, not without a German indoc- 
trination. Whatever views may finally come to pre- 
vail on this subject of inquiry, and be Goodsir's 
hypothesis what it may, no anatomist of the future 
can possibly overlook the workings of a mind of such 
aptitude as the Edinburgh professor's for morphological 
investigation. Here and there, in discussing the 
alliances of morphology to the study of general 
organisms, Goodsir expresses his opinions with firm- 
ness ; thus he denied on philosophical grounds that 
morphology and teleology are distinct in the sense 
that the latter principle provides for what the former 
is insufficient ; he viewed them as " merely opposite, 
because, in the present phase of science, necessary 
anthropomorphic aspects of the same divine principle 
evinced in the laws of organisation." He could not 
<nve his assent to the haemal arch of Professor Owen's 
osteological doctrine, and throughout this essay there 
is evidence of his differing in opinion from his London 



PERFECTION FAR DISTANT. 159 

contemporary, always manifested, however, in a spirit 
worthy of the honourable feeling that should govern 
men in scientific rivalry aiming at truth. 

If the morphologists differ as to type and organic 
homologues, and occasionally land themselves in the 
regions of pure transcendentalism, it should not be 
overlooked that in the history of all science there are 
vicissitudes in its progress as fickle as the meteorolo- 
gical changes of an English atmosphere : that pluviose 
and electrical clouds precede the clearer sky, and that 
the pleasurable Phoebus of discovery comes post niibila 
of doubts, difficulties, and disappointments. The 
deep truths of morphology can only be reached by 
repeated and successive tentative efforts, each of which 
may possibly leave its residuum of error to be explained 
in the course of time. Faults of judgment or the 
errors of conception, so likely to arise in the study of 
a science so complex and extended as the laws of life 
and organisation, had better come forth with a modi- 
cum of truth, than that observers should be too rigid 
in waiting for the perfection of human thought, or the 
establishment of a Newtonian Principia in physiology. 
Professor Owen, in writing Goodsir in 1S61, on this 
very subject of morphology that had engrossed both 
their minds, admitted with philosophic candour that 
his mistakes might constitute a good share, but he 
always felt that science would get on quicker if 
men would set forth their proceeds without being 
over careful of the personal effects of slight errors In 
observation. 



1G0 VARIETY OF OPINIONS. 

Everybody admits the segmentation of the skull, 
but few agree as to the number of its segments or 
"cranial vertebras;" whilst men of authoritative stamp, 
like Huxley, do not admit these segments to be verte- 
bral in character. Goethe adopted six cranial vertebras, 
Oken in 1807 only three, Bojanus in 1818 increased 
the number to four, G. St. Hilaire in 1824 admitted 
seven, while Cams in 1827 adopted Goethe's six. The 
prevailing opinion is said to be in favour of three 
vertebras — the occipital, and the posterior and anterior 
sphenoidal, as forming the cranial part of the skull ; 
Owen believes in a fourth — namely the nasal. Good- 
sir recognised seven sclerotomes or segments in the 
mammalian and crocodilian head ; but only six in the 
other vertebrata. General concurrence in Gooclsrr's 
views need not be looked for, though it may probably 
be conceded that the theories he has advanced pos- 
sess a suggestiveness of their own, and that in his 
endeavours to expound them he has called in the 
teachings of embryology, and sought through that 
channel to implant them on a scientific basis. It is 
something to be able to say that his work has not been 
without its influence on his own generation, both of 
the London and Edinburgh Schools, and that it cannot 
fail to receive attention in all the morphological specu- 
lations of the future. 

Professor Cleland of Galway, one of Goodsir's most 
distinguished pupils, in his paper, " On the Relations 
of the Vomer, Ethmoid, and Intermaxillary Boues" 
(Transactions of Royal Society, London, 1861), says— 



GOODSIR HIGHLY SPOKEN OF. 161 

" To Goodsir I owe entirely my morphological training, 
nor am I less sensible of the advantages which I have 
enjoyed in being frequently indoctrinated by him in 
those great principles of morphology which he illus- 
trated in his communication to the British Associa- 
tion in 1856." The Galway professor speaks of his 
Edinburgh teacher's " explicit morphological nomen- 
clature" — e.g. "somatome," "sclerotome;" and further 
adds, "The only theory of the segmentation of the 
skull, as far as I know, in which the teachings of 
embryology have been taken into account, and been 
sought to be explained, is that of Professor Goodsir." 
In one of his interesting lectures published in the 
Lancet (September 5, 1863), Professor Huxley says of 
Goodsir — " In this country there has been another 
exception to the mere blind developments of the votaries 
of Oken ; I allude to Professor Goodsir of Edinburgh, 
and the able young men who have risen from his 
training. He is the only man, so far as I know, either 
on the Continent or here, who has understood the value 
of that which took place between 1837 and 1840, or 
thereabouts, in Germany, and has endeavoured to 
correct the error of the mere Okenist line of specula- 
tion by the severe criteria of embryology." 

Dr. Hugh Falconer (16th February 1857) wrote 
from Loih1i.ii to Goodsir: — "I have been reading your 
papers ou morphology, as given in the Edinburgh 
Philosophical Journal, with greal interest, and have 
beeD much impressed with the force, logical precision, 
and closeness of the argumenl cardinal virtues which 

Vol.. I. \I 



162 GOODSm's ASSISTANTS. 

are not very shining in like cases in this part of Her 
Majesty's dominions." In October 1853 J. Victor 
Carus of Leipsic addressed Goodsir :• — -" I beg you to 
accept of my System of Animal Morphology as a 
token of my great esteem, which I long very much to 
express to you personally. As a great part of the 
anatomical facts on which it is found is collected 
either in England, or at least from English specimens, 
it is but a matter of gratitude that I lay the results 
now before you who contributed so kindly to enlarge 
my small collection." 

Next to his love of teaching was the formation of 
a museum that should be second to none in Britain. 
When appointed curator of the anatomical collection 
of the University, his first effort was to separate the 
strictly teaching department from the general series ; 
and in two years he had made such progress that he was 
able (in October 1845) to report — "The entire collec- 
tion embodies the science as far as it extends, so that 
an individual studying the collection from the first to 
the last series may acquire a knowledge of the science 
from the structures themselves, instead of from books." 
Harry Goodsir, before leaving for the Arctic Eegions, 
had presented the University with such specimens 
from his collection, in spirits, as were required for the 
series of Invcrtebrata, but the greatest number in the 
curator's hands at that time were the joint collection of 
himself and Edward Forbes. In addition to John 
Arthur"" as an assistant, he had Mr. Melville (now 

* John Arthur, the janitor of the ^Professor's, was a living presence in 
the Anatomical Rooms of the University. In early manhood he was a 



THEIR WORTHY SERVICES. 163 

professor of natural history at Gal way), "to whose 
remarkable combined knowledge of zoology, compara- 
tive, human, and morbid anatomy, and powers of minute 
dissection/' Goodsir wrote, " I am indebted for a 
majority of the finest dissections in the series." He 
concluded this report by saying that if the work was 
continued with the same energy as it had been during 
his two years of conservatorship, "the physiological 
series of the University Museum would be on a level 
with the Hunterian Galleries, which contain undoubt- 
edly the most complete series of illustrations of organic 
structures in Europe." But the limited funds at the 
disposal of the authorities have prevented the fulfil- 
ment of these expectations. 

patient of Liston's, and his observations of the work done in the Surgi- 
cal Hospital impressed him with a love of anatomy. Engaged by Monro 
tii-tin* as a class-porter about 1S30, his usefulness in the rooms, and his per- 
suasive method with the students, along with a proved ability of knowing how 
to do things, and how to get them done, gave him great influence, so that 
from 1336 to 184G he was as much a notability as his master Monro, lie was 
continued in office by Goodsir, with whom he remained till his death in 1SG0. 
With an intelligence and shrewdness that amounted to keen diplomacy, and 
great skill in anatomical work, he also possessed some of the strong lines of 
character that marked Goodsir, for whom he had an intense admiration. 
John's long and obliging Bervices give him authority in the anatomical depart- 
ment, so that in the Professor's absence he appeared to the student, as he 
If wished, and occasionally claimed to be, the alter ego of Goodsir. As 
a memento of " Burke the resurrectionist," who was hanged for wholesale 
murders in Edinburgh, John carried a tobacco-pouch made of the tanned skin 
of the villain, to show the ,1,. onnection with Hie Anatomical Etc 

In after years he could exhibit the gold watch pic ented to him by his admir- 
ing friends. < ; Lsir, requii h year, fit Arthur's death 

i'li in I860. Mr. Stirling, who had been engaged by Goodsir in l 355, 

• nit in the conservatorship of the Museum, soon got into the Pro- 

.. way, and was very highly estei med by him ; he is now engaged with 

or Turner, and has shown his great skill in the preparations of nervous 

structures, as well B rtmentS of anatomical work. 



1G4 THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUM. 

The museum had long wanted supervision and 
improvement, as well as extension ; and Goodsir had 
literally to create new departments in the collection. 
As showing the enthusiasm which guided him, he and 
two or three assistants were engaged in the museum 
two hours before breakfast when light permitted, then 
from 10 a.m. till 4 p.m., and again in the evenings for 
an hour or more. He also had the labours of his 
teaching and superintendence of the Practical Rooms 
during the session. With heart and soul in the work, 
he effected a complete regeneration of the museum. 
With the exception of the specimens furnished by 
the first and second Monros, the comparative anatomy 
collection is very much Goodsir's creation, being devel- 
oped under his directing hand. His thorough training 
in all descriptions of anatomical work made him the 
most suitable person in Scotland for the new under- 
taking ; and now the museum offers as fine specimens 
as any collection in Europe — not so extensive and 
varied as some, but, in its own special walk, almost 
unequalled. There is an entire series of the anatomy 
of the Echinodermata, and of the finest kind. The 
same may be said of the ascidian molluscs and 
whalebone class of preparations. The interest he 
took in the study of the electrical organs of fishes of 
different species will account for the numerous dissec- 
tions of the torpedo, etc., and the excellent mode in 
which the batteries and minute nervous threads of 
other animals of the class are shown. The cuttle-fish 
was a favourite study of Goodsir's, and is demon- 



A THOUSAND SPECIMENS. 1G5 

strated in every part of its anatomy. His numerous 
preparations, injected or otherwise, of the alimentary 
canal, showing the various modifications in the struc- 
ture of the digestive organs generally in the mammalia, 
are beautifully displayed. In exhibiting the nervous 
system of the Aplysia, and in his minute injections of 
the lungs of reptiles and the gills of fishes, he was 
highly successful. Upwards of a thousand specimens 
of comparative anatomy are strong evidence of the 
reality of his work. 

In 1851 Goodsir meditated publishing a pamphlet 
headed : — " Proposals for the Establishment of Medical 
Fellowships, to be held by Graduates in Medicine, to 
act as Medical Tutors in the University of Edinburgh." 
And in 1852 he framed the principles of an "Ec- 
clesiastical, Theological, and Social Reform." His 
programme occupied several heads ; the first was 
" Presbytery unfavourable to learning." He was not 
satisfied with the Scottish Universities, either in their 
preliminary training or the more finished instruction 
offered their alumni. He sought for a more genuine 
scholarship and higher mental discipline, in which the 
tutorial system should play a prominent part. Fel- 
lowships he thought should be established as rewards 
or endowments for winners in the race of every branch 
of learning. Though eager for his own science — 
medicine, and the interests of tin.- university he had ;i 
strongwish forreform in the ecclesiastical government 
of Scotland, and seems to bave been imbued with the 
spirit <it" bis grandfather in all mutters theological. 



1(J6 THEOLOGICAL THOUGHTS. 

He suggested a higher scholarship in the church, and 
a broader and more enlightened spirit of theological 
inquiry, resting upon the Bible rather than dogmatic 
standards. 

It is curious to see how much education and theology 
engrossed his thoughts, along with science, from 1851 
to 1853. Among his MSS. is the following, evidently 
meant for a title-page : — " The Education of the People, 
Training of the Clergy, and Eevision of Public Wor- 
ship ; Three Subjects for Immediate Consideration by 
the Church of Scotland : A Letter to the Very Keve- 
rend the Moderator of the General Assembly, from a 
Non-official Member of the Kirk." He complained of 
the system of public worship, that the Scriptures were 
not read or expounded, that there was too much 
preaching, and that the prayers were too doctrinal. 

In 1853 Goodsir revised the English translation as 
it passed through the press of a work by Dr. Hannover 
of Copenhagen — On the Construction and Use of the 
Microscope. 

The death of his loving associate Edward Forbes, 
in November 1854, was a sore trial to Goodsir and 
many other friends ; the loss of so noble a spirit was 
also a sad blow to the Edinburgh University. Con- 
sidering the bonds of friendship, the joint labours of 
their earlier years, and other circumstances in their 
history, the public generally looked to Goodsir for a 
biography of his departed friend, for he was the best 
fitted to do justice to his memory. It is not necessary 
to allude to the circumstances which brought Dr. 



THE DEATH OF FORBES. 167 

George Wilson into the field as the biographer ; but it 
is incumbent to state that Goodsir meant to write the 
life of Forbes, and that Mr. David Forbes, F.P.S., ap- 
proved of his doing so. Goodsir was by no means 
pleased with Dr. Wilson s part in the matter, inde- 
pendent of the greater objection in his mind to a 
chemist ex-professo being the biographer of a naturalist ; 
and the recollection of Professor John Eeid's life, 
treated from a theological quite as much as from a 
physiological point of view by Wilson, did not improve 
his feelings quoad the life of Forbes. 

His holidays — however paradoxical or absurd it 
may appear to apply such a term to hard labour — were 
spent in working from 10 a.m. till 5 p.m. in the 
University Museum. In 1860 — during the vacation 
from August till November — he laboured incessantly, 
and used to say to his assistant he was never so happy 
as when in the museum, and mentioned his special 
pleasure in working with Professor Hyrtl at Vienna, 
where there was no interference with his time or his 
thoughts. A holiday time was quite an incongruity 
with a man, like Goodsir, of large solicitude for the 
progress of his science — a science linked, as he viewed 
it, with the interests of his species as well as the 
groundwork of his own aspirations. To his vision know- 
Ledge was never "enough and to spare," but Beauty, if 
i mi iiitiiiitisim.il, compared with the wants of humanity 
and the aims of philosophy. Thus, in the autumn 
of L853, \\ Ij«-i i suffering from marked physical in- 
firmities, and the more depressed feeling of banishment 



168 HOLIDAYS IN NAME ONLY. 

from his chair, his museum, aud his home, he could 
not refrain from study and intellectual work. Most 
men in his situation would have fallen into a dolcefar 
niente life and repose ; but with Goodsir to be idle 
was to be miserable ; to stay the progress of the 
machine, were it only to oil and adjust the gearing, 
implied, to his impetuous march, arrestment of force, 
if not retrogression ; and a stand-still was no better 
than moth and rust. He was at Wildbad, and as the 
language of the country was of high import to the 
literature of his science, he took to its study, engaged 
a teacher, and plodded away in his usual fashiou so as 
to fathom all its bearings. The " Black Forest," 
whilst it lost in local and historical interest gained 
immeasurably more in his eyes as affording philological 
instruction ; in other words his retirement to Wildbad 
was far from being an hiatus in his life, as he added 
greatly to his knowledge of the German language and 
literature. 

He acted similarly at Nice, which he reached before 
Christmas 1853; there he studied Italian, to make 
himself familiar with the language that clothed the 
poesy of Dante, and conveyed to the world of modern 
science the researches of Matteucci and Secchi. Nice 
was most enjoyable to Goodsir. At his feet was the 
Mediterranean upon whose shores the fates of empires 
had been decided, and the chief events of the world 
were clustered — events probably of as great import in 
man's history as those attending the victories of Alex- 
ander, the bewitchery of Cleopatra, and the martyred 



DU BOIS EEYMOND. 169 

devotion of the Jew of Tarsus. The fact of his 
proximity to the Alps, and the cities of Genoa, 
Florence, and Kome, with all their classic associations, 
lent a charm to his pursuit of Italian literature. 

Having imbibed a taste for travel, he journeyed to 
Berlin in August 1857, and professedly for a holiday 
of its kind. There he made a favourable acquaintance 
with Johannes Miiller, that noble German and still 
nobler son of science, now no more ; there also he 
formed a closer intimacy with Du Bois Reymond, who 
happily still lives to illuminate the chemico-electrical 
phenomena of organised bodies and other intricate 
paths of physiology. Goodsir had carried a fine speci- 
men of Malcupterurus for the benefit of his friend Du 
Bois Reymond's experimental investigations, in which 
he also took part, and a very pleasant intercourse 
sprang from this scientific fraternization. He had 
other specimens of the Malapterurus conveyed from 
Edinburgh to his Berlin friend, and in return for these 
complimentary attentions was put in the way of 
obtaining philosophical apparatus. His studies in the 
anatomical museums of Berlin that autumn were very 
constant or almost daily. His note-book, with every 
page filled (now before the writer), sufficiently testifies 
to the extended and careful observations of the 
ostcological departments of the museum, and with 
special reference to his morphological studies- — the gist 
of which had been laid before the British Association 
the year previously. A great number of his memor- 
anda refer to ichthyology^ and specially the Clupeidse, 



170 GOODSIR'S EXCELSIOR. 

not overlooking the salient points of the general 
collection. All his visits to the Continent were made 
for the purpose of studying the great anatomical 
collections, and obtaining physiological apparatus ; and 
all this gathering of knowledge in the great cities of 
Europe was to be made applicable to his own collec- 
tion, hoping, as all enthusiasts do, to live to see his 
own work the best of its kind, and then to be able to 
cry " Excelsior." 

His love for anatomical specimens was nearly as 
great as that of Professor Bereiss of Helmstadt of the 
last century, who had collected 131 of Lieberkiihn's 
anatomical injections and other specimens, and viewed 
them as the greatest of treasures to be within his 
reach night and day. Had the products of Goodsir's 
thirty years' labour been gathered under one roof, the 
collection would have been the most valuable in Scot- 
land, and not less historical than demonstrative of the 
advance of the science during the most stirring epochs in 
the annals of natural history and medicine. Moreover, 
it would have been a monument to his own art as s'm- 

o 

nificant as the great collection in Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
London, is to the genius and industry of John Hunter. 
It was obviously his wish, for a long time, to make the 
University Museum, of which he was curator, the 
adorned capital of the Goodsir column; and as the 
world spoke of the Hunterian collection in London, 
it might some day come to speak of the Goodsirian in 
Edinburgh. He carved part of his masonry out of old 
materials, and still more out of the unquarried rocks ; 



CHARMED WITH OXFORD. 171 

then lie used finer chisels than his predecessors, and 
sought to enrich his architecture by fresh emblems and 
fresh treatment. "With an artistic feeling for colour, 
an aesthetic taste, and a thorough love of work amount- 
ing almost to a sacred devotion, he not only did more 
single-handed than any man of his time in museum- 
formation, but in displaying the sine qua non of each 
preparation in hand gave an illustrative speciality to 
his work, as distinct as the colouring of Titian or the 
minute traits in the tavern-scenes of Teniers. 

On his return from Germany, in 1857, he paid a 
visit to his friend Dr. Acland of Oxford, and enjoyed 
it exceedingly. He had an appreciating host in the 
Oxford Professor, with whom he could make a daily 
inspection of the new museum, then approaching com- 
pletion, and fulfilling all the requirements of an Ana- 
tomical and Natural History collection. Goodsir liked 
to talk of the glorious past of that ancient university, 
its mediaBval struggles, its historic characters and their 
defence of what appeared best in religion, politics, and 
letters. Oxford, with its classic fame, its scholastic 
influence, and its educational modes and purport, were 
a delight to Goodsir, who w^ould gladly have tried to 
implant the Oxonian system upon the hard and dry 
northern scheme of education. For, with all his nation- 
ality and large, inheritance of the Scottish covenanting 
spirit, In' was too broad in liis beliefs, and too zealous 
for freed* >m of thought, noi bo see the need of some 
qualifications to the doctrinal, dry, and dogmatic stand- 
ards ruling the religious denominations, if not the 



172 PHILOSOPHIC APPARATUS. 

ethics and philosophical teaching of Scotland. Oxford 
had other charms in its fellowships and endowments, 
and its pleasant retreats for the aged literati, or those 
who had earned a philosophical status within its aca- 
demic halls. 

To render anatomical and physiological research 
worthy of its high calling, and consonant with his 
wonted mode of investigation, Goodsir saw the desir- 
ability of having the most perfect instruments to work 
with. The great minds of Europe, bent on similar 
inquiries as Goodsir, called in the aid of the philoso- 
phical instrument maker. He had frequently com- 
missioned his pupils or friends visiting the Continent, 
to pick up all the novel apparatus applicable to 
anatomy and physiology; and in 1859, between the 
winter and summer sessions, he visited Paris solely 
for the purpose of obtaining philosophic apparatus. 
In the autumn of the same year, and for a similar 
object, he visited Leipsic, Dresden, and Vienna. He 
of course spent much time in the museums, and talked 
with all the men of eminence. He was greatly pleased 
with the city of Prague, and not least with what he 
saw in the dissecting rooms there, and which he con- 
sidered worthy of being adopted at home. These 
frequent visits to the Continent enabled him to 
purchase a complete collection of physiological appa- 
ratus, such as had been employed by Du Bois ^ey- 
mond, Vierordt, Pfluger, and Helmholtz, and other 
distinguished German physiologists. He was the 
first to introduce these very costly instruments to 



THE NO VARA EXPEDITION. ] 73 

Scotland, and for his own private research and in- 
struction. 

Foreign savans frequently consulted Goodsir on 
their special inquiries. When the Austrian Govern- 
ment, in 1857, decided on a scientific circumnaviga- 
tion of the globe, Goodsir was applied to for 
information as to the best modes of dredging and other 
equipments for the natural history service of the 
expedition. Goodsir supplied the Novara ship with 
its iron dredges and canvas nets, and all the informa- 
tion he could offer from his experience in fathoming 
deep waters and collecting marine animals. The 
Austrian Government thanked him for his kindness, 
and the volumes containing a history of the Novara 
expedition recognise his presentation of the apparatus 
mentioned above. 



CHAPTER X. 

A Mathematical Solution of Organic Forms — The Triangle and Crystal 
— Lectures on Man — His Addresses and Correspondence — The 
Respect shown him. 

Towards the latter days of his life Goodsir bestowed 
the closest inspection upon the surface of organic 
forms : thus he traced the minute lines upon the human 
femur, their size, direction, and spaces of enclosure ; 
then he mapped the palm of the hand, with all its 
linear markings, and compared these with the hand of 
the chimpanzee. It was not enough for him to note 
the general differences of these allied organs in man 
and his near neighbour, he must seek for the cutaneous 
and finer-shaded distinctions or disparities. 

In 1864 he began to consider the type or plan 
upon which textures were arranged. His attention 
was first directed to the human muscular system of 
which he made dissections, models, and drawings. 
Having detached with great care the muscles from 
their attachments, he dissected out the fasciculi to 
show the manner in which they joined the tendon, 
and the direction of the fibres to form a fasciculus. 
He noted that fasciculi do not pass parallel to each 
other to join the tendon, but obliquely or diagonally, 
and ultimately to cross each other at angles ; it was 



MUSCULAR FASCICULI. 175 

the same with individual fibres comprising a fasciculus. 
The arrangement of the fibres of tendons was also in 
conformity with that observed to regulate the muscles, 
where the fasciculi and fibres do not proceed in one 
direction only, but are arranged in series of bundles 
whose form is triangular, and that they overlap each 
other at their apices.""" 

Goodsir had section after section of bone made 
with the view of examining the direction of the 
Haversian canals and the arrangement of the fibres of 
the solid osseous texture, also the direction of the 
tendinous and muscular fibres attached to the bony 
surface. By placing black bristles in the minute 
foramina visible upon the surface of the different 
sections, the oblique direction of these foramina, and 
the canals into which they open, either from below 
upwards, or vice versd, was well shown, and the spaces 
liit ween these bristles appeared triangular. People 
were disposed to smile at his anatomical minutiae, yet 
those who looked narrowly at the same structures saw 
the same markings. Had he thought of it, he might 
have silenced opposition by citing the presence of a 
mere spicule of bone on the inner side of the humerus, 
leading Knox to prophesy a supra-condyloid foramen, 
as showing what a detective eye and responsive brain 
can do in elucidating Nature's types. He showed 
great facility in tracing lines and facets on osseous 
and other surfaces, in the same way as Sir David 

* Dr. II hi, .1. Prosector to the class, assisted Professor <'< lair in these 

dissections. Mi. own observations on the muscular fibres of the alligator 

(Jnuntal nj a imtnuiii mill /'/ii/:;iiif<,i/i/ t vol. ii.) are interesting. 



176 ORGANIC FORMS VIEWED BY 

Brewster's keen vision directed to his special work 
enabled him first to see the ultra red portion of the 
spectrum, and to see it better than any other person ; 
in both instances it may be inferred that the optical 
sense could be extolled or heightened by force of will 
when the mind was intent on " light, more light." 

A close scrutiny of the structure of organised 
forms, and a rigid comparison of the forms themselves, 
led Goodsir to the theory of a triangle as the mathe- 
matical figure upon which Nature had built up both 
the organic and inorganic worlds. The fundamental 
principle of form, he seemed to think, lay within the 
province of crystallography, and was to be discovered 
by a close study of the laws of that science. The first 
expression of his belief was in the museum in 1865, 
when, holding out his hand and bending the phalanges 
of his thumb towards the palm, thereby producing 
certain angles, he said to Mr. Stirling, " There is the 
triangle, the basis of organic forms."* He had his hand 
triangled, and this member he found to correspond 
with the angles taken from the head and shoulders, 
and other parts of his body. He considered that 
every organism could be enclosed in a figure of a 
precise and characteristic form, which he compared 
with a crystal, and that each part of an organism also 

* It is essential to state that Goodsir left no MS. as a guidance to his 
ultimate views of the triangle, and that this chapter, as far as it attempts an 
elucidation of his theory, is based on the recollections of conversation with 
the professor ; and is mainly derived from his family and Mr. Stirling, his 
museum assistant, who for months laboured to carry out by various dissections 
and plans his master's triangle-hypothesis. 



THE LIGHT OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 177 

possessed a precise form, which viewed according to 
the laws of crystallography, was either the same form 
of crystal as that of the entire organism or a derivative 
from it. In explanation of his views as applied to the 
human body, he constructed a triangle, the two sides 
of which, meeting at a point above his head, passed 
obliquely downwards, touching the most projecting 
part of his shoulders, as far as his feet, whilst the base 
was a line drawn across at the level of the soles. He 
found that one side — viz. the rigdit, was lono;er than 
the left, in his own case to the extent of two inches ; 
and this preponderance of the right over the left side 
was invariably manifested by the different organic 
forms he examined. He then subdivided this triangle 
by transverse, vertical, and oblique lines, and found 
that they or their points of intersection corresponded 
to certain well-defined anatomical points or lines, as 
the epigastrium, umbilicus, ribs, knees, wrist, etc. By 
placing one of these triangles on a flat surface, and 
erecting from its sides and base three triangles of the 
same form, which met above, he enclosed a space in 
whirl) the body he was examining could be contained, 
and the tetrahedron formed by the apposition of the 
edges of these four triangles he called the crystal. He 
argued what measures a man will measure a tree, and 
it was curious to see the comparison between his own 
figure triangled ami a tree as a whole, including roots, 
their fibrils, the stems, and twigs. Be Looked in every 
lidd of organic life for illustration to his theory to 
the vine and other trees 3 to fruits of home and foreign 

\ OL, I. N 



178 TRIANGLES AND SEGMENTS. 

growth, to the bills and feathers of -birds, to the 
tortoise back and gorilla skull — possibly the 

" Eye of newt and toe of frog, 
Wool of bat and tongue of dog," 

as all were meet ingredients in his cauldron of in- 
quisition. 

Tubes like the aorta were demonstrable by seg- 
ments of triangles. Even in the cancelli and foramina 
of bones, and the capillary network of vessels, he saw 
the angular element prevailing. As instances of his 
theory in the primitive structures, he cited the spindle- 
shaped cell — as consisting of two triangles united 
base to base; and he supposed that the blood-discs 
might break up into three angles like the lens of the 
eye, and possibly, if vision was sufficiently microscopic, 
the same tripartition might be seen in the organic 
granules or molecules. 

Afraid of inaccuracy creeping into his calculations 
when startling results came forth, he was wont to 
exclaim — " Now, Mr. Stirling, let us have God's truth 
in the measurements. God's truth in everything! I 
live for that." As he believed that every cell had a 
parent cell or " a mother," so he argued there was an 
umbilicus or centre in everything in nature, and two 
sides, a right and a left. These sides he viewed as 
having opposite obliquities with reference to each 
other. Thus, in the limbs the different segments when 
flexed on each other presented alternate obliquities, 
and when the arms were folded over the chest so that 
the hands rested on opposite shoulders, an oblique 



MAN A TETRAHEDRON. 179 

arrangement was recognised. The oblique overlapping 
of one structure over another he observed not only in 
the animal organism, but in the folia of a leaf-bud or 
the various parts of the flower. 

The cell, viewed in its growth, its functions, and 
almost universality of purpose, gave weight to the 
supposition of man being simply a big conglomerate 
of cells, rising up, maturing, and decaying ; with a 
better knowledge of the protozoa, Man became likened 
to a huge composite of monads striving their best for 
the common weal of the presidential homo : now Good- 
sir, who had admitted both these physiological hypo- 
theses, went still further, and saw in the growth, the 
form and finished structure of Man — a tetrahedron. 
This doctrine — strange, nay passing strange — was based 
on a vast multitude of observations, culled with the 
characteristic assiduity of an enthusiast, and, more mar- 
vellous to say, sprang from the brain of a man who had 
all his life been solicitous for facts. It was occasionally 
thought that Goodsir's theories o-ot in advance of his 
own facts, but at no time of his history had he shown 
such a tendency as now to imitate Goethe in his high 
flights, when he wrote to Herder that nature herself 
would envy him his penetrating into her mysteries. 

In Goodsir's professional career, and mingling with 
Hm' practical everyday aims of a great teacher, there crop 
out from time to time peculiarities of thought, highly 
speculative, now traceable to his German readings, but 
as frequently of native growth or Goodsirian genesis. 
If these psychological manifestations came with the 



180 THE LAW OF THE FORCE. 

growing metamorphosis of age, they were also attend- 
ant upon fuller experience and a greater insight into his 
science. Thus his study of the Nautilus, and numerous 
shell-forms, inclined him to adopt the logarithmic spiral* 
as a teleological chart in nature's beautiful designs. 
As Newton, from the geometric forms, made out the 
laiv of the force, Goodsir conceived it probable that 
" the logarithmic spiral would be found to be the law 
at work in the increase of organic bodies." Then his 
consortings with D. E. Hay,t who rested his aesthetic 
lines on harmonic angles led to his more careful com- 
parison of the skeleton with the human form ; and this 
new inquiry elicited the belief that the measure- 
ments of limbs and regions are based on aliquot parts of 
an angle. The harmonic angles had their day, and 
vanished before the light of fresh observation — multi- 
plied and re-multiplied to meet the requirements of a 
new ideality. 

Apparently dissatisfied with the ancient mytho- 
logical doctrines that placed a globe on the head of 
Atlas, and the beautiful analogies in the same direction 
advanced by Cicero (De Natura Deorum), and finding 
" the cellular theory " and others that he had helped to 
build up insufficient, he sought another foundation to 
the organic architecture, and discovered, as he be- 

* Sir John Leslie was the first to indicate the organic aspect of the logarith- 
mic spiral which he observed, — " exactly resembles the general form and the 
elegant septa of the Nautilus." {Geometrical Analysis and Geometry of Curve 
Lines. Edinburgh, 1821, p. 438.) 

-f- Vide " The Geometric Beauty of the Human Figure defined" by D. R. 
Hay, F.R.S.E., published by Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh, 1851. 



THE TRIANGLE SUBLIME. 181 

lieved, the corner-stone of the temple in the tri- 
angle ! The freemasonry emanating not improbably 
from the aborigines of the Nile, and that carried 
the triangle as an ark and symbol in Io triumphe 
procession through the " hundred-gated " Thebes to 
the grand temple of Karnak, — centuries before the 
suggestive basis of the " English inch " and " Quarters" 
were disembowelled by John Taylor and Piazzi Smyth 
from the pyramid and chambered caverns of Cheops of 
Gheezeh : the triangle — the high token of the Oinero- 
mathic Brotherhood, so ancient as to be lost in Eastern 
mythology, and now in everyday use as a feature of 
modern and public-marching fraternities — came to be 
invested by Goodsir with a higher significance than 
Eastern emblems clothed in the wildest of imagery — 
namely, the glory of type — the primitive form — the 
universal image of nature. 

In seeking his grand ideal — a physiological law 
ruling the form and growth of organisms, as gravita- 
tion is held to prevail in the physical world — the last 
years of his life were as absorbing as his buoyant ado- 
lescence, if not the most interesting of all ; for as his 
body became increasingly weak his spirit soared higher 
and higher to the pinnacle of speculation. The happy 
psychological condition prevailing with the phthisical 
patient seems to have been meted out to Goodsi r ; with 
hopes of a longer life, a kind of optimism took pos essioii 
of his faculties. Bis bodily powers were daily deterioral 
ing : his hours of sleep were short and unrefreshing, and 
the enjoj mi ni of > bad s anii hi 'I for e\ er; but tin r< 



182 SOLACE OF DISCOVERY. 

was one earthly solace left — sweet and passing sweet to 
him — discovery. With this phantom of the mind 
alluring him on, he fought against the fates, disregard- 
ful of the daily severance of life by the black-veiled 
Atropos. He seemed to possess a strength of soul that 
enabled him to stave off pathological changes — the 
grand help to this fortitude being the "Triangle" 
theory of formation and law that he hoped to complete 
as the greatest of his earthly work. 

Readers of tins sketch will be apt to treat Goodsir's 
triangle as Schiller behaved after listening to Goethe's 
theory of the metamorphosis of plants, by a shake of 
the head, and saying — " All this is mere idea, and not 
founded on observation;" to which Goethe replied, 
as probably Goodsir would have done in defence of 
his universal image, that " it was agreeable to have 
ideas at his command, and particularly to see the 
reality of them with his own eyes." The Goethian 
doctrine, once so much laughed at, has long been 
accepted by the world. Time will show if the same 
fate will attend Goodsir's idea as to Man — a psychical 
being and of " form divine " being but a crystal in his 
structural entity and arrangement. 

The title he adopted for his lectures on man — 
" On the Dignity of the Human Body" — is highly 
characteristic of Goodsir. It augurs respect for the 
physique of humanity, — it honours the form of man 
as a type of excellence, — and seems to breathe of 
reverential regard for the precedence and lordliness 
enshrined therein. At the threshold of his argument 



HUMANITY AND ANIMALITY. 183 

lie wishes distinctly to set forth that Humanity stands 
not only in degree but in kind, above Animality, — that 
man is a being invested with a masterly privilege 
over the brute, — and that the bodily form, as the 
representative of a psychical governance, wears a true 
dignity of character. Throughout this series of lectures 
on man, Goodsir has given an anatomical and philo- 
sophical explanation of a deep meaning of Spencer 
the poet, couched in the following lines in " An 
Hymne in Honour of Beautie" — 

" For of the soule the bodie form doth take ; 
For soule is forme, and doth the Lodie make." 

He argued for the absolute completeness of the struc- 
tural characteristics of man. The animal body 
might be complete as far as the purpose of its crea- 
tion, but incomplete as regards the type of structure on 
which it is formed — in other words, teleologically 
complete, yet morphologically incomplete ; whereas 
the human body he considered complete in both 
respects. In his exaltations of man, he was not for- 
getful of the existence in the animal of a principle 
allied to human consciousness. 

In liis lecture on "The Essence of Humanity," be 
held that tradition, history, and revelation combined 
in assigning a Locality in the North Temperate Region 
for the original area of man. He looked upon the 
arrangements by which "theered position in man" 
is maintained as involving the conception of 
absolutely <"in | -l«t . ■ structure and as highly importani 



184 MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 

relations to the rational consciousness in humanity. 
In treating of the " Upper Limb in Man," he contrasts 
it with the same structures in the Quadrumana, and 
after pointing out the essential differences, says, " The 
principle on which the completeness of the upper limb 
is based consists in its purposes as an instrument for 
acting on matter, in terms of his human faculty of 
thinking in space." He believed that speech was 
conferred upon man by an immediate or Divine pro- 
cess or act, that man has no control over language — he 
is merely an unconscious agent in its changes and 
progress. 

In his lecture on the skull and brain, he enter- 
tained the firm conviction that " the human brain 
exhibits in its geometrical proportions and mass a 
great superiority over the brain of any other animal 
— a superiority similar to that presented by the human 
bones, joints, muscles, and organs of sense," and that 
" its structural and functional completeness distinguish 
it from every other form of brain." Goodsir held 
the doctrine that symmetry of brain has more to 
do with the higher faculties than bulk or form. 
Bichat entertained a similar opinion, as he looked to 
want of symmetry in the two sides of the cerebrum as 
a cause of insanity. Strange to say, the brain of the 
man of genius, Bichat himself, was found to be remark- 
ably non-symmetrical. In showing " the position of 
man in the scale of being," he holds that the revealed 
record should be taken into account in the general 
discussion of the subject : and that man in his consti- 



SCIENCE AND CHRISTIANITY. 185 

tution consists of three elements — a corporeal, a 
psychical, and a spiritual. In treating of " progressive 
man" in the last lecture of the series, and of the 
influence of Christianity on man, he said — " I would 
only impress upon you, as students of science, that 
science, properly so called, had its origin within the 
Christian era ; that its progress is one of the results of 
Christianity ; and, moreover, that one of the greatest 
dangers to which the Christian system is at present 
exposed is the erroneous tendency to elevate science 
above the other forms of human belief." 

However man was to be viewed relatively, Goodsir 
aimed, in the first place, at an accurate definition of 
his physical lines and form — a great desideratum in 
anthropology ; and his anatomy, though very briefly 
set forth, is admirably done. He had a greater object 
in view, however, and that was the declaration of his 
psych* 'logical views of man, in the hope of checking the 
growing Darwinianism in England, and counteracting 
the impression made upon the members of the Edin- 
burgh Philosophical Institution by Professor Huxley's 
lectures on " The Eolation of Man to the Lower Ani- 
mals." In his anatomical and medical inquiries he 
li.nl always stood out for man's superiority in the scale 
of being, his high attributes aud spiritual relations. 
As ;i professor, he felt bound to show his colours; nay, 
lie held it to be ;m imperative duty to defend the 
citadel of orthodoxy againsl whal be deemed an un- 
qualified and hasty exprei ion of thought. Speaking 
with the authority of an anatomist 3 and adducing 



186 VARIOUS ADDRESSES. 

reasons for maintaining the existence of the psyche or 
psychic principle, and the pneuma or spiritual ele- 
ment in man, he rendered important aid to the cause 
he espoused. His anatomical and physiological 
opinions, as well as his psychological reasonings, will 
naturally come to be examined from different points 
of view ; for, as Pope says, 

" 'Tis with our judgments as our watches, none 
Go just alike, but each believes his own." 

and since science has broken loose from theological 
dogmas and state churches, it has shown a tendency 
to a bold reaction of feeling against all records but its 
own. 

Being elevated to the chair of every society, ex- 
cepting the " Royal," of which he was a member, he 
was called upon to deliver many introductory ad- 
dresses, and not unfrequently to give his views on 
special subjects of inquiry, of current interest to 
the society. His addresses to the " Medico-Chirurgical 
Society," and the " Eoyal Medical," printed in this 
volume, are furnished as examples of his style and 
train of thought in both directions. His appearance 
at the " Royal Medical Society " was hailed with plea- 
sure by the oldest representatives, as well as the 
students belonging to the society ; and his treatment 
of his subject — " Life and Organisation" — was viewed 
as no less felicitous than philosophical. 

In his capacity as " Promoter," he was twice called 
upon to address the medical graduates on their as- 



MODE OF LIVING. 187 

suming the honours of Doctor Medicines. These ad- 
dresses were carefully written out, as he held it right 
to be methodical and accurate, and that parting words 
of advice should be appropriately tendered to those 
who, as alumni, had been under the sheltering wing of 
their alma mater for years, and who, as graduates, 
might be expected, as they should be encouraged, to 
uphold the dignity and interest of their profession. 

After the first year of his professorship, he moved 
from Lothian Street to a large house in George 
Square, which he fitted up in good style ; there he 
received many of his old friends and numerous visitors 
from the Continent ; and there no doubt he hoped to 
find in surgical and consultation practice a new field 
for the display of his abilities. Disappointed in his 
hospital aims, and otherwise harassed, he took up his 
residence in Charlotte Street in the New Town. Here 
his habits underwent a great change. To avoid visitors 
he went to bed at 8.30 p.m., and rose before 5 a.m. ; in 
this way he got five hours work done before Edinburgh 
had breakfasted. He lived in rigid simplicity and did 
nearly everything for himself; the sofa of the day 
became his bed of the night, so that he slept amidst 
his papers and special preparations, and could dress or 
turn to work at any time without the fear of intruding 
domestics. For some years he sought the country by 
the shores of the Firth <>f Forth, and lived at the 
Trinity Baths, three miles from the diversity. He 
moved from the baths to Edinburgh again for eighteen 
months, and then finally settled a1 South Cottage, 



188 HIS CORRESPONDENCE. 

Wardie, where Edward Forbes died. South Cottage, 
though only 200 yards from the sea, was quite 
hidden by other dwellings, and as a low -roofed, 
inconvenient and dingy residence, was quite unfit 
for an invalid like Goodsir. In 1862 — and the fact 
is mentioned to show that so late as that year, he 
was still aiming at a life of labour, around which 
greater domestic comfort should be associated — he 
bought a feu, or bit of ground, at Wardie, to build 
a bouse upon, and from which he could always com- 
mand the sea. The house was to be based on new 
architectural principles, and the designs given by 
Goodsir interested Mr. Cousin, the city architect of 
Edinburgh, exceedingly ; indeed, the designs were 
nearly completed when his growing infirmities came 
in the way and superseded all earthly constructions, 
but the fame and honours attached to science. 

Professor Goodsir was in the habit of receiving 
letters from every man of note in anatomy and the 
natural sciences in Europe. He was viewed in an 
amiable light by all of them, and not a few showed 
him cordial friendship, if not the most confidential 
intimacy. Considering his reluctance to the epistolary 
form of writing — for he was a much worse example 
than Talleyrand in the way of putting off his replies 
from day to day and month to month — his cor- 
respondence is strikingly curious as coining from all 
sorts and conditions of men — e. g. Canongate artisans, 
country surgeons, English and Irish naturalists, and 
Scotch noblemen. The majority wrote him on ana- 



GOODSIRS REPUTE ABROAD. 189 

tomical and scientific matters ; but lie was expected 
to be au fait on education, college reforms, fisheries, 
veterinary medicine, and agriculture, cum omnibus 
rebus et quibusdam aliis. 

Great confidence was reposed in Goodsir's observa- 
tions and accuracy, in his museum work, his published 
writings, and anatomical opinions, theoretical and 
pathological. Abroad, and in the best schools of 
Europe, the feeling towards him and the Edinburgh 
School of Anatomy almost approached the expression 
of Haller quoad the Monros ; and Goodsir ibi eminet 
would have been no undue representation of the 
respect entertained for him for many years. As early 
as 1845, the publication of his Anatomical and Patho- 
logical Observations gave him a good position both at 
home and abroad. This position was enhanced in 
February 1850, when he issued the first part of his 
Annals of Anatomy and Physiology, bearing the loga- 
rithmic spiral on its cover, and consisting of six sheets 
of original matter, illustrated in the best style of art. 
No British anatomist felt satisfied with less than a 
personal introduction to the Edinburgh professor, as 
an able representative of the science and its new teach- 
ings ; and one distinguished German, it is said, 
thought it a sufficient recompense for his travelling so 
far as Edinburgh that he had seen John Goodsir. Be 
had a mutual good feeling towards his contemporaries 
in every walk of medicine, and especially for those 
who like himself were Bhowing a love of science, and 
no less noble endeavour to extend the lines of dis- 



190 BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

covery and to widen the basis of philosophy. He 
spoke pleasantly of his English friends, and highly of 
Professor Owen, whose labours in teleological anatomy 
he greatly valued, and whose papers on the Aye Aye 
(Chiromys) of Madagascar he used to cite as a model 
of what a scientific paper should be. When the 
British Association met in Edinburgh in 1850, Pro- 
fessor Goodsir was elected president of the physio- 
logical and zoological department, and discharged his 
duty with his wonted ability and success. 



CHAPTEE XL 

Last Illness — Hopes of the Future — Death — Opinions of the Press 
regarding Goodsir — Resume of his Character. 

Each year after 1863 saw the professor feebler in the 
use of his limbs, and less able to cope with the higher 
studies of his science. His irritability of feeling 
increased with his bodily suffering, and he seemed 
best when left alone in the museum. No one, either 
at home or abroad, threw much light upon his patho- 
logical condition ; nor does he appear to have tried 
any remedial measures of moment after his return 
from Germany. He eschewed society, and became more 
and more of a hermit at "Wardie. At home he was 
constantly reading, or being read to by his sister, 
who also lightened some of his evenings by playing 
on the organ or piano. Though disabled so much in 
body and shattered in nerves, he did not cease to 
labour. Work was before him, and this filled his 
mind with hopes of life and the further enjoyment of 
his intellect. He fought against disease as few men 
have fought, and seemed to live, as if by the sheer 
force of his own will lie could contend against the 
enervating and devitalising influences sapping his 
frame from day to day and year to year. As lie grew 



192 WOULD WORK TO THE LAST. 

feebler, the loss of co-ordinating power over the 
mnscles of his lower limbs increased, as also the 
difficulty experienced in walking, except when he 
looked intently at his feet. The hyper-sensitive 
condition of the skin, especially in his lower limbs, 
was so great, that at times he could scarcely bear the 
contact of his clothes. These deteriorating changes 
were accompanied with loss of nutritive functions and 
great emaciation. 

Contrary to the advice of his friends, the professor 
commenced his usual winter course of lectures in 
November 1866. Before the month expired he had a 
fit, and fell in the presence of his class, and had to be 
conveyed home. He resumed his work in a few days, 
and, despite his sufferings and the daily entreaties of 
those who saw him dying on his feet, he continued to 
lecture till nearly Christmas. He had become little 
more than a shadow of his former self, — his physi- 
ognomy betrayed a wearying painful illness and 
solicitude, as much as the fissured lines of his face 
showed premature old age and rapid decadence. 
Every act of his life was but a feeble effort against 
the shackles that fettered his physique and limited his 
mental operations. It was a terrible struggle — the 
struggle of a strong will and earnest hopeful spirit to 
accomplish public duty. During the few weeks that 
intervened between the forced abandonment of his 
class and his death he was mainly confined to bed. 
" Born and reared in a religious atmosphere," as his 
sister, who tenderly watched him in his last pilgrim- 



PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION. 193 

age, writes, " his public teachings proved the worth of 
his religious principles ; notwithstanding my previous 
knowledge of him, it needed the involuntary utterances 
of a death-bed to show me all the simplicity of mind 
and godly sincerity of heart with which those principles 
had been fostered. As he had been an interpreter of 
God's works, he had been also a diligent student of 
His revealed Word, and a truly humble Christian." 

When the pleasure of meeting his class was denied 
him, he often spoke of his pupils ; and as he had 
conscientiously laboured to advance their studies, 
persuaded himself that some of them would live to 
interpret his oral teachings and extend the knowledge 
of his philosophical views to another generation. The 
anticipation that his finished labours would stand the 
test of time, and that his outlined work would be 
filled up and coloured by those he had taught and 
indoctrinated so well, were like pleasant breathings, 
if not anaesthetic repose, to the Goodsir couch, and 
could not fail to lend a halo to the hopes of a reputa- 
tion beyond the grave. 

As evidences of his philosophic, religious, and specu- 
lative leanings to the very last, he had placed on a 
table beside his bed a large folio copy of Sir Isaac 
Newton's works, in five volumes, the Bible, and ;i work 
on Crystallography, with ;i tray of* models to illustrate 
the intended publication of his views of organic form 
"ii a triangular basis thai rnagnwm opus of his latter- 
<l;r. Idea] life. 

Ifc was attended during his lasl illness by his old 

VOL. I. 



If) 4 DEATH AND BUETAL. 

friend, Mr. Spence, professor of surgery. After much 
suffering, and within a few days of completing his 53d 
year, he died very peaceably on the 6th March 1867, 
in the presence of his devoted brother and sister, and 
in the same cottage (South Cottage, Wardie) that wit- 
nessed the last hours of his friend Edward Forbes 
(Nov. 1854). The youthful companions — John Goodsir 
and Edward Forbes — who had sat on the same benches 
as students, and had fraternised so well in natural 
history research, and struggled up the arduous steep 
of science to professional eminence and European fame, 
came to breathe their last under the same roof. And 
as if the ties of life and love were to find a fitting re- . 
sponse in death, the remains of John Goodsir are 
interred next to the grave of Edward Forbes, in the 
Dean Cemetery of Edinburgh. 

John Goodsir s funeral was attended by professors 
and medical teachers, the fellows of the royal colleges, 
and many mourning friends. Two hundred of his 
pupils joined the procession, and manifested their 
deeply-felt sorrow at the graveside of one whom they 
loved so much. A granite obelisk marks the grave, 
and upon it are inscribed the simple words — " John 
Goodsir, Anatomist. Born March 20, 1814. Died 
March 6, 1867." The Rev. J. T. Goodsir has had the 
spiral curved line engraved on one side of the obelisk, 
to exemplify the feeling pervading the professor's 
mind on the subject of organic growth — the spiral 
being symbolic of the law of the vital force, set forth in 
p. 180 of this memoir, and more developed in Goodsir's 



THE MORBID CHANGES. 195 

lectures — vol. ii., art. viii. A similar obelisk, without 
auy device, stands side by side with Goodsir's, and 
bears — "Edward Forbes, Naturalist, born February 12, 
1815; died November 18, 1854." 

The autopsy and the microscopic examination of 
the spinal cord were made by his assistants Dr. Chiene 
and Mr. Stirling. 

The brain weighed 57-Jr ounces avoirdupois, and 
was rich in convolutions ; it was anaemic, but otherwise 
apparently healthy. The cord was removed below the 
third cervical vertebra, and weighed, together with the 
membranes and nerve roots, 3 ounces. The mem- 
branes were thickened and opaque, more especially on 
the posterior surface, the opacity of the arachnoid pre- 
vented the observer from seeing the condition of the 
cord until that membrane was removed. There was no 
appearance of recent inflammatory formation. The 
posterior roots and their ganglia were congested. The 
cord was greatly atrophied, and the cervical and lumbar 
enlargements were no longer recognisable : a common 
drawing pencil flattened on two of its surfaces may 
give an idea of its circumference. After hardening in 
chromic acid, it was found impossible to make perfect 
sections, either transversely or longitudinally, as the 
columnar part of the cord, more especially posteriorly, 
broke away from the grey matter. These sections 
were not bo distinctly coloured with carmine as in a 
healthy cord. The grey matter examined with a power 
of 300 diameters presented large and distind multi- 
polar nerve cells in the anterior born of the Lumbar 



196 THE SENATUS ACADEMICUS. 

part, which cells, indeed, seemed bigger than in a 
healthy cord in the same locality. In the cervical 
region they were smaller and fewer in number than in 
the lumbar part, and with yellowish contents, which 
did not take the carmine tint. Both in the lumbar 
and cervical regions the columns were greatly atrophied, 
and with an almost complete disappearance of the axial 
cylinders of the nerve-fibres ; sections through the 
columns exhibited an irregularly reticulated appear- 
ance, with intermixed granular matter : corpora amy- 
lacea were scattered in considerable numbers through- 
out the substance of the cord. 

The Senatus Academicus of the University of 
Edinburgh, at their meeting of 9th March, adopted the 
following minute : — " The Senatus deeply regret the 
loss which they have sustained by the death of Professor 
Groodsir, who for twenty years had ably discharged the 
duties of professor of anatomy. They feel that the 
University has been deprived of a most distinguished 
man of science, who, by his knowledge of human 
and comparative anatomy, had acquired for himself a 
European reputation, and who, by his prelections and 
writings, had done much to maintain the reputation of 
the University." 

A writer in the Pall Mall Gazette, who seems 
to have comprehended Goodsir's character very fully, 
says — " Since the days of John Hunter no greater 
master of anatomical science, no keener investigator of 
phenomena, no more comprehensive grasper of gene- 
ralisations, no clearer or more effective expositor, ever 
dedicated himself to the great subject of anatomy, 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 197 

human and comparative, than John Goodsir. * * 
The only regret will be that he has left so few records 
of his discoveries and conclusions ; that in the keenness 
of his pursuit after scientific truth, he left himself so 
little time to gather up and embody in a lasting form 
his numerous incidental felicities of investigation and 
doctrine. But enough, and more than enough, will 
always remain to prove the brightness of his intelligence, 
the justness of his reasoning, and the philosophic com- 
prehensiveness of his generalisations. * * No 
subject, however remotely connected with his favourite 
one, but was perfectly known to him. When in 1854 
he suddenly undertook the task of lecturing on natural 
history for his deceased friend Edward Forbes, he was 
found a master, at every point, in the science which 
was only accessory to his own. 

"It is indeed impossible to estimate aright the loss 
which scientific knowledge and academic education 
. ii -lain through such a death as his. Let us hope that 
the generous contagion of his teaching and the lustre 
of his example will arouse in some worthy disciple the 
masculine enthusiasm, the noble candour, and the 
chivalrous self-devotion which are buried in the too 
early grave of John Goodsir." 

Professor BalfouTj in the obituary notice of his de- 
parted friend furnished to the Botanical Society, said : 
" By his death science bas been deprived of an original 
thinkeTj a mosi zealous and successful worker, and bis 
pupils have losl a warm and devoted friend and teacher." 

The Scotsman and Evening Gourant in Edinburgh, 
and other Scotti h Dewspapers, and notably those of 



198 THE GOODSIR FELLOWSHIP. 

Fife, gave brief notices of GoocHsir's life, work, and 
character. 

The institution of fellowships in the University of 
Edinburgh, so long advocated by Professor Goodsir, 
seems to have been well understood by his surviving 
friends, as on the first occasion of their meeting to do 
justice to his memory, they came to the decision of 
founding a fellowship in his honour. The writer hopes 
that this idea, so consonant with his departed friend's 
wishes, will be carried out in a manner worthy of the 
University and the man to be memorialised. 

A pure thought, a simple mindedness, and unob- 
trusive religious feeling guided John Goodsir in both 
his private and public relations. Nothing mean nor 
sordid, nothing small nor covetous ruled him who cared 
but little for the allurements of the hour or the glitter 
of popularity. Cicero's words pro M. Gcelio were fairly 
applicable to Goodsir — " Quern nonquies, nonremissio, 
non cequalium studia,non ludi,non conviviadclectarent ; 
nihil in vita expetendum putaret, nisi quod esset cum 
laude et cum dignitate conjunct um" 

As a professor and cultivator of science, Goodsir 
kept Haller, John Hunter, and the Meckels in view as 
types of men whose discoveries and teaching he should 
hold up as examples to his own high calling — men 
who tried to grasp the science in all its totality. It 
was on this ground that he admired Johannes Mtiller 
Ketzius, Hyrtl, Vrolik, and others who followed the 
footsteps of the great anatomists and physiologists of 
the last century. Of the school of the past Goodsir 
himself resembled Monro primus in preparing and 



FOUR PRIZES AIMED FOR. 199 

collecting anatomical specimens, in the study of com- 
parative anatomy, and in the application of his science 
to practical medicine and surgery. 

In addressing intimate friends he used to remark, 
towards the close of his career, that he had not done 
justice to himself — a spontaneous comment on the past 
of very significant meaning. As a deep-rooted con- 
viction, such a feeling could not fail to have a sadden- 
ing effect upon a man sensitive to a degree regarding 
his achievements in science, as it implied either 
neglected opportunities in the exercise of his powers, 
or dissatisfaction with his scientific status, or a latent 
fear as to the permanency of his work beyond his own 
epoch. Though this latter feeling did not exist in 
Goodsir's mind, probably however in seeking present 
fame and historic repute, as all true and faithful 
men do, Goodsir committed the error of attempting 
too much — more indeed than could well be accom- 
plished. He aimed to win four great prizes in life, 
any one of which would have been a " blue ribband " 
to most men, even of those who bid fair for high 
place in the competition. His hopes were fixed on 
being — 1st, a great teacher of anatomy ; 2d, a sur- 
geon of distinction ; 3c/, the founder of a Goodsirian 
Museum; and ith, to rank as a man of science with 
the greatest of his epoch. Sonic of these cherished 
aims were incompatible with each other. The second 
— surgical pradici — \v;is necessarily a failure 01 the 

first— anatomical teaching could ool have been so 
truly and eminentl) a success. The third, or the museum 
of hi'-li and undisputed excellence, is a monument to 



200 HIS CLAIMS ON HISTORY. 

his industry, his art, and his research. Of his position 
in the natural sciences a varied sentiment may prevail, 
owing to the difficulty of assigning to a many-sided 
observer like Goodsir one side of real greatness that 
is incomparably manifest and larger than all others. 
His observations on the teeth, his many original con- 
tributions to cellular physiology and pathology, his 
application of geometry to the study of anatomy, and 
his morphological disquisitions, stand as undoubted 
claims to honourable distinction in anatomical, physio- 
logical, and pathological science. 

He had accumulated note-books, and an extraor- 
dinary amount of manuscript on anatomy and various 
branches of knowledge ; but, with the exception of the 
papers noticed in these volumes, nearly all his writings 
were imperfect and incomplete. There were heads of 
lectures, sketches of greater works laid down in a series 
of propositions, and plans for the publication of mono- 
graphs on subjects somewhat apart from anatomy, but 
which he thought capable of Goodsirian elucidation. 
These dicta collectanea were Y\k.Q passim records of ideas 
that floated him bravely on the sea of time — to-day 
of couleur cle rose prospectus ; to-morrow cast aside for 
more captivating allurements to the Goodsir aesthetics. 
Many of the changes, however, in his scientific and 
literary programme arose from circumstances beyond 
his own control : the pressure of public duty, not un- 
frequently of public exactions, ill health, and other 
hindrances. It was painful to turn over such a host 
of fragments, and to see the wasted labour of years 
lying like debris on the earth ; or as clay without the 



IIIS ANATOMICAL LECTURES. 201 

moulder's hand ; but which, if fashioned, might have 
constituted walls of building to the Goodsir fabric, 
not only displaying his character as a worker, but con- 
tributing its part to the general architecture of science 
that he laboured so earnestly to extend and beautify. 

If disposed to the golden silence that marks the 
man of deep thought, his conversation, when elicited, 
was characteristic of sagacious observation and know- 
ledge. To his pupils it was particularly instructive ; 
it reflected his large acquaintance with his own subject, 
and extensive readings of the collateral sciences ; there 
was no waste of words, no high composite ; occasionally 
the argument might assume an elaborate or parenthe 1 
tical form, but more frequently his ideas were conveyed 
in a pointed and precise way — Scottish, if not dog- 
matic, and essentially Goodsirian. 

His anatomical lectures constituted a great fact in 
his history both as a man and a teacher. No one in 
Britain seems to have taken so wide afield for survey, 
or marshalled so many facts for anatomical tabulation 
and synthesis. Goodsir's place on the historical tablet 
should be measured not only by his published writings, 
but by his museum creation and work, and his profes- 
sional trad lilies of thousands of men, and through them 
the germinating ideas he has scattered broadcast over 
the world of medicine. He not only taught in his own 
way, but inspired others by his teachings. He not only 

aave the anatomical data or the facts, but illuminated 

© * 

these facts by various lights and interpretations, as if 
revealing fresh facets on the crystal, and therefrom 
educing a fresh polarisation. 



202 NO HEED FOR THE MORROW. 

There was no moderation in Goodsir's working, 
and not even the relaxation which change of pursuit 
favours to a certain extent. It was daily, dogged, 
downright labour ; he used his body as if it were a 
machine, and his brain as if nervous matter could be 
supplied as readily as English coal to a furnace. He 
exhibited in his own person what is aptly designated 
the wear and tear of life, with every nerve in full tension 
as if for concert pitch. Scores of friends advised him, 
personally and by letter, to spare his energies ; but 
Goodsir, prepared to " shun delights and live laborious 
days," took no heed of the morrow of life ; now and 
onwards and for ever reflected his belief. He seemed 
buoyed up with a passionate fervour that would brook 
no delay and no temporising with its aim and purpose. 
Incessant work, continued for a series of years, led to 
the usual result — impaired health, functional disturb- 
ance, and pathological change. To escape from the 
dissecting-rooms to the quiet of country life, and " to 
babble of green fields" is the great desideratum of 
every anatomist, and no men enjoy their holidays more 
thoroughly; but Goodsir scarcely ever realised what 
relaxation was. When he spent a summer abroad, it 
was not by the banks of Lago Maggiore, or sipping 
the waters of Brunnen, but in the museums of Berlin 
and Vienna. On his return from a Continental trip, 
when asked by a friend how he enjoyed his autumnal 
holidays, Goodsir, with great truth and simple-mind- 
edness, replied — " Oh ! very much indeed. I spent 
six hours a-day in the museums with Muller, Hyrtl, 
or Kolliker." Change and travel soon [tailed on the 



A MARTYR TO SCIENCE. 203 

Goodsir fancy ; there was nothing so tempting to him 
as the investigation of organisms ; nothing so capti- 
vating as the paths of discovery in natural history. 

Labor ipse voluptas might have been added to the 
Goodsirian motto of Fidelitate ct virtute, for assuredly 
he acted in accordance with both sayings, till at 
length labour became a monomania that the most 
intimate friends could not change. A gentleman 
wrote him in 1848 — " Suffer a word of caution from 
an old friend. It is better to live for the advancement 
of science, than risk adding another name to the list 
of its martyrs." A pupil in 1850, after expressing 
veneration for Goodsir's science and philosophy, im- 
plored him not to overtask and strain the natural 
limits of his bodily strength ; and these letters were 
but the echoes of many others from kind friends. 
I fad he husbanded his resources, mental and bodily, 
after 1848, and sought the domesticity of married life 
and the amenities of the social world, the rural 
cottage in the summer months, with botany and horti- 
culture as diversions, he might have been spared for 
years, and benefited science more largely than he had 
done. As it was, he lived only for science, and 

iiiMjuestioiiably died in its service. 

H. L. 



DIVISION I. 



LECTURES AND ADDRESSES. 



DIVISION L 



I.— ON THE DIGNITY OF THE HUMAN BODY* 
LECTURE I. 

THE NATURE OF ANIMAL1TY. 

1. The object of this course of lectures is to illustrate the 
absolute completeness of human structure, when compared 
with the merely relative completeness of animal structure. 
The term animal is used to indicate all the forms below man. 

2. The conditions of life in any given form of animal 
supply the grounds on which the relative completeness of its 
structure may be inferred — these conditions are, climate, food, 
■_"■< fjra | .Iiical area, etc. — and, in like manner, the conditions of 
human existence indicate that absolute completeness which 
constitutes the structural characteristic of man. 

3. It is therefore essential, for the satisfactory study of 
the relative and absolute structural completeness of the animal 

* The ten following Lectures "On the Dignity of the Human Body, con- 
sidered in a comparison of its Structural Relations with those of the higher 
Vertebrata," were delivered to the class of Anatomy during the summer session 
The manuscript from which we have printed was arranged in the 
form of propositions, which were read to the class, and then illustrated by 
additional oh ervations, and when practicable bj a reference to specimens and 

diagrams. We bave, fr tes taken a1 the time bj our of the auditors, 

expanded man} "I the e propo itions by adding to them the additional ob- 
servations made, and by reproducing some of the mosl importanl diagrams. 
Ed . 
VOL. l. I' 



208 THE NATURE OF ANIMALITY. 

and man respectively, that we should possess clear conceptions 
of the relative conditions of animal and human life. 

4. I shall devote this lecture, therefore, to the considera- 
tion of the conditions of existence of the animal, and to the 
question as to the nature of animality. 

5. My second lecture will involve the consideration of the 
condition of human existence ; and of the question as to the 
essence of humanity. We shall then be prepared for the con- 
sideration of the special subject of the course. 

6. The conditions of existence of an animal are indicated 
in the constitution of its specific economy. A species can only 
exist over a geographical area having certain conditions of 
geological structure, of climate, and of animal and vegetable 
forms. The characters of the living economy of an animal 
species may, indeed, become more or less modified, or the 
number of its individuals may diminish, in accordance with 
modifications in the cosmical conditions of its area of distri- 
bution. But there is a limit to such 'permitted modifications 
of specific character ; and if the cosmical conditions of its ex- 
istence pass these limits, the species disappears. 

7. In a subsequent part of the course, I shall state the 
grounds on which we are compelled to assume that each 
species of animal was directly created for its proper area. In 
the meantime, I lay before you two important principles, 
which I may state thus ; — 

1st. The conscious element of an animal is virtually the ani- 
mal itself; for it is that, failing which the body of the animal 
would have had no existence. It is that element in the animal 
constitution which is immutable. For although the constituent 
parts of the corporeal structure of the horse, dog, or pigeon, 
along with the instincts co-ordinate with those parts, may, by 
certain natural or artificial rearrangements of the specific con- 
ditions of the animal's existence, undergo very great modifica- 
tions, nevertheless, the fundamental attributes of its conscious 



THE NATURE OF ANIMALITY. 209 

element — which collectively constitute a horse, dog, or pigeon 
— remain unaltered, whether the animal has assumed a de- 
graded or an elevated type of its specific form. 

2d. An animal is adapted to its geographical area "by the 
endowments of its conscious principle, of which element its 
corporeal structure is the mere instrument. 

8. Every animal reacts on the area which it inhabits ; 
that reaction being, in fact, the final purpose for which the 
animal was created. The animal, therefore, while indirectly 
advancing, through its instinctive consciousness, the end pro- 
posed in the creation of its species, by providing for the 
sustenance of its own body, and the reproduction of its own 
kind, is also engaged directly but instinctively in the further- 
ance of that progressive modification of its own portion of 
terrestrial surface necessary for the present existence, and for 
the future and higher purposes for which that area is destined. 
Thus, it is indirectly engaged in furthering its Creator's plan. 

9. If the principle which 1 have stated be correct — that the 
structure of an animal is merely the instrument of its instinctive 
consciousness — then the conclusions to which we must come 
are most important. For, if we be correct, then we must look for 
the specific character of an animal not merely in its corporeal 
structure, but fundamentally in its instinctive consciousness, 
and in the manifestations of that conscious element. We 
must also look for the explanation of the dependence of 
specific animal forms on their appropriate geographical areas, 
not in the mere adaptation of their corporeal structure, but 
more immediately in their specific instinctive consciousness. 
When a species eenses 1<> exist, we must consider its dis- 
appearance as the result, not of a mere struggle for existence 
with (it her animal forms orwith cosmical conditions, nor of 
insufficient adaptivity to such extent of altered conditions of 
life us its specific endowments admit, but as the more or 
Less direct resull of the law impressed upon its instinctive 



210 THE NATURE OF ANIMALITY. 

consciousness, in virtue of which it must cease to exist, when 
no longer supplied with the conditions on which its activity 
and faculties may be exercised through the instrumentality of 
its corporeal vehicle. 

10. As the instinctive consciousness, the corporeal struc- 
ture, and the geographical area of an animal species, are 
three co-ordinate elements in its specific constitution, it is 
evident that any one of these elements can only be efficiently 
investigated when the other two elements are fully repre- 
sented in the question. 

11. By this comprehensive method, applied to the investi- 
gation of the structure of an animal, we are enabled to see 
how the body of an animal, although complete or fully fitted 
to serve as the instrument of the animal's instinctive conscious- 
ness towards the fulfilment of the purpose of its creation, 
may, nevertheless, be incomplete as regards the type of animal 
structure on which it is formed. We express this technically 
when we say, that the structure of an animal is teleologically 
complete ; but morphologically incomplete. It is the object 
of this course of lectures to indicate the grounds on which 
the human body is to be viewed, not only as teleologically, 
but also as morphologically complete. In this twofold cor- 
poreal completeness we shall, I believe, find a structural 
characteristic, which, along with his possession of a higher and 
distinct form of conscious principle, leaves no place for man 
in any conceivable arrangement of the animal kingdom. 

12. The further elucidation of the relative position of man 
to the animal kingdom, involves a closer examination of the 
nature of animal ity. 

13. If we are correct in assuming that the corporeal 
structure of an animal is merely the instrument of its instinc- 
tive consciousness, then it must be to this instinctive con- 
sciousness that we must look for the essential characters of 
animality. 



THE NATURE OF ANIMALITY. I'll 

14. As the facts of human psychology are attained by a 
process of self-examination, it is evident that we can only 
investigate comparative psychology by an indirect method. 
Nevertheless, as we can compare the combined instinctive and 
rational elements of our own human economy, so we may with 
confidence conduct our indirect comparative psychological 
investigations under the control of our own experience. 

15. There can be no question as to the existence in the 
animal of a principle allied to our own human consciousness. 
This is admitted by common consent. Every unbiassed observer 
who has studied the actions of the various forms of animals, 
from the protozoon upwards, must feed impressed by the mani- 
festations presented of an ascending series of forms of con- 
sciousness ; a series co-ordinate with the series of structural 
forms in which their presence is manifested. 

16. These manifestations evince in various degrees of 
distinctness, as we ascend in the series, three fundamental 
conditions or states of consciousness. 

1st. As the consciousness is manifested in sensation and 
perception. 

2d. As it is manifested in the appetites, emotions, passions, 
social impulses, and special habits ; and 

3d. As it manifests itself in the determining power or will. 

17. In attempting to assign a precise value or meaning to 
the terms sensation, perception, appetite, emotion, passion, 
will, when applied to forms of consciousness in an animal, we 
can only proceed by the indirect method. 

18. The sense of vision, as manifested in the animal, 
affords a satisfactory illustration *>l' this indirect method of 
inquiry. The organ of vision is met with very low in the 
animal series. 

L9. However varied the structure of the eye may be, it 
is always constructed on optica] principles. The refractive 
media of the eye are ro arranged and constructed as to trans- 



212 THE NATUKE OF ANIMALITY. 

mit the rays of objective light, which impinge upon them, in 
given directions to the retina. In the retina, the objective 
light, by the instrumentality of certain structural arrange- 
ments — the rods and cones — induces the usual nerve action in 
the fibres of the optic nerve. This nerve action, common to 
all nerve fibres, is a polaric physical action ; proceeding by 
the optic nerve from the retina to the nervous centre of 
vision in the brain. At that nervous centre the consciousness 
of the animal interprets the objective or physical nerve action 
as subjective light. 

20. This subjective light, or light usually so termed, is a 
mere condition or form of consciousness ; it is the psychical 
co-ordinate of the physical luminiferous oscillations, which 
are merely its mediate inducing cause. 

21. By these successive actions, physical and psychical, 
co-ordinated by the optical construction of the eye-ball, and 
of the light-perceiving portion of the brain, the animal per- 
ceives at once the object presented to its eye. It sees it 
directly. The animal can determine without effort not only 
the distance of the object, but also without hesitation, the 
precise positional relations of the object to surrounding 
objects, and to itself. 

22. This faculty of using the organs of vision, and the 
other organs of special sense, as immediate instruments, is 
peculiar to the animal. Man cannot do so. To him the 
organs of sense are mediate instruments. He must learn how 
to make use of them. He must learn how to interpret their 
revelations under the guidance of his rational consciousness. 
The animal requires no such self-education. 

23. The illustration which I have given of the process of 
vision in the animal, affords fundamental evidence of the 
peculiar character of its conscious principle. Now, if we 
assume, as we may safely do, that all the other conditions of 
its consciousness are fundamentally determined in the con- 



THE NATURE OF ANIMALITY. 213 

stitution of its conscious principle, we have a clue to the 
solution of the question as to the nature of that conscious 
principle, as distinguished from the rational consciousness of 
man. We are led to see that all the conditions of the con- 
sciousness of the animal are, in given circumstances, pre- 
determined for it. The consciousness of the animal is not 
called upon to pass through a series of phases, or to go 
through processes under the guidance of a higher reason as 
in man. The mental processes in the animal are simple and 
direct ; and, moreover, it cannot transgress their laws. 

24. Up to this point we have traced the peculiar character 
of the consciousness of the animal, in relation to its sensations 
and perceptions. If we assume, as we may again safely do, 
that the animal conscious principle has its processes in rela- 
tion to its emotions, appetites, passions, social impulses, and 
special habits, strictly predetermined in its own constitution ; 
then it follows, that all its actions in relation to these various 
conditions must he directly' and precisely fulfilled. The 
animal consciousness, then, cannot have presented to it any 
question in reference to any of its so-called emotions, appe- 
tites, and passions. It allays each and all of them according 
to their urgency, and therein instinctively acts up to the 
design of its Creator. The mental processes of the animal 
are simple and direct. It cannot transgress laws unless man 
leads it wrong. 

25. Again, that phase of the consciousness of an animal 
in which it appears to determine an act, or to exercise a will, 
is undoubtedly a condition strictly predetermined for it, in 
SO fai thai the act ran only he resolved upon and accom- 
plished under certain conditions. An animal has no will, 
in the proper sense of the term. In like maimer, it cannot 
be conceived to po e • a choice between righi and wrong, 
acl ion or inftcl ion 

2G. All the conditions of the conscious principle of an 



214 THE NATURE OF ANIMALITY. 

animal, whether they he induced by objects from without, or 
originate in the inner or proper processes of the conscious 
principle itself, or exhibit themselves under the aspect of a 
will, would thus appear to be as fully predetermined in the 
economy of the animal's specific conscious principle, as are 
the specific structures provided for its corporeal economy. 

27. We apply the term instinct to the collective manifes- 
tations of the peculiar co-ordinated, and consequently pre- 
determined conscious principle of the animal. It is evident 
that the term conscious, when applied to the mental principle 
of an animal, must be understood in a modified form. Man 
is conscious not only of feeling, thinking, and acting, but he 
is also conscious that every feeling is followed by an act of 
thought ; and that thought itself is a process which neces- 
sarily precedes an act of will. He is, moreover, conscious 
that he may act or not as he pleases. He is conscious of 
being able to resist the impulses of his emotions, appetites, 
passions, and of regulating his entire economy by his con- 
scious principle. I allude to these characteristics of the 
human consciousness at present, for the purpose of producing 
a clearer impression on your minds of the nature of animality, 
when contrasted with the essential features of humanity. 



THE ESSENCE OF HUMANITY. 215 



LECTUEE II. 

THE ESSENCE OF HUMANITY. 

1. We now proceed, guided by the principles involved in 
my last lecture, to examine the conditions of human life, and to 
inquire into the question as to the essence of humanity, so 
as to attain a basis for the discussion of the subject of this 
course. 

2. As in the animal, so in man ; his entire economy must 
be co-ordinate with his area — or, as we must term it in his 
case, sphere of action. 

3. Man has not been created for any area of a given geo- 
logical, climatal, or phyto-zoological character. He inhabits 
the cnl in: globe. 

4. From the principles on which we proceed, it is evident 
thai the extension of man over the globe has been provided 
for in the superiority of his psychical, and consequently of his 
corporeal, endowments. 

5. It is also evident, that as the animal is so constituted, 
psychically and corporeally, as to be capable, not only of sus- 
taining its own life and of propagating its species, but also of 
acting efficiently, and without failure, in promoting the de- 
velopment of the area which it inhabits ; man must in like 
manner be so endowed, psychically and corporeally, as to en- 
able lii iii imt only to sustain himself and propagate his kind 
in Jill parts of the globe, but also to ad towards the develop 
incut and improvement of the entire surface of the earth, in a 
manner and to on extent, co-ordinate with his endowments. 

6. Tradition, History, and Revelation, the three sources 



216 THE ESSENCE OF HUMANITY. 

from which the anthropologist derives his most essential facts, 
combine in assigning a locality in the North Temperate Zone 
as the original area of man. We must assume, therefore, that 
a temperate zone affords more immediately the material con- 
ditions of human life and welfare. Nevertheless, man has 
gradually extended the area of his habitation, or temporary 
occupation, into the Torrid and Arctic Zones ; and as no 
arguments can be drawn from ethnological science in opposi- 
tion to the assumption that man — in that gradual advance in 
power over material nature which is one element of civilisa- 
tion, along with that increasing elevation of his own energies 
which his rational consciousness, under the increasing influ- 
ence of Christianity, secures for him, and which constitutes 
civilisation properly so called — will at length be enabled, if 
not continuously to inhabit, at least to (connect and) appro- 
priate for his benefit every portion of the earth's surface ; and 
so to fulfil his Creator's reiterated command " To be fruitful 
and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and 
have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the 
air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth." 

7. When man in a proper spirit avails himself of that do- 
minion over the plants and animals of the globe, bestowed 
upon him by his and their Creator, he is fulfilling consciously 
a divine law, similar to, but of higher import than, that law 
in virtue of which the instinctive consciousness of the animal 
guides it in availing itself of the vegetables and animals which 
have been provided as its proper food. 

8. It may not be out of place here to remark, that the 
instinctive consciousness possessed by man, that the majority 
of the vegetables and animals which surround him would, 
under circumstances of privation, afford him subsistence, is in 
exact accordance with the revealed Record, in which we are 
informed that man after his creation, and again after the flood, 
v> r as divinely informed by his Maker, that the dominion over 



THE ESSENCE OF HUMANITY. 217 

every vegetable and animal which had been conferred upon 
him involved the legitimate use of them for food — " To you 
it shall be for meat." " Shall be meat for you." 

9. But in as much as man is thus privileged as to the ex- 
tent of the resources of food allotted to him, the actual extent 
to which he is to avail himself of that privilege, in ordinary 
circumstances, would appear to be indicated to him. 

Is*!. In his (greater) instinctive tendency to employ certain 
vegetables and animals for his subsistence. 

2d. In his preference more particularly for those animals 
and vegetables, which doubtless were created for his special 
use as food — e.g., the ox and sheep, wheat and barley ; — and 
the employment of which as food was probably one of those 
direct Divine communications with which man has been 
favoured. 

3d. In his rational consciousness, in virtue of which he is 
enabled if he will, not only to obey the healthful impulses of 
his higher instinct, but also to attain, through science, such 
information regarding the laws of his corporeal constitution, 
and the various modes of sustaining it, as will guide him to 
the selection and preparation of food suitable for every district 
of the earth, season of the year, and circumstances of society, 
on which his lot may at any time be cast. 

10. The same principles by which we have been guided in 
our examination of the mode in which man, in contrast with 
tin' animal, is enabled to supply himself with food over his 
extended geographical area, would guide us to corresponding- 
results in reference to the methods by which he provides for 
hi- protection from influences detrimental to life, from the 
detrimental effects of heat, cold, dryness, moisture, darkness, 
unsuitable atmosphere* and other cosmical conditions. We 
should find a Bimilai combination of original instinct, direcl 
Divine communical ion, and the application of applied science. 
We should find the instinctive n ourcee for personal covering 



218 THE ESSENCE OF HUMANITY. 

and habitation develope under the influence of man's rational 
consciousness into all those manifold arts by means of which 
he is clothed, housed, warmed, lighted, and provided with all 
those co-ordinated social and civic arrangements which result 
in the economics of the house, hamlet, farm, city, and state. 
The latter arrangements compel man, collected in masses, to 
develope for himself, on instinctive and scientific grounds, the 
sanitary regulations which such circumstances force upon his 
attention. But even in our present so-called civilized condi- 
tion, man shows himself in many respects behind the animal 
in his sanitary arrangements and precautions. The animal 
never disobeys, if left to the guidance of its own instincts, the 
physiological laws of its economy. It is a perfect sanitarian. 
Our present so-called civilization has only reached the phase 
of sanitary reform. 

11. But man, like the animal, not only finds his subsistence 
in his geographical area, but also reacts upon it. Here, again, 
we find that the purposes served by the animal are to a great 
extent secondary in importance. It merely co-operates in 
that series of phyto-zoological, or organic actions, which, along 
with the cotemporaneous cosmical or inorganic processes, 
tend at any time to prepare the surface of the globe for the 
reception of man, or maintain it in a condition fitted for his 
economy. The changes effected by human agency on the sur- 
face are of a much more positive kind. The clearing of 
forests, the recovery of dry surface by coast and river embank- 
ment, and by draining, the securing of moisture by irrigation, 
are processes which not only prepare the surface for agricul- 
tural produce, but induce at the same time an appropriate 
change of climate. The changes of surface and climate, 
induced by human agency, tend to check the productivity of 
certain vegetable and animal forms ; or by entirely removing 
their proper conditions of life, cause the local or general dis- 
appearance of others. The formation of roads, of bridges, of 



THE ESSENCE OF HUMANITY. 219 

aqueducts, of canals, of railroads, of telegraphs, merely presents 
successive phases of that development of the surface of the 
globe due to man — a development which is affected under his 
self-conscious or rational agency, in obedience to his Maker's 
command "to replenish the earth, and subdue it." It may 
here be observed, that while the animal is merely enabled, 
with its specific physical strength, to provide its means of 
subsistence ; man is enabled as he advances in his work of 
subjugating the earth, to avail himself of external material 
force to effect his successive purposes. Under the guidance 
of his rational intelligence, he proceeds on mechanical princi- 
ples, he collects and concentrates for the ends he has in view, 
the forces involved in gunpowder and steam, and thus making 
his way into the interior of the earth in search of its mineral 
wealth, modifies its surfaces, in accordance with the re- 
quirements of each locality. It must be quite clear to every 
unprejudiced thinker that human agency is destined to effect 
extraordinary changes in the arrangements and aspect of the 
surface of the globe. 

12. The proper conception of the nature and effects of those 
cosmical changes induced by man, may be indicated in the 
following considerations : — 

1st, That the full development of man's material economy 
and welfare on earth, is only secondary to the higher purposes 
of his existence. 

2d, That the full development of man's material economy 
and welfare, including his Ml legitimate enjoyment thereof, 
is to be worked out by him in evidence of the amount of 
knowledge 1" which he has attained of the laws dl' ( Idil iii 

nature, of the extent to which be lias properly applied and 
enjoyed that amount of knowledge to which he lias attained, 
through tin- gifl ni' that rational consciousness conferred on 
liim as apart, of his human constitution. This principle 
involves the proper use "I' man's intellectual faculties ami 



220 THE ESSENCE OF HUMANITY. 

aesthetic endowments in the cultivation, application, and 
enjoyment of the arts and sciences. 

3d, That the knowledge of the laws of God in nature, and 
the pleasure felt in the proper contemplation and application 
of them, are merely the adjuncts and aids to that higher 
purpose of man's creation ; his continuous retention of a 
knowledge of, and his obedient submission to God's moral 
law, as involved in the principles of Christianity. 

14. The human constitution then involves in itself, and 
secures for man, two guiding principles of action, not pos- 
sessed by the animal — the faculty of thought, and the moral 
faculty — in virtue of both of which, but primarily of the 
latter, he is fitted to fulfil the conditions of a religious being. 

15. Finally, the economy of man would be incomplete, 
his various endowments could not be efficiently applied by 
him, were he destitute of speech. The varied and ever vary- 
ing development of language is one of the most remarkable 
results of the peculiar constitution of humanity. To this im- 
portant subject, as also to other subjects briefly alluded to in 
the previous part of this lecture, I shall have to recur in sub- 
servient parts of the course ; and more particularly in my 
three concluding lectures, in which I shall have to sum up 
the results arrived at in the comparative anatomical portion 
of the course. 

16. Such, then, are the conditions of man's life and welfare. 
In my last lecture we found the conditions of the animal's 
life and welfare were secured for it, in the fixed and un- 
alterable working of its instinctive form of consciousness. 
We shall now find that man, provided like the animal with 
instinctive, corporeal, and cosmical conditions of life and 
welfare, has superadded to his animal constitution a con- 
scious principle, possessed of entirely different faculties and 
endowments. In the possession of this higher principle, 
man is elevated above his own corporeal and instinctive in- 



THE ESSENCE OF HUMANITY. 221 

dividuality. He may control his animal instincts, and use 
his body as a thoroughly adapted instrument. In the pos- 
session of this higher conscious principle, a human being is 
not merely an individual — as an animal can only be considered 
— he possesses also a personality — he is a person who is called 
upon to employ not only his body and animal principle, but 
also his higher or self-conscious principle, conjointly under 
the guidance of the latter, to those great and extensive pur- 
poses for which he was created. 

17. From whatever point of view we compare man with 
the animal, e.g., if we compare, as in the present course of 
lectures, the anatomical structure of man and the animal, we 
must keep steadily in view the nature of man's higher con- 
scious principle. I shall have to make frequent reference to 
the subject in subsequent lectures ; at present, I shall merely 
indicate the more important features of its economy. 

18. In the first place, we are conscious of a faculty of 
thought, in virtue of the processes of which we reach certain 
conclusions, not only regarding external objects, but also re- 
garding our consciousness itself. We are conscious in 
thought of a faculty of judgment. It involves a comparison 
and a judgment regarding two things, neither of which we 
can think down or out of existence. The self which thinks, 
and the self which is thought of. Again in our consciousness 
in the act of perception, we are not only conscious of self, but 
of a not self. We can neither disbelieve the one nor the 
other. We cannot think unless under the conditions of time. 
There is always a judgment oi self and of not self, as existing 
in time. Time is only apprehensible to us, as ;i condition 
under which we think. Hence out human conception of 
duration. 

in the same manner, space is to us only a condition of 
thought. We imh form qo conception of it, unless when 
passing a judgmenl regarding the relation of things as 



222 THE ESSENCE OF HUMANITY. 

they are in it. Hence, likewise, our human conception of 
motion. 

In like manner we are compelled by the constitution of 
our consciousness to conceive of matter as not annihilable. 
We cannot conceive of matter as being expanded or com- 
pressed in space to annihilation. 

The irresistible judgment of casuality too is passed by our 
consciousness, by virtue of the necessity it is under of judging 
of existence, under the condition of time. 

We cannot think of a thing but as an existence. We 
cannot think of a thing except under the condition of time ; 
that is, we are under the necessity of considering it as only a 
new form of what existed before it. Therefore we cannot 
think of it as absolutely commencing per sc. We are obliged 
to conclude with Sir William Hamilton : — "The creation of 
a world ! this, indeed, is as easily conceived as the creation of 
an atom. But what is our thought of creation ? It is not a 
thought of the mere springing of nothing into something. On 
the contrary, creation is conceived, and is by us conceivable 
only as the evolution of existence ; from possibility into actu- 
ality by the fiat of the Deity." 

The human consciousness is therefore self-conscious. By 
means of this self-conscious property it is constantly compelled 
to regulate its judgments and beliefs according to certain con- 
ditions of its own constitution, as these conditions have been 
imposed upon it by the Creator of the universe ; and which, 
if adhered to, infallibly lead man to correct results in his in- 
quiries into those departments of science on which so much 
of his material welfare depends. We find in this self-con- 
scious endowment of the human mind that faculty which 
supplies man with a mind higher than, and entirely distinct 
from, the instinctive consciousness of the animal. 

In comparing the emotions, appetites, and desires in the 
human self-conscious constitution with the corresponding 



THE ESSENCE OF HUMANITY. 223 

affections of the mind in the animal, the nature of the differ- 
ence which must exist between those emotional affections in 
man and the animal becomes evident. 

The will in man also is, in consequence of his self-con- 
scious faculty, a will properly so-called, for it is, or ought to 
be, determined or regulated by those higher or Divine prin- 
ciples of thought and belief of which he is conscious. 

At this point we reach the solution of the question as to 
the essence of humanity. With an animal body and instincts, 
man possesses also a consciousness involving Divine truth in 
its regulative principles. But along with this highly endowed 
consciousness, the human being has been left free to act 
either according to the impulses of his animal, or of his 
higher principle. The actual history of humanity, of its 
errors, its sufferings, and its progress, is the record of the 
struggle between man's animal and Divine principle, and of 
the means vouchsafed by his Creator for his relief* 

* The subjects discussed in this and the preceding Lecture, are, in some of 
their relations, treated with greater fulness in Note VII. to the Lecture on 
" Life and Organisation." — Eds. 



VOL. r. 



224 THE ERECT POSITION IN MAN. 



LECTUEE III. 

THE ERECT POSITION IN MAN. 

1. Having endeavoured in my two previous lectures to lay- 
before you a brief outline of those fundamental distinctions 
between animality and humanity, which must be kept in view 
in the discussion of every anthropological question, I now 
proceed to the consideration of certain features which essen- 
tially distinguish the human body from that of an animal. 

2. I shall devote the present lecture to the illustration of 
those human structural arrangements which fulfil the con- 
ditions of that erect posture peculiar to man. 

3. Of the numerous attitudes in which man can sustain 
his centre of gravity, on one or both limbs, I select as the 
simplest form of the problem the normal or erect position, 
properly so-called, introducing occasional illustrations of other 
attitudes. The erect position is that in which the body is 
placed when all the parts are arranged so as to occasion the 
least amount of exertion. In it the spine is erect and the 
eyes look horizontally forwards, the arms being pendulous. 
It is the position in which the body is conceived to be placed 
by the human anatomists in their descriptions. 

4. — The Vertebral Column. 

The human vertebral column is specially arranged for the 
erect position in man, and presents the following peculiarities, 
which constitute certain of those adjustments which collec- 
tively provide for that position. 

a. In the normal position of the human body the axis of 



THE ERECT POSITION IN MAN. 225 

the vertebral column is vertical. No animal form of vertebral 
column can be elevated into the perpendicular position. In 
apes, in the so-called upright position, the axis is oblique ; 
and when these animals are on all fours, nearly horizontal. 
In birds, also, it is oblique. In quadrupeds, horizontal. 

b. In no animal form of vertebral column is the column 
itself cut by its own axis in five points as in the human 
column. In no animal does it pass through a greater num- 
ber than four. The axis of the human spine is therefore 
peculiar in passing across it so frequently. 

c. In no form of animal vertebral column are the second- 
ary curvatures so highly developed as in the human, and no 
animal possesses the lumbar curvature. As the development 
of the foetus advances, the spine loses its primary embryonic 
curve and becomes straight, excepting a slight bend at the 
coccyx : this is the case even in the child at birth. The 
curves which appear in the human spine after birth are new or 
secondary curves. The corkscrew curve of the tail of the 
spider-monkey is probably an original elementary curve. In 
the human spine, the neck is convex forward, the dorsal region 
convex backward; lumbar forwards, sacro-coccygeal backwards. 
There is also a series of lateral curvatures — dorsal region con- 
vex to right, cervical and lumbar to left, sacro-coccygeal to right. 
If the lateral and antero-posterior curves are connected to- 
gether, they resolve themselves into a corkscrew-like curve ; 
not the curve of a thread running regularly round a cylinder, 
but arranged so as to increase or diminish in their course. 
In disease these curves increase; dorsal to right, cervical to 
left, lumbar to left, sacro-coccygeal to right. The anterior 
faces of the bodies of the vertebrae in the dorsal and sacro- 
coccygeal regions, are consequently inclined to the right; in the 
lumbar and cervical to the left. No animal has such a spiral 
development as the above. In fish, the only trace of the fun- 
damental curve is the turn-up of the tail, and probably some 



226 t THE ERECT POSITION IN MAN. 

curvature at the base of the skull. In the monkey's neck 
the convexity of the curve is forwards (downwards), in the 
dorsal region and loins a continuous curve backwards (up- 
wards), whilst the sacrum is feebly curved, and the coccyx 
greatly. The non-possession of a separate lumbar curve by 
animals is a very remarkable fact ; in the proper monkeys no 
such curve exists. Lateral curves are feebly marked in the 
animal spine. 

d. In no animal does the sacrum develope so much in the 
transverse direction, nor present so large an area of articula- 
tion for the haunch, nor become so much curved as in man. 

e. The centres of gravity of the human trunk and body, 
respectively, in their normal erect positions, are situated, the 
former in the ninth dorsal vertebra, the latter in the interior 
of the canal of the second sacral vertebra. By the term body 
is meant the entire frame, trunk, and limbs. Movements of 
the heart, changes in the circulation of the blood, in the 
liver, etc., slightly affect the position of the centre of gravity. 
In no animal can the centre of gravity be in these positions — 
it must be situated below the vertebral column. 

/. In none of the mammalia do the articular facets of the 
vertebral column possess such surface curvatures as to admit, 
throughout its pre-sacral portion, that amount of torsion 
possessed by the ascending portion of the human spine. 

g. No mammal possesses vertebral and trunk muscles so 
fully differentiated, and so spirally arranged as in man. The 
muscles of the trunk, obliqui, serrati, etc., are arranged in con- 
tinuous corkscrew-like spirals around the body, as was first 
pointed out by E. Weber. The peculiar spiral attitudes into 
which the human body can be thrown are explained by the 
spiral curve of the vertebral articular surfaces, and the spiral 
arrangement of the muscles. 

h. No mammal can throw its trunk into those spiral 
curves which subserve the balance of the human frame, and 



THE ERECT POSITION IN MAN. 227 

confer the peculiar grace and expression of its movements. 
Progression in the human body costs less labour than in the 
animal. All man has to do is to bend his body forward, and 
then bring his pelvis forward by muscular action, the exertion 
requisite to do which is determined by the peculiar pendulum- 
like movements of the lower limbs. 

5. — The Haunch. 

a. The shafts of the human iliac bones are short and 
massive ; and the direction of their axes is altogether peculiar. 
They are vertical, and in front of the line of gravity. In the 
animal they are elongated, oblique from above downwards 
and backwards, and in addition are situated behind the line 
of gravity. The axis of the human ilium is very important, 
because the weight of the trunk is borne upon it. 

b. There are five parts in the haunch-bone of the mammal 
— viz. the sacral articular facet, the pubic symphysis, the 
ischial tuber, the anterior superior spine of ilium and the 
acetabulum, which, considered in regard to their relative 
positions, are quite peculiar in man. The line joining the 
sacral articular facet, and the acetabulum, is the axis of the 
iliac bones ; the remaining three points form the angles of a 
nearly equilateral triangle, to winch and to the sides and sur- 
faces of the triangles, the muscles which balance the trunk 
on the thigh-bone are attached. The sartorius, gracilis, and 
semi-tendinosus, are the three muscles which are connected to 
the angles of this triangle, muscles which are of great import- 
ance in balancing the body when standing on one leg. The 
human haunch-bone is the only form of haunch-bone adapted 
for the erect position. It is a lever of which the hip-joint 
is the fulcrum, the sacral facel representing the extremity of 
the arm for the resistance, the pubic symphysis, the ischial 
tuber, and the anterior superior spine of the ilium, the extremi- 
ties respectively of three arms for the power. 



228 THE ERECT POSITION IN MAN. 

c. The vertical direction of the axis of the iliac bone is 
due to the lumbar and sacral curvature, and to the pro- 
montory. 

6.— The Thigh. 

a. The human thigh-bone is relatively longer and more 
massive than in any animal form. 

b. In no animal thigh-bone is the neck so elongated and 
so oblique as in the human. 

c. In no animal thigh-bone are the areas for the attach- 
ment of its proper muscles so limited in extent, but at the 
same time so precisely expressed as in the human femur. 
The linea aspera is only met with in its proper form in man, 
and is to be regarded as an area, not as a mere line. The con- 
centration of muscular attachments on it is a necessary pro- 
vision for freedom of movement at the hip joint. 

d. The human femur is the only thigh-bone which can be 
extended beyond the line of axis of the vertebral column. 

e. The hip-joint can only be fully extended in man, and 
in man only does it become immovable in its extended posi- 
tion. All animals can fully flex the hip. 

/. The human hip-joint is the only hip-joint in which the 
extensor area is fully developed. Extension may take place 
from 140° to 160°, according to the mass of muscle which is 
interposed. This complete movement of extension at the 
human hip-joint is not due to any laxity of structure, but to 
the presence of a posterior or extensor area on the head of the 
femur. In apes and quadrupeds this extensor area is much 
more feeble than in man ; in birds it is scarcely to be seen. 

g. The proper muscles of the thigh are in man principally 
devoted to the balance of the trunk on the hip-joint. The 
corresponding muscles in the animal are chiefly devoted to 
the propulsion of the body. 

h. The extension of the human femur beyond the line of 



THE EEECT POSITION IN MAN. 229 

the axis of the spinal column is due to the vertical direction of 
the shaft of the iliac bone, along with the complete extension 
of the hip-joint. 

7.— The Leg. 

a. In no animal are the tibia and fibula collectively so 
fully developed and adapted to the actions of the foot, as in 
man. 

b. In no animal can the leg be extended into the line of 
axis of the thigh. 

c. The human knee-joint is the only knee-joint which ad- 
mits of complete extension. 

d. It is the only knee-joint provided with a complete 
extensor area. 

e. No form of leg presents extensor muscles so powerful 
as the human. 

/. The massive flexor muscles of the human leg act niainly 
on the trunk. 

8.— The Foot. 

a. The human foot is a plantigrade foot, 

b. The plantigrade foot in the animal is so constituted 
that its five digital columns (axes) are more or less uniformly 
engaged in the actions of the foot itself. In the human foot, 
again, its four outer digital columns play a subordinate part, 
while the inner column, that of the hallux, becomes the axis 
of the fool itself. 

c The four outer or subordinate columns of the human 
fool are arranged in two groups — the second and third forming 
tin- inner group next the hallux ; the fourth and tilth the 
mil it group. 

(I. The human loot lias, moreover, its constituent bones 
arranged in two Longitudinal series, or compound columns. 
The outer column, commencing behind, below, and external ly 
at the heel in the calcaneum, terminates in front and exter- 



230 THE ERECT POSITION IN MAN. 

nally in the three outer toes. The inner column, commencing 
behind, and above, and on the inner side in the astragalus at 
the ankle, terminates, in front and inwards, in the hallux 
and second and third toes. 

e. The integument of the sole of the animal plantigrade 
foot presents a pad for the heel, and pads below the metatarso- 
phalangeal joints. The sole of the human foot has three pads 
only, one for the heel, the other two corresponding to the 
metatarso-phalangeal portions of its two composite columns. 
The sole of the human foot is therefore peculiar, in presenting 
a strongly marked integumentary groove or fold indicating the 
distinct action of its two columns (Fig. 13). 

/. A line, extending from the outer part of the back of the 
heel to the point of the hallux, indicates the dynamic or 
proper axis of the human foot. 

g. In full extension of the ankle-joint, along with longi- 
tudinal curvature of the dorsum of the foot and complete 
extension of the great toe, that portion of the axis of the foot 
behind the great toe, may be brought almost in a line parallel 
to the line of gravity. No animal foot permits of such an 
amount of extension. 

h. The human foot is a tripod, the heel and inner pad 
being its fixed points, the outer pad the adjustable point. 

i. The human ankle joint is the only complete ankle joint; 
it alone possesses a complete extensor area. 

j. In man alone is the astragalus permitted by the 
completion of its articular connections with the calcaneum, 
scaphoid, and cuboid, to determine those delicate rocking and 
oblique movements of the human foot, which condition also 
the varied inclinatures of the limb and body on the foot. 

k. The structure in the ape corresponding to the human 
foot is a foot-hand, or manu-pcd. Presenting the fundamental 
type of the foot of the mammal, it is so modified as to form a 
clasping instrument. In certain respects it more nearly 



THE ERECT POSITION IN MAN. 231 

resembles thafonly perfect hand, the human hand, than the 
so-called hand in the anterior limb of the ape itself. 

I. The ankle-joint of the ape is so arranged as to throw 
the sole of the foot inwards, hence the ape walks on the outer 
margin of the foot. 

m. In man, while the muscles which act on the toes are 
fully differentiated, and precisely adjusted, they are compara- 
tively weaker than those of the ape. 

n. The deep or primary muscles of the ankle in the ape 
are comparatively stronger than in the human subject. The 
secondary extensors of the ankle in the ape are comparatively 
feebly developed. In man again they assume their complete 
form, and constitute the mass of the human calf. 

o. You are now in a position to perceive the nature of 
those arrangements in the human body, by which the erect 
position of man is conditioned. These arrangements essen- 
tially consist in a completion of those facets on which full 
extension of the lower limbs depends, and on the due co- 
ordinated curvature of the vertebral column. They are all of 
a nature involving the conception of absolutely complete 
structure, and they also involve, as I shall show more at large 
in my next lecture, highly important relations to the rational 
consciousness in humanity. 



232 THE UPPER LIMB IN MAN. 



LECTUEE IV. 



THE UPPER LIMB IN MAN. 



1. The evidence adduced in my last lecture is, in my 
opinion, amply sufficient to prove that the erect attitude, in 
contradistinction to what I must now term the semi-erect 
attitude in certain animals, has been conferred on man alone. 

2. The erect attitude in man is the principal condition of 
that high privilege which he enjoys of the free use of his 
upper limbs, in the performance of higher functions than the 
locomotory. 

3. The upper limbs in man are the immediate instruments, 
under the guidance of his rational consciousness, of that 
power with which he is invested over material nature. Set 
free by the peculiar construction of his lower limbs and 
spinal column, and presenting a peculiar organisation of their 
own. his upper limbs act freely in all those relations of space 
involved in the human conception of matter. 

4. The upper limbs, like the lower, consist of a proximal 
element — the shoulder, an intermediate element or shaft, 
consisting of the upper arm and fore-arm — and a distal ele- 
ment — the hand. 

5. — The Shoulder. 

a. The fundamental peculiarity of the human shoulder 
consists in the direction of its axis, which is a line extending 
from the body of the fourth dorsal vertebra to the upper area 
of the glenoid cavity ; and traversing, therefore, the body of 
the coracoid portion of the scapula. The shaft of the scapula 



THE UPPER LIMB IN MAN. 



233 



is inclined outwards and forwards against the axis of the 
shoulders, and meets it in the glenoid cavity. The 
shaft of the clavicle inclines much more backwards 
against the shoulder axis, passes above it, and abuts 
against the acromion, above the glenoid cavity. 
The axis of the shoulder is therefore at right angles, 
not only to the axis of the spine, but also to that 
of the haunch (Fig. 1). 

b. On the other hand, the axis of the shoulder 
of the animal is oblique, not only towards the 
haemal aspect, but also towards the cephalic ex- 
tremity of the axis of its spinal column ; that is, 
in an opposite direction to the obliquity of its 
haunch, which is oblique towards the coccygeal 
extremity of the spinal axis (Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5). The 
quadrupedal scapula is so oblique that the anterior 
ends of the two bones approach one another ante- 
riorly. These obliquities are of importance in Fir 2 
the animal economy. In the shoulder of the i- Axis of trunk. 

J 2. Axis of haunch. 

horse, for example, the more oblique the scapula 3 - Axis of shoulder 
the better adapted is the animal for speed. The scapula is 
the chief bone of the shoulder, as both the coracoid and 
clavicle may for the most part disappear. 




( lutline diagram of ■> Quadruped. 



Kin- 8. 

outline diagram < >r ,-i Monkey when In the hori- 
zontal position. 



c. The anatomical conditions which determine the antero- 
posterior and transverse obliquities respectively of the 
shoulder in the animal are : — 

1st, For the anteroposterior obliquitj — the upward curv- 



234 



THE UPPER LIMB IN MAN. 



ature of that portion of the neck from which the limb is 
developed. This is about the lower cervical and upper 





Fig. 4. 
Outline diagram of a Bird. 



Outline diagram of an Ape in its so-called 
erect position. 



dorsal region, and the limb is developed at right angles to the 
vertebral axis. In man there is not such a curvature back- 
wards of the lower part of the neck as in the other mammalia. 
2d. For the transverse obliquity — the lateral compres- 
sion of its thorax — which again, by bringing the quadrupedal 
scapulae close together anteriorly, constitutes one of the con- 
ditions of the locomotory function of the limb. 

d. The human scapulae lie on the neural aspect of the 
thorax ; the scapulae of the animal on its lateral aspects. 

e. In no animal does the scapula present platelike expan- 
sions and margins, comparatively so extended as in man, and 
in no animal are the spine of the scapula and the acromion 
so fully developed as in man. 

/. In no animal is the coracoid portion of the scapula 
proportionately so fully developed as in man. The coracoid 
process is comparatively more massive and curved in man ; 
and in addition, the coracoid portion of the glenoid articular 
surface, which carries the humerus in full extension, is only 
fully developed in man. 



THE UPPER LIMB IN MAN. 235 

g. The scapula and clavicle are more harmoniously 
developed in the human than in the animal shoulder. 

h. The strongly marked sigmoidal curvature of the human 
clavicle, and the peculiar curvatures of the scapular spine 
and acromion, are related to the transverse and horizontal 
direction of the axis of the shoulder ; for no animal has the 
acromial extremity of the clavicle fully developed, nor can the 
axis of the acromial portions of their opposite clavicles coin- 
cide with a common transverse line. The coincident transverse 
line of the opposite acromio-clavicular axes in man lies above 
the axes of the shoulders, and is parallel to them. 

i. The peculiar carriage of the human shoulders (the 
square shoulder) is due — 

1st. To the position of the scapula? on the posterior (neural) 
aspect of the trunk. 

2d. To the rectangular relations of the axes of the shoulders 
to the axis of the trunk ; and 

3d. To the curvatures of the clavicles. 
/,-. The movements of the human shoulder are — 
1st. Rotation from behind forwards, and from before back- 
wards, with the clavicle as a radius. 

2d. Rotation from below upwards, and from above dowm- 
wards, also with the clavicle as a radius. These two rectangular 
movements are so co-ordinated that each rotation may take 
place, more or less freely, in any given angular position of the 
other. The primary plane of the antero-posterior movement 
is the horizontal plane of the shoulder; and the primary 
plane of the movemenl from below upwards, is the transverse 
vertical plane in which the axis of the shoulder lies. 

/. As contrasted with the movements <»f the human 
Bhoulder, we find tliiit <>n account of the transverse obliquity 
of the areas of the shoulder in the mammal, and the lateral 
position of its BcapulsB, along with its horizontal attitude, 
the vertical rotation in man becomes an antero-posterior in 



236 THE UPPER LIMB IN MAN. 

the animal ; and the anteroposterior in man not only becomes 
an inward rotation, but is much diminished in extent in the 
apes, and is all but eliminated in the typical quadruped. 

6. — The Arm. 

a. The shaft of the upper limb in man, like that of the 
lower limb, is much more harmoniously developed as regards 
their lengths respectively to one another, to the length of the 
trunk, and to the lengths of thigh to leg, and of arm to fore- 
arm, than in the animal. The shafts of the human limbs are 
longer in relation to the trunk than in the animal. 

b. In the pendulous position of the human arm, its axis 
is at right angles to the axis of the shoulder. This may be 
termed the vertical position, or position of passive flexion. 
By muscular action it may be carried before or behind the 
trunk to about 30° beyond its vertical position; in such posi- 
tions it is in full flexion. It cannot be extended appreciably 
beyond the level of the axis of the shoulder without moving 
the scapula. From its fundamental extended position, in 
which it is in a line with the axis of the shoulder, it can be 
swept in rotation horizontally forward to about 30° nearer 
the mesial plane than its vertical position, and to the same 
extent in successive depressions or degrees of flexion, so far as 
the interposition of the trunk will permit, on to extreme 
flexion. 

c. No animal can fully extend the shoulder-joint — that is, 
bring it in a line with the axis of the shoulder. The amount 
of deficiency in flexion is equal to the angle of antero-posterior 
obliquity of the shoulder. And again, in proportion to the 
increase in transverse obliquity, is the limitation of the move- 
ments of the shoulder at right angles to the plane of flexion 
and extension. 

d. The distinct specialisation, and the great development 
of the deltoid in man, is in direct relation to the perfection 



THE Ur-PEK LIMB IN MAN. 237 

and extent of the movements of his shoulder-joint. In full 
extension there is a complete rotation of the humerus on its 
axis when the palm is turned upwards, which is due to 
the spiral twist of the bundles of the deltoid. On the sur- 
face of the head of the human humerus is a distinct area 
devoted to the movement of extension, which corresponds 
to the extension area of the femur. The larger figure (Fig. C) 





Fig. 6. 

is the head of the human humerus, the smaller that of the ape. 
The space lying immediately to the right of the dotted line 
in the former is the articular area for complete extension 
which is absent in the ape's humerus. The coracoid area in the 
glenoid cavity is the extensor area of that aspect of the joint. 
e. The shoulder-joint in man is alone provided with com- 
plete articular areas. 

7. — Forearm. 

a. No animal, not even the ape, can either fully extend or 
fully flex the elbow joint ; nor is any animal capable of com- 
pleting the movements of pronation and supination. 

b. In the ape, the flexor articular areas are less complete 
than tin; extensor, the movement of extension being especially 
required in swinging from tree to tree; and the groove be- 
tween tin' radial head of the humerus and the trochlea, instead 

of being nearly direct, as in man, takes the double oblique 
course of the ulnar trochlea The articular surface for the 
radius is confined to the anterior surface of the human 
humerus, so that it is in the Hexed or semi-flexed position 



238 THE UPPER LIMB IN MAN. 

that the movements of pronation and supination are most 
exactly performed. In the ape, the radial articular surface 
extends further backwards, so that it takes a share in the 
flexion and extension movements of the elbow joint. 

8.— The Hand. 

a. I shall confine my comparison of the human hand to 
the so-called hand of the ape ; and for the purpose of bring- 
ing before you in a distinct manner the principle which deter- 
mines the construction of the human hand, I shall confine 
my statements to such features of its structure as bear directly 
on that principle. 

b. The human hand is the only perfect or complete hand. 
In no other is there such a freely moveable thumb, capable of 
such complete opposition, which is provided for by the saddle- 
shaped surfaces of its carpo-metacarpal joint. The opposition 
of the thumb must be distinguished from the apposition of 
the great toe, the tarso-metatarsal joint of which admits of 

movements in one plane only. The 

J peculiar obliquity of the metacarpo- 

i phalangeal joints of the four fingers 

must be noted ; those of the index and 

/ middle extend downwards into the 

palm towards the thumb ; that of the 

ring partially, and that of the little 

considerably downwards, and towards 

the ulnar side of the palm. It is owing 

to this that the little finger possesses 

Fi _ the power of being opposed to the 

outline diagram of the skeleton thumb. When the hand is clenched, 

of the human hand. The dotted 

lines indicate the direction of the th e points of the fingers tend to the 

movements at the metaearrio- *■ ° 

phalangeal joints. radial gide> j n ^ gkin of th& palm 

certain folds may be seen, which are indicative of the effects 
produced on the skin by the movements of the joints. 1st, 
the great oblique fold for the thumb. 2d and 3d, two oblique 



/ 



THE UPPER LIMB IN MAN. 



239 



folds, the proximal from the radial to the ulnar sides ; the 
distal from the ulnar to the web of the 2d and 3d dibits. 




Fig. 8. 
Palm of human hand, showing the direction of the great tegumentary folds. 

The human hand may be hollowed into a cup, and it can 
grasp a sphere. It is an instrument of manipulation co- 
extensive with human activity. 

c The hand of the ape is an imperfect hand, with clearly 
defined points of difference and inferiority, when compared 
with the human hand. Its thumb is short and feeble, and 
the axes of the metacarpophalangeal articulations of the 
fingers arc inclined towards the thumb. It can embrace a 
cylinder, as the branch of a I ree, and is principally subservient 
to the arboreal habits of the animal. Its fingers grasp the 
c\ lindcr in a scries of spirals. The proximal and distal grooves 

VOL. I. It 



240 



THE UPPER LIMB IN MAN. 



on its palm are transverse, and not oblique. There are also 

radiating grooves, commencing at the carpal end of the palm. 

d. The human hand and the hand of the ape are not only 

hands when viewed morphologically, but 

they are also hands when considered from 

the teleological point of view. 

e. The human foot and the ape's foot 
are morphologically feet, but the human 
foot is not only morphologically but teleo- 
logically a foot ; and, moreover, the only 
perfect and complete foot, whereas the 
ape's foot is teleologically a hand. The 
metatarso-phalangeal joints of the human 
foot all incline outwards from the great 
toe, due to the direction of the pressure 
upon them. This outward inclination 
gives breadth to the foot. In the foot of 
the ape the metatarso-phalangeal joints 
all incline in the 

Palm of apSand, showing Same direction 

tegumental^ folds. ' ° as the metacarpo- 
phalangeal joints in its hand. The 
foot is consequently clenched like a 
fist. In the sole of the human foot 
there is a great longitudinal groove, 
commencing in front of the heel-pad, 
which is the tegumentary indica- 
tion of the double-columned arrange- 
ment In the sole of the ape there 
is a longitudinal groove which comes Flg " 10 ' , , ± 

° ° Outline diagram of the skeleton 

out on the outer side of the great toe, £&?£ 5SSttotfSflSS 
and corresponds to the thumb fold ggg! at tLe me ^*>-i> ha,ai1 ^ 
of its hand. 

9. As man enjoys the privilege of a complete and independ- 





THE UPPER LIMB IN MAN. 



241 



ent use of his lower limbs, he has hi like manner (and to a 
certain extent conditioned by his erect attitude) a completely 
developed upper limb. 

I 




Fig. 11. 

Outline diagram of the skeleton of 
the human (nut, showing the outward 
movement at the metatarso-phalan- 
geal joints. 




Fig. 12. 

Outline diagram of the skeleton of 
the ape's foot, showing the inward 
movement of the metatarso-phalan- 
geaJ joints. 



1 0. The principle on which the completeness of the upper 
limb in man is based consists in its purposes as an instru- 





I 18. 

Bole of the human foot, show- 
ing thegreal longitudinal groove. 



Pig. 1 1. 

i lug its 
longitudinal gi 



menl for acting on matter, in terms of his human faculty 
of thinking in space. His erecl attitude gives him reach in 



242 THE UPPER LIMB IN MAN. 

length ; his power of extending his shoulder joint reach in 
breadth ; by means of his hand he can grasp in all the 
relations of space. 

11. Finally, in reference to completeness of the human 
skeleton with the joints and muscles, man is not only alone 
in his erect position, but he alone can lay himself in the 
prone and the supine positions. This he is enabled to do by 
the antero-posterior compression of his thorax. 



THE INTEGUMENT AND ORGANS OF SENSE, ETC. IN MAN. 243 



LECTUEE V. 

THE INTEGUMENT AND ORGANS OF SENSE AND SPEECH IN MAN. 

1 . — TJie Integument. 

a. It would appear to be essential for the economy of every 
kind of organism that the general mass of structure should 
be invested by an integument. 

b. The integument may serve as a means of preserving 
the general form, as a protection from external influences, as 
an excretory apparatus, as an absorbent medium ; aud, lastly, 
as an arrangement for placing the nervous system in relation 
to external objects. 

c. All these functions of the integument are brought more 
or less prominently into operation by special modifications of 
structure in the animal kingdom. But in no animal do we 
find the integument so harmoniously developed, for all its 
special ends, as in man. 

d. In no animal is the sub-cutaneous fatty tissue com- 
paratively so coherent and elastic as in man ; nor in any 
animal is it disposed so as to afford that strongly-marked but 
softened display of the form and movements of subjacenl 
parts, which contributes so mnch character to the human 
form. 

e. Like the general muscular system, which is fully special 

i ed in man, the cutaneous muscular system, or panniculus 
camosus, although of comparatively limited extent, is also 
fully specialised, and, in thii respect, distinguished from the 
corresponding system in the animal. No animal presenl 



244 THE INTEGUMENT AND OKGANS OF 

that complete specialisation of the cutaneous muscular arrange- 
ments of the head and neck, which completes the mechanism 
of the eyebrows, eyelids, nostrils, cheeks, lips, chin, and neck 
in man ; and confers on him that power and extent of cor- 
poreal expression which he alone possesses. 

/. The human skin is remarkable for its combined density, 
toughness, and pliancy. In no animal are the arrangements 
for permitting the necessary foldings of the skin during the 
movement of the body so elaborately carried out as in man. 
These folds are permanent arrangements co-ordinated with 
the movements of the subjacent parts, and divide the skin into 
areas of greater or less extent. They are developed in their 
greatest complexity in the face, hands, and feet; also around 
the joints. Although specific in their character, they vary 
from individual to individual, but so precisely are they co- 
ordinated with subjacent parts, that individual differences in 
the conformation of such parts may be safely assumed from 
observation of the folds of the enveloping skin. 

g. The oil-glands of the human skin, although widely and 
elaborately distributed, do not distinguish it in so marked a 
manner from the skin in the higher animals, as the system of 
sweat glands ; which latter appear to reach their complete 
development, and most extended distribution, in man. 

h. The semi-transparent and iridescent character of the 
cuticle in man contributes largely to the characteristic aspect 
of the human body. 

i. The distribution and character of the hair in man is 
highly characteristic, and indicative of the distinct and 
peculiar nature of his economy. In the higher animals, hair 
is provided for protection and warmth. It serves more varied 
ends in the human economy. That protection and warmth, 
which is directly provided for the animal in its hairy covering, 
is left to be provided for the human body by its indwelling 
intelligence. That sex which, by the very constitution of 



SENSE AND SPEECH IN MAN. 245 

humanity, is most exposed to external influences in the accom- 
plishment of his daily labour, is provided with a covering for 
head, face, trunk, and limbs, sufficient to afford that kind 
and amount of protection which the nature of his economy re- 
quires in the varied circumstances of climate and occupation. 
To a certain extent, and co-ordinate with her conditions of 
life, integumentary arrangements of a similar kind are pro- 
vided for the other sex. These protective arrangements of the 
hair in man are, however, altogether subordinate. The prin- 
ciple which determines the distribution of hair on the human 
body, appears to be based on the higher form of the emotional 
and aesthetic phases of the human constitution. The charac- 
teristic aspect of the human frame is undoubtedly due in great 
measure to that peculiar variation in the hair development of 
its different integumentary areas ; and no one who considers 
the subject in all its bearings, can fail to observe the remark- 
able co-ordination which exists between these corporeal 
attributes, and the emotional phase of human consciousness. 
In no animal is the direction or arrangement of the hair so 
complex as in man. 

k. The sensibility of the human skin is its most important 
physiological feature. No animal displays a cutaneous nervous 
system so developed as the human. 

/. The plan of distribution of the cutaneous nerves of the 
trunk in man, and the higher vertebrata, is identical. But in 
consequence of the erect attitude in man, the six rows of 
cutaneous nerves, two posterior, two anterior, and a right ami 
left lateral, are vertical Instead of horizontal The vertical 
arrangemenl of these rows of sensitive skin areas, on the front, 
sides, ami back of the body, are thus specially associated with 
thai ereel attitude, which we have alreadj seen to be a m 
sary corporeal co-ordination with thai faculty of the human 
mind, by which we are enabled to think in -parr. 

m. The human skin is characterised by the precision of its 



246 THE INTEGUMENT AND OKGANS OF 

tactile sensibility, as well as by its full physiological relations 
to temperature, pressure, and muscular action. In no animal 
are the tactile arrangements on the distal portions of the limbs 
so fully developed as in man. No form of ape exhibits the 
same complex and relatively minute arrangement of tactile 
ridges as in the human hands and feet. These ridges have 
centres of evolution and angular points of convergence, as is 
the case with the hair in other localities. In the human 
hand, the tactile ridges at the points of the fingers are very 
complicated, and relatively minute. In the human foot, the 
great tactile area is on the outer pad of the foot. The sensi- 
bility of the human sole is of primary importance in locomo- 
tion, as in man two limbs only are employed, and the body is 
occasionally even balanced only on one foot. 

11. Finally, the human integument is directly developed in 
reference to the intellectual and emotional phases of his con- 
stitution. 

• 2. — Smell and Taste. 

a. The organs of smell and taste in man are distinguished 
anatomically by their apparent feebleness of development, 
and physiologically by their much more extended spheres of 
action. 

b. The human olfactory organ is comparatively limited in 
extent. The upper wall of the nose — the cribriform plate — is 
parallel to the horizontal plane of the head ; its direction 
being indicated by that of the fronto-ethmoidal suture. 

c. The sense of smell in man is apt to be blunted by his 
habits of life. But although this sense is actually more 
acute in certain animals for special odours ; no animal 
apparently possesses an appreciation so extensive of odours 
in general. 

d. The structural arrangements which subserve the sense 
of taste are not confined to the tongue, but extend along the 



SENSE AND SrEECII IN MAX. 247 

fauces and palate. All those arrangements in the tongue, 
fauces, and palate, which adapt those parts to their functions 
in the process of digestion, adapt them also to the sense of 
taste. Of the special adaptations of those parts in man, the 
most important are the great tactile sensibility of the tongue, 
and the horizontal position of the mouth. 

e. There is, probably, no difference in the sense of sapidity, 
or taste proper, of man and the higher animals, except, per- 
haps, in its delicacy in man. Animals undoubtedly possess 
the sense of flavour in special forms. But there are sufficient 
grounds for assuming that no animal can employ his organs 
of smell and taste in combination to the extent of apprecia- 
tion of flavour as it exists in man. Many of the sensations 
we are in the habit of regarding as due to taste are probably 
merely modifications of touch. The positive sapidities are 
probably not more than four or five. 

/. The senses of smell and taste, in their isolated and 
combined effects, are associated with the emotions and appe- 
tites in man, to an extent not generally fully appreciated. 

(j. In the animal both senses are devoted, but in a relatively 
lower sphere, to certain of their instinctive emotions and 
appetites. 

3. — Tlic Eye and Ear. 

a. The eye and ear in man being more immediately asso- 
ciated with his higher interests, present special arrangements, 
having Important bearings on the subject of the present 
course. I cannot, in the time at our disposal, enter at any 
Length into the consideration of the eye and ear in man, and in 
tli'' animal kingdom. I shall confine myself to-day to certain 
relations <>r these organs, which I shall have t<> recur to in 
my m-xi Lecture, on 1 lie head aud brain. 

I). Tin: fronto-ethmoida] suture in the human orbil is 
horizontal, thai is to Bay, it i: parallel i" the axis of the 



2-48 THE INTEGUMENT AND ORGANS OF 

head. It is inclined to that axis in the animal. The value 
of the angle formed gives the angular value of inclination 
of the head. This suture indicates in animals the proper 
position of the orbit and head ; when it is horizontal, the head 
is in the position of normal obliquity. 

c. The human orbit presents three walls, and in like 
manner, when perfect in the mammalian series, it consists 
of three walls, the inner, outer, and superior wall. The only 
orbit in which the inner walls of opposite orbits converge 
forwards is the human, so that in it only, when the orbits 
are looked into directly from the front, can the two optic 
foramina be seen at one time. 

d. The planes of the apertures of the opposite orbits in 
the mammalian series are inclined forwards towards one 
another, at an angle which increases as the series descends. 
These planes of the orbital apertures are also in a descending 
order inclined upwards and inwards. In man the planes 
of the orbital apertures coalesce. They are transverse and 
vertical. The margin of the human orbit presents at the 
same time an oblique double curvature, not observable in the 
ape or in any lower form. The margin is co-ordinated with 
the great amount of movement of the human eyeball, especially 
through the oblique muscles. An inclination of the orbital 
plane, upwards and inwards, takes place in the mammalian 
series, but not in man. 

e. The human orbit presents the most elongated form, and 
most extended outer wall. 

/. These orbital peculiarities of the human skull are spe- 
cial provisions for a greater freedom and extent of visual direc- 
tions, but more especially to provide for a more perfect binocu- 
lar vision. 

(j. The semicircular canals of the organ of hearing are 
connected with the sense of direction of sound. They are 
situated at right angles to each other. No one is situated 



SENSE AND SPEECH IN MAN. 249 

precisely right and left to its fellow, or to the axis. The little 
shelves in the ampullar dilatations at the ends of these canals 
lie in three rectangular planes to each other. The antero- 
posterior canal has its shelf horizontal. The posterior has its 
shelf facing forwards and backwards. The shelf of the ex- 
ternal or horizontal canal faces right and left. 

h. The horizontal position, which appears essential to the 
efficiency of the semicircular canals, and is a marked feature 
in man, is provided for in the head of the animal by the same 
changes which render its visual axis horizontal. 

4. — Voice. 

a. The human larynx is characteristically simple and com- 
plete in its arrangements. Its special characters are the 
mobility of the arytenoid cartilages, the complex curvatures 
of the crico-arytenoid articulations, and the total absence of 
any superadded acoustic arrangement. The perfection of its 
structure is evinced in the purity of its tones, and the extent 
of its intonation. The erect attitude in man, by which the 
lungs are brought beneath, and the air sinuses of the head 
above the larynx, and, in addition, the vertical position of the 
organ itself, all conduce to the perfection of the mechanism of 
the human larynx. 

b. The cochlea is apparently the structure which controls 
the action of the larynx. Loth structures are co-ordinated in 
the mosl remarkable manner with the aesthetic phases of the 
human conscious principle. They appear also to be intimately 

iated, I trough conned inns of the ear and the brain, wit li 
the higher forms of associated muscular action. In playing 
on musical instruments, tin' wonderful power of manipulation 
which can be attained is nut a mere habit. It is due to a 
positive nervous mechanism connected indirectly with the 
organ of hearing. 



250 THE INTEGUMENT AND ORGANS OF 

5. — Speech. 

a. As the instinctive consciousness of the animal provides 
each individual of the species with the faculty of acting in 
co-operation with its fellows, the social, or other instrumental 
signs or signals by which direct intercommunication is 
effected, are comparatively simple. As human action, again, 
is essentially dependent on man's rational consciousness, it 
becomes an important condition of his welfare that a portion 
of his corporeal mechanism should be such as to supply him 
with a system of intercommunicating signals co-ordinate with 
the universality of his conscious acts. 

b. As a special modification of the upper end of the air 
tube is provided as the instrument of voice in man and the 
mammalia, so in like manner the mechanism of speech is 
provided for man alone in peculiar modifications of his buccal 
pharyngeal and nasal chambers. 

c. The mechanism of speech is such that certain voluntary 
dispositions of its parts induce in the air generally, during ex- 
piration, certain sounds termed articulate sounds, which may 
be mute or unvocalised — i.e., unaccompanied by laryngeal 
action as in the whisper, or intoned as in ordinary speech, 
which is produced in co-ordination with the voice. It is 
wrong to suppose that speech is not provided for by the struc- 
ture of the mouth. No animal has its lips pouting outwards 
like those of a man, not even the chimpansee, in which the 
lips are drawn together over the convex rows of the teeth. 
Man is peculiar in the vertical direction of his teeth, the pos- 
terior surfaces of the front teeth being adapted to the tip of 
Ids tongue. The human tongue has scarcely any body, only 
root, tip, and margin. The short-vaulted palate of man is 
peculiar, and adapted to the dorsum of the tongue. The human 
pharynx and fauces are peculiar in the shortness and mobility 
of the uvula, which is the chief framer of vocal sounds. The 



SENSE. AND SPEECH IN MAN. 251 

upper pharyngeal chamber is very capacious in man, and 
communicates with the nose ; and the frontal sinuses increase 
the extent of this chamber. 

d. Languages vary in the number of articulate sounds 
involved in their construction. They also vary in their 
relative preference for certain forms of articulate sounds. 

e. Articulate sounds are merely the elements, by the com- 
bination of which, the composite sounds, or words, which 
actually constitute a language are formed. 

/. All words are originally appellative — i.e., expressive of 
general or abstract ideas or conceptions. Words employed as 
special or proper terms, as also words expressive of relation, 
are of secondary formation, being derived by modification 
from the primordial forms or roots, and applied, in the con- 
struction of any given language, in a manner determined by 
the economy of the linguistic group, to which the language 
belongs. 

g. In the course of that remarkable development which 
language has hitherto exhibited, and which it is undoubtedly 
destined to undergo in the future, and in which older lan- 
guages apparently disappear and new languages apparently 
arise, but in reality only as modified forms of their pre- 
decessors ; the primordial words or roots themselves become 
so much modified, that in the more advanced forms of lan- 
guage their presence can only be detected by linguistic 
methods of research. 

h. The number of possible linguistic roots must be de- 
termined by the adaptability of the mechanism of speech for 
their production. The actual number in use in different 
languages is probably determined — 

1st. By the relative difficulty in executing certain forms of 
them ; 

2d. By that difficulty in executing certain of them induced 
by ethnological differences in the mechanism of articulation ; 
and 



252 THE INTEGUMENT AND OEGANS OF 

3d. By the selection of the more appropriate forms. 

i. It thus appears that these composite sounds which 
men originally employed as abstract terms have supplied the 
roots or primordial forms of all words employed in languages. 

h. The same principle appears to determine the process of 
acquisition of language by the child. The impressions made 
by external objects on the consciousness of the infant appear 
to be merely general impressions, as indicated in the terms 
employed by it to express them. As it advances in its course 
of self-tuition, and as the special properties of external bodies, 
and their various relations to one another, and to itself, be- 
come recognised by it, it applies terms of a more special and 
relational character. It thus avails itself, in the acquisition 
of its mother-tongue, of the same analytical process by which 
every form of speech has been, and will be developed, and by 
which, be it recollected, all acquired human knowledge has 
been attained. 

I. It would appear, therefore, that as the roots from which 
the various classes of words have been derived are expressions 
of general ideas or conceptions of the different properties, 
qualities, relations, and attributes, of the objects to which 
they were originally applied, their original adoption is in ac- 
cordance with the peculiar constitution of the human con- 
scious principle ; in virtue of which its special processes are 
conducted under those general modes or forms of thought by 
which it is fitted for the intellectual and moral ends of human 
existence. It appears, therefore, incontestable, that the 
peculiar character of the human consciousness is the fun- 
damental condition of speech; and that no animal talks, 
because every animal economy is conditioned by a merely 
instinctive form of consciousness. 

m. As speech therefore is merely thought expressed 
phonetically, it remains to be considered — 



SENSE AND SPEECH IN MAN. 253 

1st. How man has been led to employ phonetic means to 
express his thoughts ; and 

2d. On what principle he made choice of certain radicals 
to express certain conceptions. 

_: n. Man, like the animal, has been endowed with an in- 
stinctive disposition to employ those organs or instruments 
which are subject to the will. We cannot doubt, therefore, 
that the employment of the mechanism for articulation is 
provided for in a co-ordinate instinctive impulse. This instinct 
however, is only operative when the sense of hearing is 
sufficient, and the perfect use of its appropriate mechanism 
can only be attained under the guidance of the ear. The child, 
through its organs of hearing, is induced and enabled to imi- 
tate the articulation and intonation of those around it, and by 
the same instrumental means it controls and rectifies its own 
imperfect utterances. Speech, therefore, although based on the 
conscious principle of humanity, and provided for in an in- 
stinctive corporeal mechanism, is actually acquired by a 
combined course of self-tuition and education. 

o. In learning to speak, the child is supplied, through its 
organs of 'hearing, with the radicals of its native language, 
already developed into the grammatical forms of that tongue. 
The tenacity with which phonetic types, or root-forms, 
retain their value in the successive developments of language, 
is involved in the question as to the principle on which choice? 
was made of a certain type of articulate combination, to 
express certain conceptions. That such choice was the result 
of a selection and retention of the most suitable out of 
numerous provisional forms, appears to be an assumption tend- 
ing to complicate unnecessarily the entire subject I myself 
should l"' inclined to assume, as ;i probable solution, thai there 
exists in the human constitution, a co-ordination between 1 1 1 * > 
possible articulate combinations, and a special phase of the 
consciou principle, in the same sense as that co-ordination, 



254 THE INTEGUMENT AND 01IGANS OF 

which undoubtedly exists between the physical value of 
musical notes produced in the larynx, and the aesthetic phase 
of human consciousness. Behind this fact, however, lies one of 
the most important questions in anthropology. How was primi- 
tive speech acquired? Did primitive man, unassisted, determine 
in the first place what attribute of a given object should be 
selected for its name, and thereafter employ the appropriate 
phonetic sign for that purpose ? Did he, fully provided 
psycho-physiologically for the development of a form of speech 
for himself, gradually accomplish that task ? Or was he, in 
his peculiar circumstances, supplied with advantages equivalent 
to that early training which facilitates the acquisition of speech 
by his successors. I shall reserve what I have to say in 
reference to these questions for a future lecture ; at present, 
that I may not be misunderstood, I would merely state, 

1st, That these questions involve points which cannot be 
solved by science or history. 

2d, That in these, as in all other great questions in 
anthropology, the conclusions to which we come, or the 
opinions we may entertain regarding them, ought to be such 
as have been arrived at by giving due weight to ail the evi- 
dence, direct and indirect, with which we are supplied ; and 

3d, That my own opinion, regulated by such principles as 
I have now and on a former occasion brought under your 
notice is this — That man is fitted, by his conscious and cor- 
poreal constitution, to develope and employ speech, but that 
the employment of the faculty by the child demands a certain 
amount of preliminary initiation ; and that primitive man, 
in his peculiar circumstances, was in this, as in other essential 
elements of his spiritual and material welfare, beneficently 
supplied with the necessary initiation by an immediate or 
Divine process or act. 

p. Language, when considered as a fundamental endow- 
ment of the human economy, and at the same time in its con- 



SENSE AND SPEECH IN MAN. 255 

tinuous development in the progress of humanity, presents a 
double aspect. From one point of view it appears as a 
human faculty, from another as the result of human art. But 
strictly it has no place among the works of man. Man has 
no control over it ■ he is merely an unconscious agent in its 
changes and progress. The first actual addition made by 
man to his faculty of speech is his written language, which 
has been followed up by all those arrangements by which 
thought and knowledge are recorded and transmitted through 
space and time. 



70L. I. 



256 SKULL AND BRAIN IN MAN. 



LECTURE VI. 

SKULL AND BRAIN IN MAN. 

1. In bringing under your consideration to-day the relative 
structural arrangements of the skull and brain in man and 
the animal, I shall not touch on any of those topics which 
have recently conferred on the subject a kind of notoriety, at 
all times adverse to the progress of science, but shall confine 
myself to points which will supply us with data for the illus- 
tration of the special object of this course. 

The Skull. 

a. The cephalic axis (axis of head) is a right line extend- 
ing in the mesial plane, from the anterior margin of the 
occipital foramen, along the floor of the nose to the incisive 
openings, and prolonged to the cartilaginous extremity of the 
nose. The floor of the nasal fossas in man and mammals, 
until we come low down in the series, is remarkably straight 
as far as the incisive foramen, at which there is a ridge. The 
line of the cephalic axis must be taken as a central line, be- 
cause in the examination of the axis of the spine we found 
that its axial line came in contact through the axis vertebra 
with the anterior margin of the foramen magnum. The 
assumption of a line which shall represent the axis of the 
cranium involves the idea of its being continuous with that 
of the spine. The axial line of the head is horizontal. In 
man alone does this line touch the posterior as well as the 
anterior margin of the foramen magnum. 



SKULL AND BRAIN IN MAN. 257 

b. The cervi co-cephalic angle is the angle made by the axis 
of the spine with the axis of the head. This angle does not 
exist in the fish and amphibian, in which the axis of the 
head and spine forms a continuous line. In reptiles, birds, 
and mammals, this angle is more or less ~ ■ 

marked, but in none of them does it mm ___ ma ^_ 

reach a right angle. In the different ^\ 

mammals the angle varies with the ' — 

species. In man alone is the cervico- 
cephalic angle a right angle. Fig. 15. 

c. In man the occipital foramen, «fiSg^S?tf ,ft 

-. , •. p /> ,1 -, reptile, bird, or mammal, and of 

and the upper surfaces of the nasal a man. 

fossa) lie in a horizontal plane, the mesial line of which is 

the cephalic axis. 

In the animal (mammal) again, the occipital foramen and 
floor of the nose lie in two planes at an angle to one another. 
The palatal plane, in which the cephalic axis lies, is inclined 
downwards at the cervico-cephalic angle. The occipital plane 
is inclined upwards from the palatal at an angle which 
increases in the descending order of the mammalian series. 

d. Tn man the cribriform plate, and the line of osseous 
attachment of the tentorium, lie in a plane parallel to the 
palato-occipital, and therefore horizontal. 

In the animal tin's plane is divided, so that its cribriform 
and tentorial portions are elevated at an angle which increases 
with the descent of the mammalian series. 

(I. The squamous plate of the occipital bone, and the plane 
of the occipital foramen are inclined to one another in man, 
at an angle which increases with the developmenl of the 
cerebellum. This angle, which may be termed the squamo- 
oceipital, increases in the descending series of the mammals. 

r. The slope of the basilar process forms, with the line 
of the cephalic axis, an angle which diminishes as we 
descend the series. This angle the occipito ba ilai angle — 



258 SKULL AND -BRAIN IN MAN. 

is important in the investigation of the varieties of human 
crania. 

/. The spheno-basilar angle is the angle formed by the 
upper surface of the basilar process, and the floor of the Sella 
Turcica. It increases from man downwards, and is a most 
important element in the construction of the human skull. 

g. The spheno-ethmoid angle is the angle between the 
anterior sphenoid and the cribriform plates. It exists in man 
in a more or less developed form ; but so that the cribriform 
side of the angle is, in well-formed heads, horizontal. In the 
descending animal series the ethmoidal side of the angle rises 
so as at last to assume the rectangular position. 

h. As the nasal bones rise with the cribriform plates in 
the descending series, the ethmoido-nasal angle diminishes. 
The extent of the ethmoido-nasal angle is a marked feature of 
the human head. 

*. There are three series of curvatures in the construction 
of the skull : — 

1st, The primordial curvature. 

2d, The secondary or permanent curvatures of the base, 
which are represented in the series of occipito-basilar, spheno- 
basilar, spheno-ethmoidal, and ethmoido-nasal angles, and the 
resultant of which is represented in the cephalic axis. 

3d, The antero-posterior and transverse curvatures of the 
vault of the cranium. 

h. In comparing the secondary or permanent curvatures of 
the base of the skull in man and the animal, it is evident that 
the amount of curvatures is much greater in man than in the 
descending series of mammals. 

• Moreover, in the greater curvature of his cranium, man 
retains in great measure the primordial or embryo curvature, 
whereas the lower we go in the series of vertebrata, the more 
completely do the primordial curvatures disappear or become 
masked. 



SKULL AND BEMN IN MAN. 259 

The greater curvature of the human skull is the fun- 
damental condition of that enormous additional space afforded 
for the human brain, and also for the relatively abundant 
space provided for the nasal, oral, and pharyngeal cavities. 

We must associate the diminution of the spheno-basilar 
angle, and the elimination of the palato-occipital angle, with 
the increased depth of the cerebellar fossae, with the horizon- 
tality of the tentorium, and with the extension backwards, 
and vaulted form of the parietal region of the cranium, for the 
reception of the posterior lobes of the cerebrum. 

Again we must associate the elimination of the spheno- 
ethmoidal angle, and the diminution of another angle, the 
vomerine (to be alluded to in the sequel), with the horizon- 
tality of the cribriform plate, and of the orbital plates of the 
frontal with which that plate is connected, as well as with 
the vaulted form of the frontal itself ; and, consequently, with 
the great increase in the mass and complexity of the anterior 
lobes of the human cerebrum. The same peculiarities secure 
for man the inferior position, and horizontal arrangement, of 
tli>- nasal chambers, orbits, and oral cavity. 

The antero-posterior and transverse curvatures of the vault 
of the skull, as well as the curvatures of the fossae on the floor 
of the cranial cavity, are anatoniicalty conditioned by the sur- 
face curvatures of the respective lobes of the cerebrum and 
cerebellum. The mass and form of the entire brain is the 
condition which determines the volume and curvature of the 
several compartments of the cavity which contains it, while 
the required mass of the entire organ is the condition which 
d ttermines the permanence of the primordial form of antero- 
rior curvatures. 

1. The vomerine angle i the angle between the lower 
aspect of tin' sphenoid, and the posterior margin "I' the vomi r. 
li is leasl in man, and Increases as we descend the series of 
the mammal . Che ch oi tin', angle is the prir 



200 SKULL AND BRAIN IN MAN. 

dition of the horizontal depression of the cribriform plate in 
man. It is the measure of the depression of the anterior ex- 
tremity of the human cranial axis — i.e., it renders it horizontal. 
It is intimately related to the vertical position and horizontal 
relations of the human nasal chambers, orbits, mouth, and 
lower jaw ; as also to the depth and shortness of the facial 
portion of the human skull ; and, finally, it is an important 
element in the examination of abnormal forms of skull, and 
in ethnological research. 

TJix Brain. 

a. The geometrical relations of the various parts of the 
skull in man and the animal, to which I have now briefly 
directed your attention, will, I trust, be sufficient to satisfy 
you that the subject demands a much more precise method 
of inquiry than has hitherto been employed ; and, in addition, 
that it promises results similar in kind to those which we 
attained by the application of this method to the investigation 
of the trunk and limbs. 

b. The additional space which is obtained in the human 
cranium, like the completed areas of the joints in the human 
limbs, is provided for additional structure and corresponding 
extension of functions. But where, as in the former, the 
additional structures and functions were at once recognisable ; 
in the brain, on the other hand, we can, in the present phase 
of science, only recognise the masses added. Of the structure 
and function of those additional masses we know at present 
nothing, beyond the little which has been ascertained regard- 
ing the mechanism and actions of the organ generally. 

c. The anatomy of the masses of the brain is the mere 
rudiment of the subject — the actual anatomy of the brain is 
its internal mechanism. Till that mechanism has been ascer- 
tained in man and the animal, the question as to the human 
and animal brain cannot be solved, and ought not therefore 



SKULL AND BRAIN IN MAN. 2G1 

to be discussed in a dogmatic tone. I shall be satisfied if I 
have succeeded in indicating to you the grounds upon which 
I myself entertain the firm conviction that, as the human 
brain exhibits in its geometrical proportions and mass a great 
superiority over the brain of any animal, a superiority similar 
to that presented by the human bones, joints, muscles, and 
organs of sense, so, in like manner, it may even now be safely 
assumed that under that cloud of ignorance which at present 
conceals its inner mechanism, there exists a structural and 
functional completeness which will be found to distinguish it 
from every other form of brain. 



262 TELEOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY. 



LECTUEE VII. 

TELEOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY. 

To complete the structural comparison of man and the 
animal, an examination of their respective arrangements for 
nutrition and reproduction should be now introduced. These 
two organic systems are more immediately related to the 
instinctive or animal department of the human economy, 
and the structures appertaining to them in man differ from 
those in the higher animal rather in their harmonious ad- 
justments than in special modification. 

The position of man in nature might then appropriately 
now occupy our attention, but as a preliminary to this aspect 
of the question we must examine the value of the differences 
between the structure of man and the animal, to which our 
attention "has been directed in the previous lectures. 

The values of structural differences and similarities vary 
according to the anatomical point of view. In this examina- 
tion, therefore, we must keep the fundamental principles of 
anatomical comparison steadily before us. 

The fundamental principles of anatomical comparison are 
involved in that twofold aspect which organic structure 
presents, and in virtue of which we are compelled to in- 
vestigate every structural arrangement from two apparently 
opposite points of view ; and thus to develope two parallel 
departments of the science — teleological and morphological 
anatomy. 

Teleological anatomy investigates structure with reference 



TELEOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY. 263 

to its final cause ; that is, iii relation to the ends or purposes 
for which the structure and its parts have "been provided. 

Morphological anatomy, again, investigates the laws, the 
forms, and arrangements of structure, and entirely excludes 
the conception of purpose or function. 

These two departments of anatomical science are not 
artificial divisions of the subject, but are essential in their 
respective characters, as resulting from the constitution of 
organic bodies themselves. Every form of animal body is a 
more or less composite system, the parts being constructed 
and co-ordinated to one another, and with immediate refer- 
ence to its conscious principle, and to its area of action. 
Every part of its mechanism, therefore, is constructed not 
only in reference to other parts of the system, but also in 
reference to its entire economy. 

You will now observe that the special anatomy of a single 
form, or the various special anatomies which collectively 
constitute the comparative form of the science, deals with 
structural differences rather than with structural similarities ; 
for in the differences lie involved all those co-ordinations — 
structural, psychical, and cosmical — which collectively con- 
stitute a species. 

As our instinctive belief — that every part of an organic 
structure or mechanism, like the mechanism itself, has an 
end or purpose in its constitution — is the principle which 
guides us in the prosecution and application of teleological 
anatomy ; so, in like manner, we are compelled, in extending 
(Mil- examination of organic structure, to recognise the ex- 
istence of laws <»f form and arrangemenl i.e, formal laws in 
the constitution of organised bodies and their parts. We 
find, for instance, thai the entire animal kingdom consists of 
forms, which fall into groups of greater ot Less extent, as 
characterised by the mere form and arrangemenl of the parts 
of their corj sal mechanisms. Now, from the constitution 01 



264 TELEOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY. 

the human mind, we are compelled to conceive for each of 
these groups an abstract conception, or type of mechanism 
according to which we find that, however varied the teleo- 
logical anatomy of the constituent species of any group may 
be, all of these species, nevertheless, possess a mechanism 
referable to, and explicable by, the type of the group to which 
they belong. 

In like manner, we find that the constituent organs and 
textures in a group constitute a formal series, in such a 
manner that, irrespective of their teleological differences, our 
scientific instinct compels us to express their relations in 
morphological laws, by which those relations may be inferred, 
and their character defined. 

Organic morphology tends at present in four different 
directions : — 

1. In the direction of questions bearing on the existence 
of a central type for each organic kingdom, or of one for both. 

2. Towards group types. 

3. To investigation of the types of organs. 

4. To the investigation of the types of textures. 

It is greatly to be desired that the teleological and 
morphological departments of anatomy should be kept distinct 
in their prosecution and application. The satisfactory ad- 
vancement of both is entirely dependent on their respectively 
distinct methods of investigation ; and many obstacles have 
been opposed to the progress of the science of which they are 
the common elements, by incomplete conceptions of their re- 
spective objects and relations. 

It is also much to be regretted that, in the present phase 
of our science, morphological anatomy threatens to overshadow 
the teleological aspect of the subject. Every question in general 
zoology and anthropology is now apt to be treated morpholo- 
gically ; so that there is a marked tendency to permit the pur- 
pose or final cause of organised structure to be overlooked. 



TELEOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY. 265 

If you keep steadily before you those principles on which 
every department of organic science must be conducted, and 
to which I have previously directed your attention — if you 
bear in mind that all the organic sciences lie in the boundary 
between the various departments of physical science on the 
one hand, and of moral and religious truth and belief on the 
other — if, moreover, you agree with me, that, when any ques- 
tion in organic science involves an element appertaining to 
the higher departments of truth and belief, its higher 
relations should be studied ; — then, I say, you will see 
and avoid the danger which threatens the higher rela- 
tions of anatomico-physiological knowledge in the present 
phase of the science. I need scarcely remind you that I have 
strictly adhered to these principles in my previous lectures. 
I have not treated the anatomical questions which have come 
before us on morphological, but on teleological grounds. I 
deemed it quite unnecessary to inform you that the human 
body is constructed on the mammalian type, and that there- 
fore its characteristic features would be found to consist 
merely in modifications of mammalian structure. 

No one would be inclined to deny that the general aspects 
of the human body, and the body of a higher ape, resemble 
one another more than do the aspects of the frames of the 
highest and the lowest ape. But I have, I trust, satisfied you 
that the human body presents a whole series of perfected 
arrangements of structure, bearing immediately on the higher 
conscious or rational principle of man — arrangements which 
are deficient in all apes alike, and which thus collectively, by 
their absence, distinguish all the apes from man corporeally 
as precisel) astheii instinctive form of consciousness separates 
them from man psychically. 



266 THE POSITION OF MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 



LECTUEE VIII. 

THE POSITION OF MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 

1. In my previous lectures I have brought successively 
under your consideration — 

1st, The instinctive character of the animal ; 

2d, The combined instinctive and rational constitution of 
man; 

3d, The characteristic completeness of human structure ; 

4th, The clanger of overlooking the teleological aspect of 
structure in our zoological and anthropological investigations. 

I now proceed in the present lecture to lay before you the 
conclusions to which, in my opinion, we are led by this com- 
prehensive mode of viewing our subject, and so as to indicate 
to you the nature of those relations on which the fundamental 
dignity of the human body depends. 

2. I must, however, before proceeding with the subject of the 
present lecture, bring more fully under your consideration the 
principle stated in my last lecture — that all organic science, 
but more especially its anthropological department, inosculates 
with the higher forms of truth and belief so intimately and 
extensively as to render the discussion of the higher questions 
as to organisation absolutely futile, if dissociated from their 
co-ordinate department of psychological, moral, and religious 
truth and belief. 

3. You will accruire a clearer conception and a firmer 
grasp of this important principle, if you bear steadily in 
mind — 

1st, That all those departments of organic science which 



THE POSITION OF MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 267 

deal with the material elements of organisation can only be 
investigated, and successfully prosecuted, by the faculties and 
methods appropriate for our human acquisition of the science 
of matter. 

2d, That the psychological departments of organic science 
can, in like manner, only be investigated, and successfully 
prosecuted, by the faculties and methods appropriate for the 
science of mind. 

3d, That the moral and religious elements in the human 
constitution not only indicate, by their very nature, a method 
of inquiry and a kind of evidence distinct from those on 
which we base our knowledge of matter and of mind, but also 
involve, as their absolute character, that immediate relation 
which they have to the "intelligent and powerful Being who," 
in the words of Newton, " governs all things — not as the soul 
of the world, but as the Lord of the universe; who is not 
only God, but Lord and Governor." 

4 It is also essential, for the legitimate study of the 
higher anthropological questions, that you should have satisfied 
yourselves as to the stability of the grounds of your belief in 
each of the three departments of truth to which I have re- 
ferred. The material and sensual phase of our human 
economy tends to foster rather than to repel a reliance on the 
truths of pure science, and thus gives a preponderance to the 
study of the structural department of anthropology. 

The apparent inapplicability, again, of mental science, 
and the consequent prejudice against its study, as well as the 
somewhat painful process of self-conscious thought (if I may 
be permitted to make use of the expression) which its study 
demands, have all conduced to withdraw the attention of 
anthropologists from the psychological department of the 
subject. 

And again, tin' evidence afforded by the revealed record 
regarding the origin, constitution, and position of man, is api 



208 THE POSITION OF MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 

to be undervalued or denied in the general discussion of the 
subject. The tendency of anthropologists to undervalue this 
source of evidence depends, in the first place, on the illegiti- 
mate application of a legitimate principle, that a question in 
science should be decided by science alone. In the second 
place, the tendency arises from that reserve in regard to our 
higher beliefs, which is the result of the varied and conflict- 
ing forms which religious belief and thought present in the 
present personal, social, political, and ecclesiastical phase of 
humanity. In the third place, the tendency to dissociate the 
evidence of sacred history from anthropological research, is 
due to that deep-rooted and prevalent prejudice, which, dis- 
sociating the revealed record from the book of nature, leads 
to the assumption that those higher truths and beliefs, which 
are involved in our human constitution, and the purposes and 
results of which are recorded in the book of God's word, for 
the direct information and enlightenment of our higher 
faculties, towards our final development, should be considered 
a department of knowledge and belief quite apart from the 
truths contained in the book of nature"; for the attainment of 
which truths, and in corroboration of revealed truth, our 
intellectual faculties were bestowed upon us. 

5. I may here observe, that although I have deemed it 
necessary, for the full exposition of the subject of this course 
of lectures, to put prominently forward an aspect of our 
subject, which may be termed non-scientific by those who 
differ from us, I am not thereby called upon to establish the 
legitimacy of that aspect. For, in my opinion, those who 
consider it untenable are bound to take one of two courses — 
either to refrain from viewing a non-scientific subject through 
a scientific medium, and to have recourse to the method of 
inquiry proper to a non-scientific department of human know- 
ledge, or to act upon that sound principle in philosophy and 
science which withholds those who may not have made them- 



THE TOSITION OF MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 2G9 

selves acquainted with all the elements of a given question, 
from taking any part in the discussion of that question. 

6. I have already, in my first lecture, submitted to your con- 
sideration the grounds on which the instinctive conscious 
principle must be held as the fundamental element of the 
animal. This immaterial principle, in virtue of its created 
constitution, is the agency which determines the actions and 
regulates the processes of its corporeal frame ; not only the 
form and construction of the animal body, but also the actions 
which it exhibits in support of its own frame, and the further- 
ance of its purpose in the economy of the world, are strictly 
considered by its immaterial element. We are compelled to 
admit, by a process or argument of elimination, that even in 
the highest animal, its perceptions — its emotional, intellectual, 
and determining faculties are predetermined for it in the con- 
ditions of its economy. 

To the immaterial principle, which we are thus compelled 
by an indirect method of research to admit as the essential 
element of an animal, various terms have been applied. 

The -vj/u;^ we hold to be the soul of the animal, irrespective 
of all questions regarding its nature. It must be that in which 
the instinctive consciousness of the animal subsists. It must 
be that, lacking which the organisation of the animal could 
not exist. The organic world differs from the inorganic, in 
that it consists of individual organisms, each of which exists 
essentially in virtue of its indwelling Psyche. It is not for a 
moment to be assumed that the Psyche of an animal is the 
immediate agent in the processes of organisation, or that the 
forces of matter are replaced in the living structure by forces 
of another kind. The forces which act in organisation are 
natural forces, however peculiar the form and arrangements 
of their results may be. We are not entitled to assume more 
than this, thai in organisation the material forces arc dc- 
termined, as regards their mode of action, by the indwelling 



270 THE POSITION OF MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 

power of the Psyche. A force is not a power in itself, it is 
merely an expression for a law of action in matter. 

The intimate nature of force is entirely hidden from human 
contemplation. Again, in like manner, as we recognise force 
in the phenomena of matter by our senses through the intellect, 
we recognise power in the fulfilment of the effort of the will 
on our muscles, etc., by our self-consciousness, and we may 
legitimately, on the principle already stated, attribute it also 
to the animal. Power, therefore, differs from force in that the 
latter is attributable to matter only. An immaterial power has 
been given to the animal so as to put it in possession of such 
efficacy, or deputed power as may be necessary for those peculiar 
manifestations of the constructional material forces of its or- 
ganised body, and the manifestation of those instinctive actions 
for the fulfilment of which the organism has been provided. 

7. All trustworthy investigators of this subject have 
come to the conclusion that man in his constitution consists 
of three elements — a corporeal, a psychical, and a spiritual ; 
and the direct, as well as the indirect evidence supplied by 
the revealed record, fully confirms this conclusion. 

8. The Psyche in man must be assumed as the instinctive 
element of his threefold constitution. Upon its deputed 
efficacy depends that determinate and co-ordinate action of all 
those physico-chemical forces which are collectively engaged in 
the development of his body from the ovum, and in his life-long 
structural modifications and physiological actions. In the 
form of the human Psyche also are developed all those fully 
completed structural arrangements in the human body, to the 
nature and character of which I have already directed your 
attention. In the Psyche of man also are based all those 
instincts, emotions, appetites, and passions, which, stronger, 
keener, and more numerous than in the animal, were con- 
ferred on man for his higher purpose and greater enjoyment, 
so long as subject to his higher principle ; but which have, 



THE POSITION OF MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 271 

under his freedom of choice, become the sources of misery 
and death. In the revealed record the term ff«ff, Flesh, 
is applied to what I may be permitted to designate as a dis- 
tinctive physiological feature in the human economy, that 
combination of the Psyche and corporeal mechanism which 
constitutes in man his organism properly so called. The 
human organism is the animal in man. In it alone does 
he resemble the animaL Yet, nevertheless, he stands alone 
among the organised beings of this globe, in his disobedience 
to the laws of that organism, with the power over which he has 
been entrusted, in virtue of his spiritual principle, for his own 
benefit and enjoyment, and for the final purposes of his creation. 

9. The human body, developed under the influence of the 
more extended efficacy of its indwelling Psyche, is fitted 
thereby to serve as the instrument of that spiritual element 
in the human constitution, in which consists the personality 
of man. 

10. I have in a previous lecture brought under your con- 
sideration those features in the spiritual element of man, in 
which it differs from the Psyche of the animal and the Psyche 
in man himself. We found that in this element consists 
the essence of his rational consciousness, in virtue of which 
he is self-conscious, capable of thought properly so called ; of 
language, which is merely the phonetic expression of thought ; 
and of all those conceptions, intentions, and co-ordinated emo- 
tions, which, manifested in language oral and written, or incor- 
porated through the instrumentality of his material frame, 
constitute those various forms of science and of art — those 
multiform arrangements of social, political, and religious im- 
port, which distinguish man from every form of animal. 

11. Man, in virtue of his possession of a spiritual prin- 
ciple, by which alone he is capable of thought and speech, and 
is impressed with the belief of moral truth and divine agency, 
stands alone among the organised beings of this globe. 

vol,, i. t 



272 THE POSITION OF MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 

I assume, also, that you are now prepared to admit that 
the existence of a spiritual element in the constitution of any 
being associates that being with the spiritual world, even 
although, in furtherance of his own future welfare, and in 
conformity with the arrangements of providence, we find him 
provided, at the same time, with an organism adapted as the 
present instrumental means of his spiritual agency. 

I believe, moreover, that you will freely admit that an 
organism adapted for a spiritual end must necessarily be of a 
higher character, and more complete in its construction, than 
any organism provided for a merely instinctive being. 

12. As the respective subjects of my present, as well as of 
my two succeeding lectures, demand for their satisfactory con- 
sideration a clear conception and steady grasp of the results 
of our previous inquiries, I shall, before proceeding, put these 
results in a categorical form. 

a. The psychic principle in man and in the animal, al- 
though immaterial in its nature, and therefore recognisable 
only by its manifestations through the consciousness, is dis- 
tinguished from the spiritual principle in man by the immu- 
tability of its powers and attributes, and the strict co-ordina- 
tion of these to its proper sphere for each species of organism. 

b. On the other hand, the Pneuma or spiritual element in 
man, also immaterial in its nature because only recognisable 
by its manifestations through the consciousness, although in 
its endowments strictly co-ordinate with the purpose of man 
on earth, and with his future eternal destination, is neverthe- 
less subject to his will, so that, in the present state of man, 
the powers and attributes of his spiritual or proper element 
are applicable or not, for his present and future welfare, as 
may be determined by that freedom of choice involved in the 
nature of his human will. 

c. We have already seen that, not only is the individual 
economy of an animal fully and strictly provided for in its 



THE POSITION OF MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 273 

psychical element, but we have also seen that, by the same 
agency, the purpose of the animal in creation is secured. 

d. We have also seen that man's capability of existing 
over the entire globe, and the peculiar and extended agency 
which he exerts in modifying and perfecting certain of its 
arrangements, and taking advantage of others for his own 
welfare, are due, not to the agency of his psychical or instinc- 
tive element alone, but essentially to his rational conscious- 
ness, which again is merely the manifestation of his spiritual 
principle. 

e. But we have, moreover, seen that the animal invariably 
acts up to the laws of its specific constitution ; whereas man 
has a free choice in his actions. The extent, therefore, to 
which the agency of man is exerted towards the welfare of his 
own economy, the prosecution of his proper function on this 
globe, and for his education for a future life, is dependent on 
the use which he makes of his faculties in the discrimination 
of truth and error, right and wrong, and on the application of 
this discriminating power to the control of his actions. All 
errors, therefore, committed in the exercise of this discrimi- 
nating faculty, and all actions induced by such errors, and, a 
fortiori, all actions performed contrary to a correct determina- 
tion, are necessarily contrary to the constitution of the human 
economy; and must, therefore, be essentially detrimental to it. 

13. From what has now been stated, it follows that the 
welfare of the entire human constitution, of the organic, as 
well as of the spiritual economy of man, is conditioned by the 
] ►roper action of the spiritual element itself; and, consequently, 
that we are to look to this higher principle in li is constitution 
for an explanation of all those circumstances which have co- 
operated in producing the numerous modifications of his 
typical form, ami in the recurrence of the many vicissitudes of 
his history, which are so distinctive of his race. 

14 In considering the human ((institution from the point 



274 THE POSITION OF MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 

of view we have now attained, we cannot divest ourselves of 
the conviction that our spiritual principle, which enables us, in 
virtue of our forms of thought, to ascertain the laws of God in 
the works of creation, and which also, in virtue of our moral 
intuitions, indicates to us those personal and relative duties, 
by the performance of which we can alone retain our simili- 
tude to the Divine nature, could have been bestowed upon us 
for any other ends than our own welfare and the fulfilment 
of a Divine purpose. 

We have now reached a point from which we may legiti- 
mately examine the question as to the position of man in the 
scale of being. 

The previous part of the course has been devoted to the 
elucidation of the following principles : — 

1st, That the specific character, as well as structure, general 
economy, and final purpose of an animal are fundamentally 
conditioned in its instinctive, conscious, or psychic principle ; 
or, in other words, an animal is an organism. 

2d, That the distinctive character of man consists in the 
subordination of his organism to his human spiritual 
principle. 

3d, That man owes to his spiritual principle that self- 
conscious intelligence on which depeuds his sense of 
responsibility ; and 

4///, That the animal kingdom consists of a series of mere 
individuals ; humanity, again, of a community of persons. 

If you keep these principles fully in view, you will per- 
ceive that those duties to be fulfilled, which collectively con- 
stitute the personality of a man, are totally different in kind 
from the instinctive actions of an animal individual. But as 
the duties fulfilled by a man are as essential to his welfare 
in his extended sphere as the instinctive actions of an animal 
are to its welfare in its limited area, so the recognition of his 
spiritual principle, in which consists the intellectual and 



THE POSITION OF MAN IN THE SCALE OF BEING. 275 

moral economy of man, is no less essential for the dis- 
crimination of liis position in the scale of being, as the re- 
cognition of the instinctive economy of an animal is for the 
determination of its zoological position. 

Now, if it be a sound zoological doctrine that all the 
conditions of life in an animal ought to be taken into account 
in ascertaining its position in the zoological scale, so in like 
manner ought the spiritual economy of man to be taken into 
the consideration of the question as to his relative place in 
the animal series. To my apprehension, his possession of a 
spiritual principle entirely excludes him from the scale of 
mere animal being, even although he possesses an animal 
organism. I shall endeavour, in my next lecture on Re- 
trogressive Man, and in my succeeding or concluding lecture 
on Progressive Man, to elucidate more at length the supre- 
macy of the spiritual principle in the economy of man. But, 
in the meantime, to bring the present lecture to a close, I 
must now ask you to consider whether that completeness of 
the human body, to which I have directed your attention in 
my 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th lectures, does not also entirely 
exclude man from any legitimate place in the animal 
kingdom. 



276 RETROGRESSIVE MAN. 



LECTUBE IX. 

RETROGRESSIVE MAN. 

1. The human race is characterised by the great varieties 
which exist between different peoples. The question is not 
unfrequently asked, Was not man originally savage ? Was 
he at one time near the brutes ? I believe that man was not 
originally savage, and that the less civilised races are not 
undeveloped, but degraded forms. 

2. Man, in virtue of possessing a spiritual element, stands 
alone amongst the organised beings of the globe. The exist- 
ence of this element associates the being possessing it with 
the spiritual world. An organism adapted to a spiritual end 
and capable of acting in space in the most perfect manner, must 
be more highly developed than one not so adapted. Man's 
body is formed on a rectangular system — that is, he can extend 
his limbs so as to place them at right angles to each other. 

3. The results of our inquiry are — 1st, the psychical prin- 
ciple in man and animals, although immaterial, is distin- 
guished from the spiritual in man by the immutability of its 
powers and attributes, and is especially adapted to each 
species. The pneuma, or spiritual element in man, also 
immaterial, and only recognisable by its manifestations 
through consciousness, is strictly co-ordinate with man's 
sphere of action on earth and his future destination. It is, 
nevertheless, subject to his will. Not only is the individual 
economy of the animal strictly provided for, but by the same 
agency the purpose of the animal in creation is secured. 

4. Man's capabilities of existing over the entire globe, and 



RETROGRESSIVE MAN. 277 

the peculiar extended agency which he exerts, are due not 
only to the agency of his psychical instinct, but to his rational 
consciousness, which is provided for by his spiritual element. 
The amount of good he does depends upon the use he makes 
of his faculties. The welfare of the entire 'human constitution, 
organic as well as spiritual, can only be conditioned by a 
proper action of the spiritual element. This has always to be 
remembered in looking for an explanation of all the varieties 
of race and of individual personal character. Why, then, 
should man alone, of all the living beimrs on this clobe, have 
been left so unfettered that his welfare should depend on his 
own choice ? 

5. Herein lies the great mystery of humanity, on the 
existence of which depends that religiosity which is charac- 
teristic of every form of the human race. The conscious- 
ness of untruth, and of error in some form or other, exists in 
every modification of man ; and it is equally certain that all 
the vicissitudes of human history, and all the distress against 
which man has had to struggle, have been directly due to his 
tendency to untruth, and his liability to error. 

G. 1 need scarcely remind you that these statements are 
not merely scientific in their character. The grounds on 
which I believe them are not scientific grounds alone. The 
evidence on which you have satisfied yourselves regarding 
them is involved in moral science, and in those statements of 
that revealed record by which our higher beliefs are en- 
lightened, confirmed, and sustained. The statements which I 
have submitted to you, regarding the dependence of our 
human economy on tin: wellbeing of its spiritual element, are 
unanswerable ; and therefore, mi thegroimd8 already submitted 
to you, the principle itself must necessarily be employed by 
(lie anthropologist in the discussion of any of the higher 
quest tons of his subject. 

7. I would lav ii down as a principle, thai whereas we 



278 RETROGRESSIVE MAN. 

are not to look to the revealed record for scientific forms of 
statement, we are, nevertheless, from its character, entitled to 
assume, that wherever statements are made in it, bearing on 
the intellectual, moral, and religious departments of the 
economy of man, in their relations to his material economy 
and conditions of present and future existence, the sense or 
bearing of these statements will not only not be contradictory 
to, but, on the contrary, confirmatory of, the scientific results 
of human research. 

8. We are informed in the revealed record that in the 
primitive phase of his existence the economy of man presented 
a more perfect form, and that he existed under conditions 
commensurate with the complete fulfilment of his welfare. 
We are also informed, in terms which, whatever their imme- 
diate import may be, at least involve the statement, that man 
lost his primitive form of economy, and his more favourable 
conditions of welfare, by the erroneous use of his higher or 
spiritual principle, by his preference of untruth to truth, of 
error to rectitude ; and that thereupon humanity became 
subject to all those ills which have chequered its progress. 

9. The statement which I have now made involves a truth 
which belongs to the departments of the moralist and theolo- 
gian. But it is one which cannot well be neglected by any 
thoughtful mind ; and from our point of view, looking at it 
as anthropologists, it is full of interest, as it is in fact a funda- 
mental principle in the science of the human economy. 

10. As the time allotted to this course of lectures is too 
brief to admit of detailed illustration, and as the inculcation 
of sound and comprehensive principles is of primary import- 
ance in such subjects as this course has been devoted to, I 
shall, in concluding this lecture, merely indicate the tendency 
of my previous statements. 

11. On the grounds already stated, we are bound to guard 
ourselves against the conscious or unconscious assumption, 



RETROGRESSIVE MAN. 279 

that the development of humanity can be legitimately or 
safely investigated as an anthropological subject, without 
reference to the primitive condition of man as presented to us 
in the revealed record. 

12. As we deduce all the personal and social misery of 
man on this globe from his erroneous choice of action through 
neglect of his higher principle of belief, so in like manner 
we are bound to attribute to the same source the causes 
which have produced all the so-called forms of savagism and 
imperfect civilisation, as well as the so-called imperfect forms 
of human structure as presented to us in our ethnological or 
archaeological inquiries. 

13. Finally, I hold that liability of man to disease is 
intimately related to the neglect of the dictates of his higher 
principle.* 

* The reader will find a fuller statement of the author's views on this mat- 
ter in the "Address to the Graduates" and in that to the Medico-Chirurgical 
Society. — Ens. 



280 PROGRESSIVE MAN. 



LECTURE X. 

PROGRESSIVE MAN. 

1. In my last lecture, after showing you that the discus- 
sion of any fundamental question in anthropology must 
necessarily be based on three convergent lines of evidence — 
the physiological, psychological, and theological — I proceeded 
to the consideration of the question of primitive man. From 
the comprehensive character of the evidence afforded us, I 
laid before you what appeared to me sufficient grounds for 
believing primitive man to have been, not a savage, but man 
in his originally perfect form, fitted by the undegraded 
character of his spiritual element for immediate converse 
with his Creator, in whose image his spirit had been framed, 
and by whose instruction he was initiated in regard to 
his moral and spiritual nature ; guided to the use of his 
faculty of speech, and to the application of his intellectual 
powers, in the investigation and appropriation for his own 
welfare of the objects and living beings by which he was sur- 
rounded* 

I also submitted for your consideration the grounds on 
which we must, in my opinion, hold that the phase of 
humanity in which we ourselves live is a secondary phase, 
in which man has lost the completeness of his primitive 
economy, and his more favourable primitive conditions of 

* It may not be out of place to refer to the recently published work On 
the, Antiquity of Intellectual Man, by Prof. C. Fiazzi Smyth, in which a con- 
clusion similar to that expressed in the text has been arrived at from the con- 
sideration of a different line of evidence to that employed in these lectures. — Eds. 



PROGRESSIVE MAN. 281 

existence, as evinced in the degraded and helpless condition 
into which the greater part of humanity in all ages, as well 
as in the present, has fallen, and not less so, in the unsatis- 
factory aspect which our modern so-called civilisation pre- 
sents ; and that, therefore, had humanity in its present phase 
been dependent on its own resources, as the animal is, no 
section of it could have resisted the retrogressive tendency, or 
have opposed the obstacles to that progression on which the 
hopes of man are fixed. 

2. In the further prosecution of our subject, I would now 
observe that while we are compelled, on the grounds already 
stated, to view all the less perfect forms of humanity as retro- 
grade forms of earlier or later date, produced by independent 
but similar moral influences, we are at the same time brought 
to see in the present phase of humanity a progressive series 
of advancing forms of society, a series continually increased by 
collateral additions, but extending backwards uninterruptedly 
to the commencement of the phase. The twofold retrogres- 
sive and progressive character presented by the history of 
man is from every point of view peculiar, and completely dis- 
tinguishes his economy from that of any animal, and at the 
same time constitutes as important a feature in his physiolo- 
gical as in his political and moral aspects. 

3. As I have already told you, we are not called on here 
to define, if that were possible, the entire economy in the 
primitive condition of man ; nor to inquire into the specific 
nature of that change which took place in his economy on his 
entrance into his present phase of existence. It is sufficient 
for <»ur present purpose that we arc assured of the fact that 
tin! change in the economy and welfare of man was the result 
of an act which involved a breach of his moral principle. 
Now, we have already examined the grounds on which we 
must hold, that as the psychical is the primary and control- 
ling element which secures the welfare of tin' animal, ami 
fulfils its purpose in nature, so, on the other hand, the spirit 



282 PK0GEESS1VE MAN. 

in man is that element in his economy on which his entire 
welfare depends. 

Now, as the moral department of the spirit involves the 
higher relations of our being, and assuming that you are 
acquainted with the grounds on which our moral, and in 
fact spiritual economy, involves responsibility, and the con- 
sequences of such responsibility, it will be evident to you that 
a breach in the moral department of our spiritual element 
must affect the integrity of the entire human economy. 

4. By the term " entire human economy," I mean the en- 
tire economy of man, as manifested in his physiological, 
intellectual, and moral capabilities ; and I am anxious that 
you should distinctly see how it is that the integrity of our 
corporeal or physiological frame, the applicability of our in- 
tellectual powers, and the free action of our moral faculties, 
do all depend on the condition of the spiritual element of our 
being. 

5. We have now reached a point from which we can look 
back to the subjects of my first and second lectures. In the 
first lecture I explained to you how the welfare and purpose 
of the animal are provided for in its merely instinctive form 
of consciousness, in virtue of its psychical element. In my 
second lecture I explained how the welfare and purpose of 
man on earth are provided for in his rational consciousness, 
in virtue of what you will now recognise as his spiritual 
element. 

We may now consider, therefore, the nature of animality 
as consisting in a physiological structure, conditioned by an 
immaterial element of a merely psychical character — i.e. as 
before explained, an animal is a mere organism. 

The essence of humanity again consists in the human or- 
ganism — i.e. the combined physiological and psychical element, 
co-ordinate with, and subject to, the control of a spiritual 
element. The essence of humanity in fact consists in a 
spiritual element of which the co-ordinate organism is the in- 



PROGRESSIVE MAN. 283 

strument. Thus, I hold with those anthropologists who do not 
place man in the animal kingdom, so that he is not to be re- 
garded as an ordinary subject for zoological inquiry. The 
relation of man to the animal which is next to or immediately 
below him cannot be determined. Man is a perfect being in 
his structure, and is excluded from all animal forms by his 
completeness. We cannot conceive an animal preserving the 
vertebrate type developed beyond him. If man were, as some 
suppose, at the head of the animal kingdom, some ape should 
be found to stand immediately beneath him ; but the apes are 
all related to each other, and grouped around a type which is 
that of an ape. 

6. As I have already, in my last lecture, directed your atten- 
tion to the two aspects presented by humanity in its present 
phase, and characterised these aspects as Retrogressive and 
Progressive, it is in my opinion very important that you 
should satisfy yourselves as to the stability of the principle 
that these two aspects are essentially dependent on moral 
causes. The entire question, as I have already told you, is, 
like other fundamental questions in anthropology, a compo- 
site question — its most important factors being theological 
and moral, and such as I, in my position here, have merely 
to allude to. But it may be well, at this point of our inquiry, 
to illustrate the influence of moral error from a physiological 
point of view. 

7. Let us take the case of the animal. If the various 
instinctive acts, by the performance of which the animal pro- 
vides for its individual wants, and fulfils its various functions 
in relation to its own kind, and to its end as a species, be 
considered, they arrange themselves into three groups, viz. — 

1st, Its actions in relation to itself; 2d, its actions in 
relation to its fellows of its own species : and 3'/, its actions 
in relation to its performance of those purposes for which it 
was created, and placed in its given area. 



284 PROGRESSIVE MAN. 

These groups correspond respectively to the actions of a 
man — 

1st, In relation to himself ; 2d, in relation to his neigh- 
bour ; M, in relation to his Creator. But as the entire cor- 
poreal integrity of an animal, and the applicability of its 
instinctive capacities are dependent on the invariability of its 
instinctive actions, the welfare of the economy of an animal 
is never modified beyond its determined limits by any error 
in its actions towards itself, its fellows, or its Creator. Its 
economy is continuous ; it cannot of itself induce either a 
retrogressive or a progressive form of its economy. 

From what we have already seen, it is evident that if we 
may be permitted to assume the addition of a spiritual, that 
is of a responsible, element, to the constitution of an animal — ■ 
then its three groups of relative actions would be elevated to 
the rank of duties to be performed, which again would involve 
the correlative errors to be avoided, and the consequences of 
such errors. 

8. The neglect by man of the three groups of duties 
which collectively conduce to the end or purpose of his 
creation, is undoubtedly the source of those deteriorated forms 
of his economy which together constitute his retrogressive 
aspect. You will, of course, clearly understand that the 
statement I have now made not only does not exclude but 
fully admits the influence of all the cosmical and physical 
elements or conditions of ethnological, national, political, and 
social differences in humanity. But as man was placed on 
this earth to fill and to subdue it, it is evident that, in so far as 
he has permitted such cosmical or material influences to 
detract from his spiritual efficiency, he himself is to blame, 
and that it is now his duty, in his present phase, to develope 
his progressive form, under the conditions provided for that 
purpose. 

9. I need not remind you that the conditions provided 



PROGRESSIVE MAN. 285 

for man, to enable him in his present pbase to counteract 
tbe deteriorating tendency of his spirit-element, and so to 
work out his proper end, are those conditions which, an- 
nounced to him at the commencement of his present phase, 
have assumed, under Providence, that form of bebef, and 
that kind of motive to action, which we term Christianity. 

10. It would be out of place to enter here into detail as 
to the influence which Christianity has exerted on man. I 
would only impress upon you, as students of science, that 
science, properly so called, had its origin within the Christian 
era ; that its progress is one o£ the results of Christianity ; 
and, moreover, that one of the greatest dangers to which the 
Christian system is at present exposed, is the erroneous 
tendency to elevate science above the other forms of human 
belief. 

11. Gentlemen, I thought it necessary to touch upon 
this subject — I trust in a manner due to its nature — for the 
purpose of enabling you to comprehend more clearly the 
statement which I made in a former part of the course, that 
the human body derives its completeness and its entire charac- 
ter from its adaptation to its special purpose, as an instru- 
mentality under the guidance of the human soul towards the 
end for which man was placed on this globe. 



286 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 



II.— ON LIFE AND OKGANISATION* 

The gradual augmentation f of acquired knowledge is the re- 
sult of many series of contributions, originally independent,! 
which, converging as they advance, and coalescing more or 
less intimately with one another, finally assume their per- 
mitted positions § in the mass of human knowledge. 

Every subject of investigation, however isolated it may 
once have been, absorbs in its progress, || and then assimilates, 
minor collateral inquiries ; and is itself destined to resign its 
original independence. Certain sciences coalesce easily, and 
their union is hailed by their cultivators as a triumph of the 
common cause. Other sciences coalesce with difficulty, and 
their anticipated union is distasteful to their respective inves- 
tigators. This difference primarily depends on the necessary 
existence of fundamentally distinct modes of inquiry in each 
department of investigation. It depends secondarily on the 
greater or less difficulty of the final step necessary to effect 
the union ; and on the comparatively few inquirers who 
possess either the original or the acquired power of adopting 
two or more fundamentally distinct modes of investigation in 
the prosecution of an essentially complex subject. Only such 
a mind as that of Faraday, which admits of the simultaneous 
conceptions of the chemist and the physicist, could have 
guided into one channel the different departments of his 
varied subject ; and the remarkable results of recent physio- 

* This Lecture was delivered by request to the members of the Royal Medical 
Society, in their Hall, in 1856, and has not previously been published. — Eds. 
+ Note I. page 299. t Note II. page 300. § Note III. page 300. 
|| Note IV. page 302. 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 287 

logical research in Germany could only have been induced 
by the influence of an intellect like that of Johannes Miiller, 
which is equally at home in the domains of the natural, 
physical, and psychological sciences. 

There are, therefore, certain subjects of inquiry which at 
certain epochs in their progress are obstructed by peculiar 
difficulties. Such an epoch occurs when one subject is about 
to merge into another, or when a particular subject, complex 
in its nature, has reached that stage in its progress at which 
it must henceforward demand for its investigation, two or more 
fundamentally distinct modes of inquiry. At any epoch of this 
kind, in the progress of any science, an attempt should be made 
to determine its present position, to define its real obstacles, 
and to ascertain whether the previous mode of inquiry had 
involved all the fundamentally necessary methods of research. 

The science of organisation has reached an epoch of this 
kind. It has become absolutely necessary for every one 
engaged in the study or investigation of the science to make 
himself acquainted with its present circumstances, and to 
ascertain the probable direction of its future course. 

I propose, in this lecture, to give a brief summary of my 
own views on this subject, and I would here express the 
gratification which I feel in having an opportunity afforded 
me of stating these views to the members and visitors of a 
society which has for a long period been largely instrumental 
in the development and propagation of organic science. 

Three distinct groups of subjects engage at present the 
attention of physiologists : — 

1. The structure and actions of the living organism con- 

sidered as a chemico-physical system. 

2. The numerous forms in the series of organisms, embryo 

and adult, viewed as modifications of certain abstract 
organic forms or ideal typea 
vol,. I. U 



288 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

3. The connections between the corporeal and psychical 
elements of organisation. 

The structure and actions of the living organism, con- 
sidered as achemico-physical system, have at all times furnished 
the principal subjects of anatomico-physiological research. 
The structure or anatomy of this system, and the actions or 
functions of its constituent parts, form, in fact, the mass of 
physiology as usually understood.* The progress of this 
perfectly natural and absolutely necessary line of inquiry 
has been more or less retarded at different periods by the 
tendency of physiologists to complicate and divert the investi- 
gation, by assuming the immediate agency of a presumed 
principle of vitalit}^. Overlooking the philosophical conditions 
of the question — that there are at least two series of facts to 
be determined in the living organism, differing fundamentally 
in kind, and therefore requiring fundamentally distinct methods 
of research, f physiologists have been too apt to consider their 
science as throughout independent of others, and they have, 
consequently, opposed serious obstacles to its inosculation, in 
certain of its departments, with the physico-mathematical 
sciences on the one hand, and with the psychological | on 
the other. "We have now, however, reached an epoch 
from which we may proceed to investigate the chemico- 
physical properties of the living organism, with less risk of 
being misled by false theories of vitality, and without dread 
of collision With the philosopher or theologian. The chemico- 
physical properties of the living organism, strictly investigated 
by the legitimate methods of chemical and physical research, 
have yielded the principal triumphs of recent physiology. 
And there is now, at least, an assurance that in addition to 
the precise processes of modern chemistry, the physiologist 

* Note V. page 303. f Note VI. page 303. 

X Note VII. page 307. 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 289 

must henceforward be prepared to employ in his researches 
the mathematico-experimeutal methods of physical science. 

The advance which has recently been made in ascertaining 
the structure and actions of the living organism considered as 
a chemico-physical system, consists — ls^, of the recognition 
of the depth and extent of chemical action in the economy ; 
2d, of the evidence latterly afforded of the primary importance 
of the electrical force in the organism generally, but more 
especially in the actions hitherto considered more essentially 
vital ; 3d, of the detection of the connection between the 
chemical and electrical actions of the organism, and its recently 
discovered microscopic structure ; 4ih, of the successful 
efforts made to determine by physico-mathematical methods 
the precise forms and reciprocal mechanical actions of the 
different parts of the organism. 

The second group of subjects which at present engages the 
attention of physiologists, is the investigation of the numerous 
forms of organisms, embryo and adult, viewed as modifications 
of certain abstract organic forms, or ideal types. These subjects 
constitute morphology, properly so called. Although an 
essential element of physiological science, morphology is only 
of recent growth. Its development was retarded for many 
years by the influence which results from the fundamentally 
peculiar nature of the subject. It is peculiar in this respect, 
that it does not contemplate at all the actions or uses of parts, 
but only their presence, their forms, and their relations in 
any one species of organism as compared with other organisms, 
and with a view to the determination of the general plan, 
according to which they have all, each after its kind, been 
constructed. The influence which has retarded the progress 
of morphology, as it has retarded other departments of science 
and philosophy, is that dilliculty which the generality of minds 
experience m conceiving the possibility of any phenomenon 
or action haying a double relation — of its being conditioned, 



290 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

not only by the necessities of the individual system of which 
it is a part, but also by the unity of the entire scheme of the 
universe. 

The third group of subjects which at present engages the 
attention of physiologists, is the connection between the 
corporeal and psychical elements of organisation. The views 
of these subjects taken by different physiologists differ 
according to the philosophical principles which they have 
severally adopted under the influence of individual intellectual 
tendency, or of education. Three tendencies characterise 
present opinions on these subjects. These tendencies may be 
distinguished as materialistic, idealistic, and spiritualistic. 

That mind is a product, or a function, of the matter of the 
organism, is a dogma which cannot be considered as at present 
on the decline. Within the last two years it has been re- 
asserted and supported with extraordinary dogmatism. " As 
contraction is the function of the muscle, as the kidney 
secretes urine, and the liver bile, in like manner the brain 
produces thoughts, determinations, and feelings." These are 
the words of Carl Vogt, and they express the opinions of a 
considerable section of the most accomplished naturalists, 
physiologists, and physicians in Germany. 

The idealistic opinions on these subjects, based on the 
assumption of the identity of matter and mind, are now on 
the decline in that country where the philosophy on which 
they are based took most extensive root. In Britain this 
system of philosophy, although nowhere more ably advocated, 
has never even partially influenced physiology. 

It is remarkable that the recent advance of Physiological 
Chemistry and Physics, while it has produced increased 
confidence in the materialistic doctrine, has nevertheless 
afforded for the first time a physiological confirmation of the 
essentially spiritual nature of mind. The high probability 
that the complex structure of the brain consists only of 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 291 

peculiarly arranged groups of nerve-cells, connected by nerve- 
fibres, and that its actions consist merely of polar forces 
acting as physical currents along the nerve-fibres, and induced 
by external agencies, or by the nerve-cells of the organ itself, 
while it may confirm the expectations of the materialist, and 
has apparently excluded the mind from any appropriate 
locality — has, in fact, placed its essentially peculiar character 
on its proper basis. 

It is important to observe that the three groups of subjects 
into which Anatomy and Physiology have latterly become de- 
veloped are in themselves essentially distinct, and demand for 
their investigation fundamentally distinct methods of inquiry. 
The chemico-physical group requires for its development the 
experimental and mathematical methods of the chemist and 
natural philosopher. The* morphological group can only be 
investigated by an intellect naturally fitted for, and trained in, 
the peculiar essentially formal method of the natural sciences. 
The third group demands the exercise of the human self- 
consciousness on itself, and the application of the results to 
the elucidation of psychical manifestations generally ; it 
demands, in fact, the altogether peculiar method of philosophy 
proper, and of inductive psychology. 

It is, moreover, important to observe that these three 
departments afford no immediate promise of coalescing. 
They have come into contact, and are advancing parallel 
to one another, but there is apparently no immediate relation 
between the laws which respectively regulate them. The 
nature of the connection between the chemico-physical pro- 
perties of the living organism and its psychical manifesta- 
tions will, in all probability, continue a mystery. But with 
equal confidence i1 may be asserted that the crowning triumph 
of physiologj will be the reduction of the teleological ami 
morphological principles of structure to one central law. 

Having now endeavoured to asci rtain the presenl position 



292 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

of the science of organisation, I propose, before proceeding 
farther, to consider briefly the more remarkable characteristics 
of the living organism. 

Every living organism is a distinct system, the constituent 
parts and powers of which are not only reciprocally adapted 
to one another, and to the whole, so as to subserve the internal 
economy of the system ; but are also so adapted as to enable 
the entire organism to fulfil the external conditions of its 
existence. The living organism, although a distinct system, 
is not an isolated one. It is a part of the Cosmos, and as 
such has three sets of relations — its own internal or structural 
relations, its relations to other living organisms, and its 
relations to those localities within which the primary con- 
ditions of its existence have been determined. These three 
sets of relations are provided for mainly by the corporeal 
structure and actions of the organism ; but the first and third 
are, to a certain extent, and the second is chiefly, fulfilled by 
the psychical powers. These three sets of relations are, more- 
over, so connected with the structure and constitution of the 
organism, that we cannot, in our investigations into the nature 
of life and organisation, omit the consideration of any one of 
them. It is a fundamental canon in philosophy, that all the 
conditions of any question must be taken into consideration. 
So, in this complex question as to the nature of the living- 
organism, we are bound not to overlook one set of its relations 
while engaged in the investigation of the others. "While 
tracing the relations of the bodily structure to the internal 
economy, and to the external conditions of existence of the 
organism, we must not overlook the corresponding psychical 
powers with which it is provided ; nor, while inquiring into 
its psychical manifestations, can we omit the consideration of 
its somatic peculiarities. 

Here I would also observe, that in attempting to solve 
the question as to the nature of organisation, physiologists 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 293 

have not only been too apt to overlook the various relations to 
which I have already alluded, but also to keep out of view 
certain peculiar chemico-physical characters presented by it. 
They have been too much inclined to view its parts merely as 
portions of a machine teleologically adapted to one another ; 
and to neglect those structural features and distinctive actions 
in which it differs from any ordinary mechanism. 

Organisation is never met with except as part of an organ- 
ism — that is, of an individual material living system. 

The organism is born, or commences its life, as the pro- 
duct of one or of two parents of like kind with itself. 
The living organism invariably dies. 

The duration of the life of every organism is specific, 
varying only within certain restricted limits — the causes of 
the variation being contingent circumstances in the condi- 
tions of its existence. 

The matter of the organised frame, to its minutest parts, 
is in continual flux ; so that what is permanent in the 
organism is not the matter of which it is composed, but, as far 
as the ordinary exercise of our senses enables us to determine, 
its form only. 

The chemical constitution of each group of the ultimate 
organised parts of the frame is specific. In like manner, the 
chemical constitution of each part of our ultimate organised 
part is different. 

The ultimate chemical elements of the organism are 
merely certain of the ultimate chemical elements of in- 
organic matter. But the secondary, or organic chemical 
principles, although some of them have already been pro- 
duced artificially, and although all of them will probably 
be ultimately formed by the chemist, are never met with 
in iinhiiv except as tin' materials of, or in connection with, 
organisation. 

The forma of Living bodies, ami of their parts, even of 



294 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

their minutest structures, are peculiar. They seldom, pro- 
bably never, present straight margins, flat surfaces, or angles. 
They are very generally spheroidal, but never absolutely 
spherical. Ellipsoidal and paraboloidal surfaces are met with, 
and still more complex forms occur in connection with that 
essentially organic curve, the spiral. Curves of double curva- 
ture, surfaces with complex geometrical relations, constitute 
the predominating forms in organisation. 

As the matter of the living organism is in continual flux, 
so we find that the fresh matter which is constantly added to 
it becomes united to it, not at its outer surface, or at the outer 
surface of any of its minutest organised parts, but in its 
interior ; at every part of which, again, the fresh matter is 
united to the ultimate organised particles, not at their exterior, 
but by passing into their interior, to be distributed therein for 
final union. 

Connected with this latter peculiarity is the remarkable 
series of phenomena presented during the development of the 
organism, while still in connection with, or after detachment 
from, its parent. Science recognises no process of develop- 
ment except that of the individual organism from pre-existing 
parents of the same unalterable species. The development of 
the organism resembles no other series of material changes in 
any system in nature. Even the minutest part of an organ- 
ism, however complicated it may be, is evolved or unrolled 
from within outwards. Cell after cell, fibre after fibre, organ 
after organ, each in its own peculiar but strictly organic 
manner, appears at the centre of its own organic district. 
They make their appearance at set times, at stated periods, 
and in ever-increasing numbers, to the close. Passing off from 
their original centres, they assume their proper places in the 
composition of the complex machine-cell, commencing origi- 
nally in the interior, but frequently protruding during the 
process, parts of slow become enveloped by others of more 



ON LIKE AND ORGANISATION. 205 

rapid growth, to be again exposed, at a future stage, by the 
opening out or unfolding of the enveloping structures. The 
more profoundly we examine the development of the simplest 
plant or animal, and still more so if we contemplate the pro- 
cess in the more complex beings, do we become satisfied that 
this process is peculiar to organisation. 

On the principle that all the conditions of a question 
should be considered in attempting to solve it, wo may ask 
what is there remarkable in the constitution of one of the 
higher animals, in addition to the mere chemico-physical 
mechanism and teleological adaptations of its frame, and in 
addition to the peculiarly organic peculiarities already enu- 
merated ? — Assuredly its psychical manifestations. Without 
entering at present into the question as to the difference 
between the psychical constitution of the brute and the mind 
of man, this much cannot well be denied, that there is in the 
constitution of the brute an essence which is not material. 
The evidence of the existence of a psychical essence in the 
brute is necessarily indirect. We infer its presence, however, 
with sufficient certainty, by comparing its psychical mani- 
festations with the conclusions at which we arrive by the 
exercise of our own peculiar self-consciousness ; and we are 
supported in our inference by the concurrent intuitive opinion 
of mankind in regard to it. 

This psychical essence varies in its endowments in dif- 
ferent species of animals. It is specific for each species, 
individual in each individual. It manifests itself less and less 
distinctly, and is evidently more simple in its character the 
lower it is in the scale of being. In plants, it is not mani- 
fested in proper psychical acts. 

Eere, however, if must be recollected, that in the embryos 
ol' the higher animals the so-called mind of the animal is 
latent ; and that in man, before birth, the entire psychical and 
Bpiritual elements oJ his constitution are in the same condi- 



296 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

tion. The psychical essence exists only potentially hi the 
embryo of the higher animals. It is suddenly and fully 
evolved after its birth by the influence of the senses under 
the peculiar conditions of the instinct. In man, again, it is 
more slowly evolved by the influence of the senses, condi- 
tioned by his peculiar spiritual self-consciousness. 

I have alluded to the latent or potential condition of the 
psyche in the embryo of the higher animal and of man, for 
the purpose of showing that there is nothing unphilosophical 
in the admission of a psyche in the plant. We are quite en- 
titled to state, as a legitimate hypothesis, that in every indi- 
vidual plant there is an indwelling psyche ; more simply 
endowed than that of the lowest auimal ; specific for each 
species of plant, and therefore incapable of further evolution, 
never manifesting itself in psychical acts appreciable to us, 
and performing only the lowest function of the animal psyche, 
constituting the psychical form in the presence or midst of 
which the organisation is co-ordinated. 

If, then, a psychical element be admitted to exist in every 
living organism, we may reasonably inquire how far its pre- 
sence has to do with the organising process. 

We know nothing of the mode in which mind acts on 
matter, or in what manner matter reacts on mind. We know, 
however, that both actions occur in the brain. A physical 
current, the result of polar forces, passing along a nerve-fibre, 
and reaching a group of connected nerve-cells, is immediately 
followed by, or contemporaneously accompanied by, a psychi- 
cal condition — that of sensation with perception. But, what 
is more to our present purpose, we now know that another 
psychical condition — a determination of the will — is accom- 
panied by, or immediately followed by, a physical act in a 
single nerve-cell, or in a group of nerve-cells, from which cell 
or cells there immediately proceeds along a connected nerve- 
fibre a physical current — the result of polar actions — which, 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 297 

-when it has reached a muscular fibre, induces its contraction 
— also a physical act. 

In the present phase of science, it "would be unphilosophi- 
cal, and could not be admitted by the physicist, even as a 
hypothesis, were "we to state directly that a psychical power 
and a physical force can act and react on one another. But, 
with such facts as I have already adduced, a mutual influence 
of some kind must be admitted. I am strongly impressed 
with the belief that on the cautious and philosophical inves- 
tigation of this mutual influence depends the future elucida- 
tion of the peculiarities of organisation. At present I prefer 
stating the relation between the psyche and its organism as one 
of co-ordination. Its actual nature we shall probably never 
determine ; its laws we may presume to be within our reach. 

I would here observe that the extent and nature of my 
subject, and the limits within which I am confined, have 
compelled me to state my views in a somewhat dogmatic 
style. To have treated it satisfactorily, the opinions of at 
least the principal philosophers and physiologists of ancient 
and modern times should have been adduced and examined 
in reference to the more important subjects discussed.* In the 
meantime, I will merely state, categorically, the views which 
I have endeavoured to embody in this lecture, in order that 
there may be no misconception regarding them. 

Every living organised body — that is, every individual 
plant and animal, according to its kind or species — contains, 
or is contained in, a psyche ; which is not a mere co-ordinated 
system of material forces, but a distinct essence, the source, 
more particularly, of the psychical manifestations. 

We are alike ignorant of the mode in which matter acts 
on matter, as of the mode in which mind and matter reaet. 
As, however, we do know thai mind does act on matter, and 
conversely — as in the instances of the will inducing physical 

* Not.' VIII. p. 322. 



298 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

currents in the cells and fibres of the brain and spinal mar- 
row ; and of physical currents in the spinal marrow and brain 
inducing sensation — it would be equally unphilosophical to 
deny, as to assert, that psychical power and physical force do 
immediately influence one another in the living organised 
body ; or to assume, as an element in physiological research, 
that the indwelling or containing psyche is the source of or- 
ganic form, or that it influences chemico-physical forces to 
that effect. 

I therefore state, provisionally, that the corporeal structure 
of the organised being is co-ordinated with the specific en- 
dowments of its psyche, so that they act and react harmoni- 
ously. 

The psyche is latent in the plant, as it is in the higher 
animals during its embryo condition. 

In the animal series, the psyche, distinct for each indivi- 
dual, and specific for each species, is more highly endowed, 
according to the elevation of the animal in the scale. 

The psyche regulates the actions and habits of the animal 
in accordance with its corporeal structure ; and the conditions 
of its existence has a code of laws, to which we apply the 
term instinct. 

The psychological constitution of the animal, and its 
peculiar form of consciousness, are conditioned by the in- 
stinct. 

It is unphilosophical to entertain the question in regard 
to the mortality of the psyche of the brute. 

Physiological considerations, psychological and philoso- 
phical induction, and the precise statements of Revelation, 
prove that man, in addition to his body, with its chemico- 
physical properties, and his psyche, which is the co-ordinated 
form of his organisation, and the source of his instincts, 
appetites, and passions, possesses also his pneuma, which con- 
stitutes his personality, is the essence of his peculiar self- 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 299 

consciousness, the ground of his proper intellect, and the 
conditioning element of his moral faculty, and of his religious 
belief. It is the possession of this x>neuma which distinguishes 
man from the animal. Possessing, like the animal, a body 
and a psyche, he may descend, if he will, to the level of the 
brute. But he has also had it put in his power, in virtue of 
his pneuma, to participate in the conditions of a higher sphere 
of existence. 

I am compelled, therefore, to assume, as the guiding prin- 
ciple of my physiological studies, that the living organism is 
a co-ordinated system of psychical powers and physical forces ; 
and that, except as part of such a system, organisation cannot 
occur. 

Note L— p. 286. 

" THE GRADUAL AUGMENTATION." 

All the subjects, regarding some of which man has had a certain 
amount of knowledge revealed to him, and for inquiry into others 
of which he has had appropriate faculties bestowed upon him, 
form parts of a whole which is throughout in perfect harmony with 
itself. 

The human mind, although limited in its capacity and capable 
of acting only to the extent of the powers bestowed upon it, is, 
nevertheless, within its own sphere of capacity and of action, 
formed and endowed in perfect harmony with that whole, regarding 
which, it is permitted to inquire, and to obtain knowledge. 

All acquired knowledge, properly so called, must therefore be 
in harmony with the whole ; and the entire mass of human know- 
ledge, revealed and acquired, in its proper form, at any given epoch, 
must be in accordance with that whole, of which in fact it consti- 
t utis a part. Acquired knowledge is the result of inquiry by 
individual minds, into subjects more or less numerous and distinct. 
I '.ill, aa all minds have the same general constitution, and are 
regulated in the process of inquiry "by the same laws of thought, 
ami as, moreover, they are all tunned in harmony with that whole, 



300 ON LIFE AND OKGANISATION. 

the separate parts of which they are investigating ; the fragments of 
knowledge acquired by each, however discordant they may appear, 
are yet, in fact, only apparently so. 

These fragmentary acquisitions are all necessarily related to the 
common centre of the whole. As, therefore, they increase, or when 
the serieses of which they form parts extend, they must do so 
towards the centre. In the process of convergence they must 
necessarily, according to their proximity to one another, sooner or 
later coalesce, in which act their former apparent discrepancy 
vanishes, and their results assume their real appearance as parts of 
the common whole. 

Note II.— p. 286. 

" ORIGINALLY INDEPENDENT." 

The independent origin of the different departments of acquired 
knowledge is a consequence of the finite conditions of human 
thought. These finite conditions, necessarily excluding from a 
central point of view, and compelling the inquirer to examine any 
subject from one aspect only at a given time, can permit a know- 
ledge of that subject which, although true, is only partial. He may, 
for instance, acquire a knowledge of a given subject from the chemical 
point of view, from the electrical, and from the mechanical. But 
these three kinds of knowledge regarding it are in a great degree 
independent, and must continue to be so, until chemistry, electricity, 
and mechanics shall have coalesced more completely than they have 
yet done, and thus permit a view not from a mere chemical, elec- 
trical, or mechanical, but from a new and more central position. 

Note III— p. 28G. 

" THEIR permitted positions." 

Absolute knowledge must have a centre, from which and to 
which, all its parts must be necessarily deducible and referable. If 
human intelligence could push its inquiries forward to that common 
centre, the result would be knowledge of the Infinite. The con- 
sciousness of the impossibility of approaching that centre by the 
ordinary exercise of the human faculties has induced the various 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 301 

attempts which have been made by philosophers to explain the 
derivation of created things, and even to unveil the nature of the 
Deity, by assuming to contemplate them from the centre of 
Absolute Being. But as human intelligence can neither reach that 
centre from the periphery, nor assume it at will, and is unable, 
therefore, to view the whole from a central position, human know- 
ledge must ever remain only fragmentary. It can only amount to 
as much as has been immediately revealed to man, together with 
the continually-increasing but finite acquisitions made by the 
exercise of his definitely limited faculties. 

Knowledge is augmented by a twofold process. It is the result 
of the exercise of the active faculties, conditioned by the laws of the 
consciousness. In as far as it results from the exercise of the former, 
it may be conceived to be approached from the periphery ; as con- 
ditioned by the latter, it may be conceived as related to the centre. 
But as the active faculties are limited, and the consciousness strictly 
conditioned, it is evident that at no time can acquired knowledge 
be other than fragmentary. 

Each department of acquired knowledge will therefore, at any 
given epoch, have reached its permitted position in the mass ; that 
is to say, such a position in relation to the centre, as the conditions 
under which the human faculties are limited permit it to assume. 
" Conscious only of — conscious only in and through limitation, we 
think to comprehend the Infinite, and dream even of establishing 
the science, the nescience of man, on an identity with the omni- 
science of God. It is this powerful tendency of the most vigorous 
minds to transcend the sphere of our faculties, which makes a 
1 learned ignorance' the most difficult acquirement, perhaps, indeed, 
the consummation of knowledge." " There are two sorts of 
ignorance ; we philosophise to escape ignorance, and the consum- 
mation of our philosophy is ignorance ; we start from the one, we 
repose in the other ; they are the goals from which and to which 
we tend ; and the pursuit of knowledge is but a course between two 
ignorances, as human life is itself only a travelling from grave to 
grave."— (Sir William Hamilton's Discussions on Philosophy, etc,, 
pp. 36 and 601.) 



302 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

Note IV. p. 286. 

"absorbs in its progress." 

The gradual absorption of one science by another is merely a 

higher form of induction, and a necessary consequence of the finite 

nature of the human faculties. We acquire knowledge as we 

ascertain the peculiarities of a country which we enter for the 

first time from the sea. We are compelled to approach all subjects 

of inquiry ab extra. We become aware at first only of their salient 

points ; as we advance in our examination, the points dilate into 

masses ; and as we at length fairly enter a particular district of 

investigation, the points and masses blend more or less completely 

into one harmonious whole, or confuse and distract for a time by 

their number and complexity. The isolated phenomena and 

observations which gave origin to magnetism, electricity, galvanism, 

electro-magnetism, thermo-electricity, organic electricity, and the 

physiology of the nerve-fibre, Avere salient points of a number of 

apparently independent subjects, but which, in the progress of 

discovery, have blended more or less completely with one another, 

and will undoubtedly, at no distant period, form one continuous 

whole. And so it is with every other department of inquiry. 

The mind is therefore necessitated, from its finite nature and the 

laws of its constitution, to prosecute inquiry in different directions 

and from different aspects, and thus to amass for itself departments 

of knowledge, at first independent, but destined sooner or later to 

blend together. This blending together of different departments 

again results from their accordance with the whole (rb h), as far 

as we are capable of investigating it. We can never comprehend 

the to Iv ; but we can apprehend as much of it as our senses and 

self-consciousness, framed in harmony with it, are fitted to reach. 

And thus it is that acquired knowledge must ever be fragmentary ; 

that it has originated, and will originate, in centres apparently 

independent ; which again, in as far as our faculties permit, will 

expand and blend into masses, which will be but portions of the 

infinite whole. 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 303 

Note V. p. 288. 

" THE MASS OF PHYSIOLOGY, AS USUALLY UNDERSTOOD." 

The older philosophers applied the term physiology to the so- 
called general science of nature, and nearly in the same sense as the 
Germans at present employ the terms naturphilosophie and 
naturwissenschaft. (Naturphilosophie is employed to designate 
the science of nature in its widest sense, from the ontological point 
of view, and consequently by the philosophers of the idealistic 
schools. Naturwissenschaft is applied to the subject viewed as 
Inductive Science — that is, viewed in a strictly scientific sense.) 

Note VI. p. 288. 

" FUNDAMENTALLY DISTINCT METHODS OF RESEARCH." 

The subjects of Human Inquiry may be arranged in four 
groups, distinguished from one another by the fundamentally 
different modes in which their constituent facts, usually so-called, 
are attained. These groups are mental and moral, or, to employ 
the term in its original sense, Metaphysical subjects ; and subjects 
of Mathematical, Experimental, and Observational research. 

The constituent elements of Metaphysical subjects of inquiry, 
are reached by the exercise of the Human self-consciousness, turned 
inwards on itself. The facts thus attained are facts attained by 
consciousness alone. The ultimate facts of Moral Science are, 
moreover, not only recognised by the consciousness as " the law 
engraved on the heart," but are, in addition, made known by direct 
revelation. 

The constituent elements of Mathematics are derived from the 
ultimate universal truths of Space, Number, and Limit ; and which 
are, therefore, immediately recognised by the consciousness. 

The constituent elements of the Experimental sciences are 
reached by experiment, under the guidance of legitimate Hypothesis ; 
that is, by means of a process of tentative, constructive, and there- 
fore active examination through the senses. 

The constituent facts of the Observational sciences are procured 

VOL. I. X 



304 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

by the similar, but comparatively passive process of examination 
through the senses, termed Observation. 

It is to be observed that there is, in general, a great difference 
in the facility with which individual minds can work in these 
different modes of procuring and arranging data. Certain minds 
work easily in Mathematical, others in Experimental or Observational 
research. Few minds are capable of that peculiar power of ab- 
straction necessary for Metaphysical and Psychological inquiry. It 
is to be noted, also, that there are comparatively few minds which 
combine two or more of these powers ; and such minds are, in- 
variably, under favourable circumstances, the most successful in 
conducting research. 

These fundamentally different powers or capabilities are innate ; 
certain minds being naturally more or less highly endowed with 
one or more of them ; but every sound mind possessing them to a 
greater or less extent. Each of these powers, therefore, after its 
kind, is capable of being developed by judicious training. The 
evolving and exercise of these powers, in due proportion, con- 
stitutes a primary element in a sound general education ; whde the 
education for particular professions demands as complete a de- 
velopment as possible of at least one or more of them. 

All scientific, or other inquiry, is, however, fundamentally 
regulated by the laws of thought. For these laws, as they are the 
conditions under which the Human Intellect works, cannot be dis- 
pensed with, and consequently constitute the logical process in 
every train of inquiry. Every sound intellect is necessarily — that is, 
is instinctively regulated, more or less, by the Laws of Thought ; 
but the extent to which it is so regulated, depends upon that 
assiduous training, with this special object in view, and which 
ought, therefore, to constitute another of the primary elements of a 
sound general education. 

There are, therefore, in all inquiry, two steps to be taken. The 
elements or facts of the question, of whatever kind these elements 
may be, must be laid hold of; and the logical process must be 
brought to bear upon them for further analysis or reduction, and 
reference to their proper position in the system. There is a dif- 
ference between metaphysical and mathematical inquiry on the one 
hand, and experimental and observational on the other, in the 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 305 

mode in which these steps are taken. In Metaphysical inquiry, 
the mind examines through her self-consciousness, her own con- 
stitution, and the necessary truths and principles of reason — that 
is, knowledge and existence. She does so in the full assurance 
that her constitution is in exact accordance with these necessary 
truths and principles. In the Mathematical she also examines, hy 
means of her self-consciousness, necessary truths ; for the element- 
ary data of the mathematician are merely necessary truths in 
relation to number, space, and limit. She proceeds in such in- 
quiries with perfect confidence in the stability of her data, because 
her own constitution is in exact accordance with all truth. It thus 
appears that metaphysics and mathematics, dealing with necessary 
truths, require, for their successful prosecution, merely an aptitude 
for seizing their fundamental elements ; and the correct appli- 
cation of the logical and inductive processes of the intellect to 
these elements. But, in experimental or observational inquiry, 
the mind must act through the senses. In dealing with matter, in 
all its forms, the mind cannot dispense with those channels of in- 
formation, through which alone, according to her constitution, she 
is enabled to apprehend external nature. The so-called facts of 
Observational or Experimental science reach the mind, therefore, 
through the senses, and are consequently characterised by all the 
ambiguity inseparable from their medium. They are apparent, 
not real ; they are phenomena, not noumena. They differ from 
the elements of metaphysical and mathematical knowledge, which 
are necessary and immediate truths, in this respect, that they 
must be interpreted — that is, reduced to a thinkable form, or in- 
troduced to the sphere of necessary truth. The process of reduction 
to a thinkable form must be effected in every instance of expe- 
rimental or observational inquiry, from that of the most elementary 
phenomena up to those of the solar system. It constitutes the 
inductive method, in its ordinary acceptation; by means of which 
alone mind advances in the midst of surrounding phenomena, and 
reduces them to the absolute truths of Force — Space — Time — ■ 
Number — and Limit. Be it observed, however, that this dis- 
tinction between metaphysical and mathematical inquiry, on the 
one hand, and experimental and observational on the other, does 
not consist in the immediate apprehension of noumena in the case 



306 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

of the former, and in the immediate analysis of phenomena in the 
case of the latter; but merely in the double analysis which the 
latter kind of inquiry involves — or more correctly in the extension 
of the analysis to the phenomena themselves. The inductive 
process must be followed in both kinds of inquiry ; but in the 
metaphysical and mathematical it rests immediately on ultimate 
and necessary trutb, while in the experimental the phenomena 
themselves must be analysed, so as to be introduced into the sphere 
of ultimate and necessary truth. The inductive process is not, 
therefore, confined in its application to experimental and observa- 
tional, but extends to metaphysical and mathematical inquiries. 
The induction, in the case of the latter, lands at once in necessary 
truth ; while, in the former, the phenomena themselves, on which 
the inquiries are based, must be subjected to the analytical and in- 
ductive processes, before the subject can assume a thinkable form. 

The inductive process, more particularly as employed in expe- 
rimental and observational research, consists in the provisional 
construction or assumption of a law applicable to the phenomena, 
and in testing this assumption by renewed experiment or obser- 
vation. If, after sufficient trial or observation, the assumption 
holds good, and, more particularly, if it indicates, and, on trial, 
reveals results not previously known or anticipated, it may be 
safely held as established in its present form, and the so-called 
facts it involves may be said to be explained or inducted. 

The assumed or provisional law always involves some mediate 
or immediate form of ultimate or necessary truth, upon which 
depends its capability of being thought. The human mind is in- 
debted for its power of framing such hypothetical or provisional 
laws, with the view to the discovery of actual laws, to the en- 
dowment of a divine element by its Creator, in virtue of which it 
is formed in accordance with all truth, and in harmony with all 
created things, and so is enabled to see, dimly it is true, into sur- 
rounding phenomena, but with sufficient clearness, when its gaze is 
legitimately directed, to seize upon their probable relations, so as 
to test them by necessary truth, and previously acquired knowledge, 
brought to bear upon them under the guidance of the laws of 
thought. 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 307 

Note VII. p. 288. 

" AXD WITH THE PSYCHOLOGICAL." 

Psychology is to be carefully distinguished from Metaphysics, 
which is the science of the relations of Being, Knowing, and 
Thinking. 

Metaphysics have no place in the province of Natural History ; 
but Psychology is one of those sciences from which the naturalist 
is obliged to borrow, in his efforts to investigate the properties of 
organised beings. 

It is a great mistake to consider Psychology as a subject, mysti- 
cal, vague, unsubstantial, and affording nothing which can be applied 
to practical purposes. On the contrary, it is a purely inductive 
science, dealing with facts and their generalisation. Psychology, 
however, differs from ordinary inductive science in this respect, 
that the facts with which it deals are not attained through the 
bodily senses, but by the mental consciousness. 

In the prosecution of ordinary inductive science, the mind 
throws herself out, as it were, upon external nature, even upon her 
own organism, if that be the subject of her inquiry. In this act 
she becomes aware of certain so-called facts, to her at first merely 
phenomena. 

But, in the investigation of her own constitution, she turns in 
upon herself, and attains the facts of Psychology, not by sense, but 
by consciousness. The facts of Psychology are not phenomena, but 
noumena, in the broad sense of the term. They are not, however, 
less certainly facts on that account. 

The advance of Psychology, as a department of Anthropology, 
is opposed by no difficulty other than that inherent in the nature 
of the subject. But as a department of general Zoology, it has to 
encounter difficulty in collecting facts. 

We must not, however, be repelled by this difficulty, or hold 
with Bonnet that philosophers will make no progress in the subject 
"until they have spent some time in the head of an animal, with- 
out actually being that animal." 

We determine the characters of tin' mental acts of our fellow- 
men, by observing certain correi pondin ■ i orporeal actions 



308 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

We may therefore reasonably expect, by tbe careful investiga- 
tion of the habits and actions of animals, aided by cautious general- 
isation, to derive much important psychological knowledge. Such 
knowledge will ultimately assume the form of a sub-science — 
Comparative Psychology. 

The facts of Human Psychology are attained directly through 
the consciousness ; but the generalisations of Comparative Psycho- 
logy must necessarily continue to be indirect. 

We must, therefore, compare the facts and laws of the Psychology 
of man, with the indications or manifestations of apparently similar 
facts and laws in the brute. 

It will at once be admitted, that the central fact of our psychi- 
cal constitution is the existence of a power within us, in virtue of 
which we possess the faculties of Knowing, Peeling, and Willing. 

To this power we may apply the term Intelligence — employing 
the word in the broad sense of which it is susceptible. 

That a corresponding power exists in the brute will, I believe, 
be generally admitted. 

There appears, however, to be a very marked difference between this 
power as it exists in man, and even the highest form of it in the brute. 

In man it is fully evolved, capable of being scrutinised as an 
object by its possessor. 

In the brute it is semi-evolved, and, as we shall in the sequel 
find grounds for concluding, unconscious of itself. 

It would appear to exist in the simplest forms in the simplest 
animals. As we extend our observations up the animal series, it 
appears, as recognised by its manifestations, in forms more and 
more complicated, in species above species, but never reaching, 
even in the Orang, the stage of self-consciousness. 

Intelligence always manifests itself in connection with certain 
organs and parts of the animal. 

It is not, however, produced by, or secreted from, these parts or 
organs, but only, as has been already stated, evolved parallel to, 
and in harmony with, their development. 

In the study of Comparative Anatomy, much success has been 
attained by commencing with the examination of the simplest 
forms, and extending our observations upwards, in a series of in- 
creasing complexity. 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 309 

A similar course naturally suggests itself for the prosecution of 
Comparative Psychology. 

Selecting animals with the simplest structure, and the least 
complex external relations, and applying to the explanation of their 
psychical manifestations the elementary facts and laws of Human 
Psychology, we may reasonably expect indications of the nature of 
such manifestations. 

As we are compelled, at the same time, by the nature of our 
subject, to proceed from the knowledge of our own psychical con- 
stitution, let us inquire what is the first stage in the evolution of 
our own intelligence. 

It would appear to commence at birth. It awakens contempo- 
raneously with the arrival at its seat of certain of those so-called 
impressions made upon the surface of the body of the infant by 
the new medium into which it has entered. 

Some of these newly-arrived impressions are intended to co- 
operate in the economy of the organism (reflex actions) ; but others 
are immediately related to the awakened intelligence, and with 
them only we have at present to do. They are the impressions on 
the organs of the senses. 

Of these latter impressions the intelligence becomes aware. In 
technical language, sensations are produced. The being experi- 
ences sensations. 

To ascertain the nature of sensation, we must analyse its so- 
called phenomena in our own consciousness, and combine the 
results with what we know of the economy and actions of the 
corresponding organs of the nervous system. 

Sensation may be defined to be apprehension, by the intelli- 
gence of impressions transmitted to its seat from objects in the 
surrounding medium, or in its own organism. 

This apprehension would appear to be immediate ; that is, the 
apprehension is not a process ; for, as Sir William Hamilton has 
pointed out, we cannot discriminate Sense from Intelligence. 

A process must lie admitted, however, in the act of sensation. 
It would appear to eonsi.-t of three parts : — 

1. The impression on the organ of sense. 

2. Thr transmission of this impression along the nerve. 

3. The recognition bv the Intelligence of what lias been tran 



310 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

niitted along the nerve to the vesicular matter of the central nervous 
organ. 

This process of sensation, then, lies partly without, partly 
within, the consciousness. The impression on what is called the 
sensible part, and the transmission along the nerve, are beyond the 
consciousness, and would continue so were its passage interrupted ; 
but when it affects the nervous centre, it enters the region of con- 
sciousness, it becomes recognised, and assumes the form of a 
psychological fact. 

It must be observed, however, that the apprehension now 
under consideration is entirely subjective. The intelligence merely 
apprehends an affection of itself. There has taken place no appre- 
hension whatever of the object which produced the impression 
transmitted and recognised. 

The apprehension of the object itself requires a higher phase 
of intelligence. It requires a power of interpreting the sensa- 
tion, or of apprehending it in a form peculiar to the kind of sensa- 
tion, whatever that may be. 

The intelligence now no longer apprehends a sense — a mere 
affection of itself — but it apprehends an object from which pro- 
ceeded the impression which induced that sense. 

This peculiar intuitive power possessed by the intelligence of 
objectifying a sensation, is denominated, in the language of ancient 
Psychology — Perception. 

We have now reached the point at which may be recognised 
the difference between the intelligence in man and in the brute. 

Prom the first moment that the intelligence of an animal is 
awakened by sensations, and contemporaneous with the correspond- 
ing intuitive perceptions, it becomes conscious. It becomes con- 
scious of external objects, as out of itself, and as having certain 
relations to itself. It is able immediately and directly to determine 
the position and other relations of the objects it perceives, in 
relation to the surface of its own organism. 

It is enabled to do this immediately and directly, under the 
influence of a power, acting according to certain laws — a power 
to which we apply the collective term — Instinct. 

In man, again, where his intelligence has been awakened by 
sensations, and contemporaneous with the corresponding percep- 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 311 

tions, consciousness, the essence of intelligence, comes into play. 
We have already seen how the awakened intelligence or conscious- 
ness of the brute, under the guidance of instinct, at once enables it 
to determine, with precision, its relations to external objects. But 
the newly-awakened conscious intelligence of man is unable to 
effect this for him. He refers all his perceptions of external 
objects to the surface of his own organism ; he is unable to deter- 
mine their exact position in space. 

If, however, he is at this stage of his career more helpless than 
the brute, there has already begun to be evolved within him a 
power which completely distinguishes him from the lower animal, 
and which will not only speedily put him on a level with it, in 
relation to external objects, but which will, if employed aright, 
raise him indefinitely in the scale of intelligence. 

This power is a property conferred on the human intelligence 
by its Creator, in virtue of which it is capable not only of percep- 
tion, but of apperception. It is not only conscious, but self- 
conscious. 

In the brute, consciousness is in relation to the objects per- 
ceived ; the consciousness of self in the animal extends only to the 
not confounding of itself with those objects. In technical language, 
the animal can apprehend the object only ; it cannot apprehend 
the subject. 

Man, again, is conscious, not only of the object perceived, but 
of the self which perceives. He can apprehend the subject as well 
as the object. He is to himself, in the technical language of 
metaphysics, a subject-object. 

If we assume, as it would now appear we are fully entitled to 
do, that the brute is only capable of objective consciousness, its 
so-called intellectual processes resolve themselves into mere 
suggestive acts. Its so-called thoughts, or trains of thought, are 
merely individual acts of objective consciousness connected by the 
determining law of its instinct. These acts of objective conscious- 
ness may be immediate — that is, induced by the actual presence of 
the object; or they may be mediate — that is, reproductions of acts 
of objective consciousness, through the memory 01 imagination. 
The brute is undoubtedly capable of memory and imagination ; 
but its acts ill' memory and imagination are, like its other ads of 



312 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

consciousness, individual and objective acts — that is to say, they 
are induced by the presence of an object or exciting cause, and are 
connected in the most direct manner by the instinctive laws of its 
constitution. The memory and the imagination (which is dependent 
on the memory) of the brute may be compared to those systems of 
Mnemonics which are resorted to by persons who have not acquired 
the faculty of grouping under general principles the facts which 
they desire to remember. 

The apparent intellectual processes of the brute are, like its 
acts of memory and imagination (Mnemonic and Phantasmic acts), 
merely individual acts of objective consciousness, connected by 
the necessary elementary psychical consecution. A recollection 
or a phantasm immediately follows an objective excitement ; 
and an apparent intellectual conclusion is only a single, neces- 
sary, and terminal movement in advance of the primary psychical 
impression. 

If we assume, indeed, the absence of self-consciousness in the 
brute, we must admit the corresponding absence of intellectual 
movement. The simplest intellectual process involves at least 
three steps — the formation of a general notiori or concept, the 
predication of the subject of the process in the concept, and the 
necessary conclusion. But a concept is an abstraction, a mere 
subjective form under which we group together any number of 
objects by the points in which they agree. It requires, therefore, 
for its attainment a self-conscious power. In like manner the 
predicating anything of an object, or of the subject of a thought, 
and the consequent conclusion, involve acts of self-consciousness. 
Every so-called act of thought, or intellectual process in the brute, 
must therefore, if we assume the absence of self-consciousness, be 
reduced to the level of an act of suggestion. 

In the want of self-consciousness, and irrespective of the more 
or less non-adaptation of the appropriate organ, we have an 
explanation of the absence of speech even in the highest form of 
the brute. Language is an organon developed in exact harmony 
with, and presenting a complete counterpart to, all the arts, move- 
ments, and processes of thought. Words, relative terms, and 
propositions, are merely the forms in which language represents 
the corresponding intellectual movements. The various signs and 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION 313 

noises indicative of the Appetites, Affections, and Passions of tlie 
L >wer animals constitute, indeed, an elementary form of Language ; 
but it is entirely destitute of the discursive element which, 
distinctive of thought, exhibits itself in the relative terms of 
logical speech. The so-called Language of the brute is merely 
a succession of signs, each sign significant of a particular appetite 
or emotion, and primarily induced therefore by an objective 
excitement. 

The human self-consciousness is possessed of two sets of 
faculties — those subservient to knowledge, and those subservient to 
impulse. These two sets of faculties are grouped around the free 
will, which comes into play in the exercise of the first group, and 
in the regulation as well as exercise of the second. The in- 
tellectual faculties of the self- consciousness are powers awakened in 
harmony with certain impressions, on which they react ; the 
resulting processes being carried forward by the determination of 
the will, under certain conditions. The impulsive faculties of the 
self-consciousness are feelings induced by certain impressions, and 
involving, according to their kinds, attraction to or repulsion from 
certain objects ; the attraction or repulsion, in relation to the will, 
being conditioned by the conscience. 

In virtue of his self-consciousness, therefore, man is enabled 
to discover the laws of Nature and of his own constitution ; and 
he is, by the same means, enabled to judge of these laws as being 
true. 

In virtue of conscience, that peculiar condition of his self- 
consciousness, in relation to his impulsive faculties, he is also 
enabled to determine when he ought to repress his appetites, 
passions, and emotions. He has a Free will, but he has also a sure 
guide for the regulation of it. 

We have had reason to conclude that the brute is not possessed 
of self-consciousness, that it is only conscious. We are obliged to 
admit that, unconscious of its psychical processes, it cannot regulate 
them, nor can it be possessed of a conscience to control its appetites 
ami emotions. 

M hi onghl t" ad under lie' influence of his spirit (i^u/xa). 
The brute invariably acts under lie' influence of sense (■^■jyj, or <r«^). 

The emotions or impulses "I the brute air thus regulated by 



314 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

instinct only. The animal must obey them, and it does so. Its 
emotions, therefore, are deficient in the subjective element. Like 
its so-called intellectual operations, they are related only to their 
peculiar objects. 

Having thus endeavoured to secure a philosophical basis for 
the psychology of the brute, or comparative psychology, as a depart- 
ment of general zoology, a brief analysis may next be attempted 
of the appetites and so-called emotions and passions of the 
animal. 

In the appetites, emotions, and passions, the conscious, as 
well as the self-conscious being, would appear to anticipate, with 
manifestations of satisfaction or disgust, pleasure or pain, in their 
consummation. 

The appetites, emotions, and passions of the lower animal 
may be grouped, with reference to their manifestations, into 
appetites which are allied to sensations, passions which are related 
to perceptions, and social impulses which exhibit a resemblance to 
understanding. 

The appetites are principally related to the immediate well- 
being of the organism. The primary appetites are connected 
with certain sensations to the fulfilling of the objects of which 
they are impulsive : — they are the appetites for food, drink, air, 
warmth. These primary appetites, along with certain instinctive 
impulses, such as the desire of exercise, as exhibited in the 
movements of animals in a state of freedom or confinement, and 
in the use of the means provided for self-defence, constitute a 
group of psychical conditions conducive to the preservation of the 
individual. 

A second group of psychical powers are related to the preserva- 
tion of the species. This group consists of the sexual instinct, and 
the various interesting forms of the psedagogic instinct, such as 
nidification, incubation, suckling, and the so-called education of the 
lower animal by its parents. 

A third group of psychical conditions, analogous to the passions 
of the self-conscious being, consist of the so-called anger and 
jealousy, revenge, gratitude, grief, emulation, desire of approbation, 
love, and friendship, of the lower animal. 

A fourth group includes the social impulses, subdivided into 



ON LIFE AND OKGANISATION. 315 

the family instincts and the communal instincts. The former 
includes the psychical manifestations exhibited during pairing, 
the preparation of the common dwelling, the preparing of food, 
defence of the family, the arrangements for propagation and rearing 
of young. 

The latter consist of the Psychical manifestations exhibited 
during the temporary or imperfect associations of animals for amuse- 
ment, for pairing and breeding, for migration, for hunting ; and of 
the remarkable psychical manifestations exhibited by those animals 
which form perfect communities or polities. 

In this part of the subject an important consideration is intro- 
duced touching the relation between what was denominated a 
psychical community, such as exists in the hive or ant-hill ; and an 
organic community, such as presents itself in a composite organism, 
as, for instance, a Zoophyte or Phytophone. 

It is very important that it should not be supposed there is a 
process in the recognition of the externality of an object by the 
human intelligence, or that this recognition results from a previously- 
existing recognition of self. The two presumed recognitions are 
two aspects of the same fact. In the same moment that the human 
self-conscious intelligence apprehends the influence transmitted from 
an external object — or, in technical language, in the moment of 
sensation — it apprehends itself also. 

On the other hand, the recognition of the externality of the 
external object by the animal is effected in the moment that the 
impression produced by that object is apprehended by its intelli- 
gence — in the moment of sensation — in virtue of its animal or 
instinctive constitution, which is unconscious of self, but cognisant 
of the opposite pole — the externality of the object. 

The instinctive element already alluded to as conferring on the 
animal the faculty of recognising immediately the externality of 
external objects, confers on it also many other remarkable faculties. 
To these I shall afterwards direct your attention, but at present it is 
necessary that I should point out what appear to be the distinctive 
characters of this peculiar clement which reigns supreme in the 
brute. 

Our space will not admit of an extended analysis ; but we may 
Bum up the result in the fullowing definition of Instinct. 



316 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

Instinct is a collective term applied to those laws, in virtue of 
which the psychical endowments of the animal are so adjusted in 
reference to its organism with its functions, and to all the necessary 
and contingent circumstances in its existence, as to enable them to 
work together harmoniously in the adaptation of means to ends, 
without self-consciousness. 

On the other hand, that peculiar principle in the constitution of 
man, which acts independently on his instincts, and in virtue of 
which he is conscious of self, capable of apprehending the objects 
around him as external to self, enabled to exert his corporeal and 
psychical powers in the accumulation and co-ordination of ideas and 
their signs ; but, above all, capable of determining between right 
and wrong ; of recognising his own immortality ; and his depend- 
ence, as well as the dependence of all around him, on his and their 
Divine Creator, is an intelligence altogether different in kind from 
the instinctively co-ordinated intelligence of the brute. 

The bee, in the performance of its work, unconscious of self, but 
capable of exerting its will, and determining its acts, invariably does 
so under the unerring guidance of a plan or code of rules, sufficient 
for, and co-extensive with, all the acts, and the succession of these 
acts, necessary and contingent, which it is required to accomplish, 
within its own sphere, in the general polity of the hive. It is 
neither a chemist, a geometrician, an architect, nor a politician. It, 
nevertheless, unconscious of the regulating principle, but under 
the guidance of the laws which control its psychical economy, fulfils 
its scientific, artistic, and political functions, with unerring accuracy 
and without previous training. 

When man enters the sphere of his present existence, that 
peculiar principle, which is henceforward to regulate his psychical 
economy, is potential only, not in actual operation. Coming into 
play contemporaneously with the apprehensions of sense, it is so 
unprepared for the regulation of the economy of the individual, 
that he cannot even employ efficiently his organs of sense, or per- 
form of himself many necessary functions which the animal, under 
the control of the instinct, fulfils at once. 

Eut, by degrees, and contemporaneously with the indications of 
sense, it becomes evolved until the individual is capable of moving 
in a sphere, and of reacting on surrounding objects, in a manner 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 317 

and to an extent which the possession of the highest instinct could 
not have enahled him to reach. 

The plan or code of rules "by which the psychical economy of 
the animal is regulated is laid down and determined by a power 
beyond its control or consciousness. 

The complex but harmonious and ever-developing system of 
rules and laws, which is the result of the evolution of the regulating 
principle in man, in relation to external objects, would appear to 
be, at any one moment, the exact counterpart of as much of every- 
thing external to itself as it has been awakened to in correlation 
with the recognitions of sense. Hence, however, it is to be noted, 
that the animal must obey, and does act up to, the laws and rules 
of its regulating instinct. 

But the regulating power in man is free. He has had a free 
will bestowed upon him. He may follow the dictates of his self- 
conscious regulating principle, or he may act contrary to them. 

Into the consideration of this peculiarity of the Human Consti- 
tution I do not enter, as not bearing on our present subject. I 
must, however, direct your attention to the characteristics and 
development of those powers of the Human Intelligence which 
require to be borne in mind, while we are engaged in the study of 
the Psychical manifestations of the lower animals. 

In the first place, it is to be observed that self- consciousness 
involves the faculty of judgment. " It cannot be realised without 
an energy of judgment." Self-consciousness is in fact an exercise 
of Thought. It involves a comparison and a judgment regarding 
two things, neither of which we can think down or out of 
existence — namely, the self which thinks, and the self which is 
thought of. 

Again, in the act of Perception, we are not only conscious of 
self but of a not-self. We cannot disbelieve the one or the other. 
They are relative to one another, "each known only in antithesis 
to the other." Here again judgment is passed between the two 
terms. It is an act of Thought. 

Then, again, we cannot think anything except under the con- 
ditioD of Time. Self-consciousness involves the judgment of self 
and of not-self, as being or existing in Time. With our utmost 
efforl we cannol thiols ourselves or aught else oul of Time. 



318 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

Time, indeed, is to us only relative. We cannot conceive an 
eternity past, or an eternity future ; neither can we conceive Time 
compressed into nought or annihilated. Time is to us, therefore, 
only apprehensible as a condition under which we think. Time is 
a condition of Thought. 

In the same manner, Space is to us only another necessary con- 
dition of Thought. In itself it is absolutely inconceivable. We 
can only think of it as " an indefinite whole," or "an indefinite part." 
We can only conceive of it while passing a judgment regarding the 
relation of things as they are in it — as they are external in relation 
to one another, or as they are one within the other. 

It is evident that the relations of things thought of under the 
conditions of Time and of Space involve the judgments of Duration 
and of Motion. 

Thought, under the condition of Space, involves the judgment 
of matter as not annihilable. We cannot conceive aught as 
capable of being expanded in Space, or compressed Space into 
annihilation. 

The irresistible judgment of Causality is passed by our self- 
consciousness by virtue of the necessity it is under of judging of 
existence under the condition of Time. We cannot think of a 
thing but as an existence. We cannot think of a thing except 
under the condition of Time ; that is, we are under the necessity 
of considering it as only a new form of what existed before it. 
Therefore we cannot think of it as absolutely commencing per se. We 
are able to conceive the creation of a world, this, indeed, as easily as 
the creation of an atom. But what is our thought of creation 1 it 
is not a thought of the mere springing of nothing into something. 
On the contrary, creation is conceived, and is by us conceivable, 
only as the evolution of existence from possibility into actuality by 
the fiat of the Deity. 

We have up to this point assumed that the brute is not self- 
conscious ; that it is only conscious ; that it only does not con- 
found itself with the objects it perceives. 

If this be the case it must be inferred that the animal intelli- 
gence does not pass a judgment in an act of consciousness. The 
act is intuitive. It is not an act of thought. 

If so, also, time cannot be a condition in any act of the animal 



ON LIFE AND OKGANISATION. 319 

consciousness. Duration and causation are conceptions impossible 
for the animal intelligence ; neither can the relative conception of 
space, or the secondary conceptions which flow from it, be possible 
for a consciousness not conscious of self. 

As, however, these presumed distinctions between the conscious- 
ness in man and in the brute are of primary importance in compara- 
tive psychology, we shall proceed to inquire whether there is any 
mode of procuring — not direct evidence, for, from the nature of the 
subject, that is, as we have seen, beyond our reach — but cumulative 
although indirect proof, such as must put the matter beyond 
question. 

This matter cannot be discussed at length in this note. A 
single example will suffice as an illustration of the method by 
which the indirect evidence of the nature of the consciousness of 
the brute may be attained. For this purpose the difference in 
the modes in which the use of the organ of vision is acquired by 
man, and by the lower animal, may be examined. 

In man every act of sensation or perception, although actually 
occurring in the brain, is referred to the peripheral extremity of 
the nerve filament excited, to which extremity the exciting object 
is also referred (primarily), whether it acts on that extremity im- 
mediately or mediately. 

Objects seen by the infant are, therefore, at first referred by it 
to the peripheral part of the organ of vision — that is, to the eye- 
ball. The sensation as well as the perception of the object are 
both — if the expression may be allowed — located in or on the eye 
itself. 

But the infant acquires the faculty of seeing objects not as 
in contact with its own organism, but in their relative positions in 
Space. This faculty is acquired by a process of investigation, the 
results of which are retained by continued practice, while the steps 
of the process by which they were originally procured have escaped 
from the developing, and therefore comparatively weak memory of 
the child. 

The explanation of this process involves the consideration of a 
number of physiological and of psychological elements. The faculty 
which the human being possesses of perceiving the relations of 
objects in space, depends physiologically on the mosaic structure of 

ViiL. I. V 



320 ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 

the retina, on the greater visual delicacy of the central retinal spot, 
on the relative position of the two eyes, and on the muscular sense ; 
and, physiologically, on the faculties of attention, memory, and 
conception under the conditions of thinking in space. 

The mosaic structure of the retina permitting only the sensation 
and perception of a single point of light for each compartment of 
its surface, must necessarily afford the immediate means of con- 
ception of breadth, or of transverse and perpendicular separation, 
under the condition of thinking in space. The mosaic structure of 
the retina will thus at once, and without any movement of the eye 
or head, afford to the infant the means of judging of the separation 
of two points of light in the field of vision. 

But much more extended and precise conceptions of the rela- 
tions of breadth, or of transverse and perpendicular separation, 
are acquired through the muscular sense in the movements of the 
eyeball and head. These movements may be stated, generally, to 
have as one of their more important objects the bringing of the - 
central or most delicate part of the retina opposite to each part of 
an object in succession. These successive movements constitute, 
in fact, a process of palpitation, during which the central spot, or 
most delicate part of the eye — considered as an organ of touch — in 
combination with the muscular sense, is successively brought into 
contact with the object examined. Through its faculties of atten- 
tion, memory, and conception, under the conditions of thinking in 
Space, the mind stores up, and retains, in their proper relative posi- 
tions, the successive perceptions it has acquired by the successive 
mediate applications of the central spot to different points of the ob- 
ject looked at, and in this manner is enabled to piece them together, so 
as to frame a conception of the object as a picture — that is, as consist- 
ing of parts, all situated in a plane transverse to the axis of the eye. 

The self-consciousness of the infant now acquires the faculty of 
detaching its visual conception of an object from its eye. It has 
hitherto seen it as a picture in a transverse plane, and at the eye. 
It has now to see it — that is, to conceive of it through visual per- 
ceptions — as a solid object (if it should be a solid object) in its pro- 
per position in relation to other objects in Space. 

Two means conduce towards this end : the position of the two 
eyes, and the exercise of the muscular sense. 



ON LIFE AND ORGANISATION. 321 

It lias been already stated that the immediate means of concep- 
tion of breadth, or of extension in the transverse plane of the eye, 
is primarily afforded by the mosaic structure of the retina. In like 
manner, the means of conception of extension, in any direction, 
cutting the transverse plane of the eye, is supplied by the position 
of the eyes in front of the Human head. The Infant, when using 
both eyes, contemplates two aspects of every solid object, or two 
aspects of the entire scene before it. These two aspects afford two 
pictures in planes at an angle to one another, and consequently con- 
ceived of by its intelligence under different relations of space. It 
involves in its combined conception of the object or scene all the 
relations of Space, which are fundamental or necessary to its laws 
of Thought. It conceives of the objects seen in the three rela- 
tions of length, breadth, and depth. 

But, as the conceptions of the breadth and depth of an object 
as primarily derived from the mosaic structure of the retina, are 
extended and rendered more precise by the muscular movements 
and sense of the eyeball and head ; so, in like manner, the full 
advantage of the arrangements for binocular vision is dependent on 
the use of the same means. 

But the most important accessory to the Human eye is the 
Human hand. The Human hand is formed in absolute harmony 
with the conditions of Human thought. It is an instrument ex- 
pressly framed to act under it and for it. Psychologically con- 
sidered, it is the principal channel through which we derive the 
means of framing our conceptions of the form of bodies. Towards 
this end, it co-operates with the eye, bringing to the aid of the lat- 
ter the combined results of the sense of touch, highly developed, 
on the fingers and palm, and of the muscular sense of the entire 
limb. The peculiar maimer in which the human thumb can be 
opposed to the fingers, and the entire hand folded around the ob- 
ject, as well as the specifically human manner in which the upper 
limits can embrace an object or enclose! a space, are, undoubtedly, 
related to the requirements of the human self-consciousness. They 
are the principal organical means by which the human intelligence 
reaches those motions of external objects, which, when thought 
under the conditions of Space, enable it to frame its conceptions of 
< ■ x 1 1 inal nature. 



322 ON LIFE AND OEGANISATION. 

Such, is the process by which man is enabled to acquire the use 
of his organs of vision. He arrives at it by an intellectual process ; 
that is, by a process which could only be carried on under the con- 
ditions of a self-consciousness. 

The brute is enabled to use its eyes at once. If, therefore, it 
possesses any form of self-consciousness, this faculty is not called 
into play in relation to vision. 

But so, in like manner, self-consciousness may be eliminated 
from other departments of its physical manifestation. Now, as a 
most remarkable economy in the use of means for the most numer- 
ous and varied ends is exhibited in every department of God's 
works, it appears to be opposed to this principle of economy, that 
the brute should possess a self-conscious intelligence, and yet be 
indebted for the use of its faculties to some power beyond that 
consciousness. 

It appears to me, therefore, that we are of necessity led to the 
conclusion, even when uninfluenced by other considerations, that 
the brute is conscious of external objects only, while man cannot 
detach his consciousness of external objects from his consciousness 
of self. The brute is merely conscious — man is self-conscious. 



Note VIII. p. 297. 

" MOKE IMPORTANT SUBJECTS DISCUSSED." 

It is right to state that it was the author's intention to have 
very materially extended these notes in their Metaphysical and 
Psychological aspects, with the view of publishing the lecture with 
annotations, but he was led aside by other work. — Eds. 



ADDKESS DELIVERED TO THE GRADUATES IN MEDICINE. 323 



III.— ADDRESS DELIVERED TO THE GRADUATES 
m MEDICINE* 

Gentlemen, — You have now attained a position in which 
you are henceforward to be engaged, not only in the study of 
medicine, but also in the practice of it. You have become 
responsible for a continued course of self-improvement, and 
for your efficiency as physicians. Having taken your places 
as members of one of the three professions, the collective 
erudition of which constitutes the whole liberal learning of a 
country, you are bound deliberately to consider the nature of 
the position you now occupy. It devolves on me, on this 
occasion, briefly to indicate to you the scope and character of 
the duties which that position entails. 

If the clerical profession demands an extent of study, and 
occupies a sphere of action which bring it into relation with 
every department of learning, and all grades of society ; if the 
erudition and the knowledge of mankind necessary for the 
accomplished lawyer cannot be definitely limited ; it is still 
more difficult to determine the line of demarcation between 
the province of the physician and the ever-extending area of 
human knowledge and activity. 

The training required fur any of the three liberal profes- 
sions is therefore properly considered as the completion of 
a thorough education ; and thus, those three distinct depart- 
ments of professional study are, from their essential character, 

• This address was delivered on the lsl August 1850, when Professor 
Good ii a< ted a Promoter for thai yi ar. Eds. 



324 ADDRESS DELIVERED TO THE 

dependent on that general philosophical training which con- 
stitutes the fundamental object of a university. 

This comprehensiveness of study, characterising these three 
professions, is necessitated by the nature of their common 
object. Differing in importance, in accordance with their 
respective purposes, they have, nevertheless, this feature in 
common, that they have severally to do with human nature. 
The first has its sphere of action in the responsibilities and 
duties of human nature to its Maker, Preserver, and Judge ; 
and has for its end the eternal happiness of humanity. The 
second is occupied with the responsibilities and duties due by 
members of the community to positive law emanating from 
supreme political authority, and has for its end the temporal 
happiness of humanity. The third devotes itself to the well- 
being of the corporeal frame, which, although not an essential, 
is nevertheless a highly important element of human happi- 
ness ; inasmuch as on the condition of the body depends the 
due performance of the social duties of the individual and his 
efficiency as a member of the community. 

The three liberal professions being thus directly devoted 
in common to the wellbeing of humanity, your share of the 
work is to determine the conditions on which health may be 
best attained, and to indicate or to supply the means thereto. 

Health essentially consists in the harmonious performance 
of all the functions of the being. The conception of health 
can only be derived from our conception of life as manifested 
in organisation. In the lowest plant, up to man himself, we 
unhesitatingly, and as it were instinctively, assume the health 
of the being as the most perfect manifestation of its life. As 
health is then the end to be attained by the calling of the 
physician, life, and more particularly life in relation to 
humanity, must constitute his peculiar study. 

It appertains to the very essence of a liberal profession 
that its practice can only be finally determined when its 



GRADUATES IN MEDICINE. 325 

principles have been ascertained. The principles of your pro- 
fession are derived from the study of life and its conditions. 
Herein consists the chief difficulty with which medicine has 
had to contend. The very circumstance that vitality is sub- 
ject to disturbance in direct proportion to the comprehensive- 
ness of the conditions under which it is maintained, involves 
its study in complexities of a kind which do not oppose the 
advance of the science of inorganic nature. Vitality can 
only be investigated as it is manifested in individual organisms. 
Now, although the organisation of the individual is a perfect 
system in itself, it is not the less a system dependent on con- 
ditions external to itself. All its parts and actions are pre- 
arranged in reference to as much of what is external to it as 
its conditions of existence involve. It can live or subsist in 
any locality in which these conditions are provided for it. If, 
again, these conditions are in any way transgressed, or if they 
are withheld, a diminution of health, or the access of disease, 
or of death, necessarily supervenes. As with the individual 
so with the species, the existence and health of which depend 
at any given time on the presence and integrity of the con- 
ditions of its collective vitality. The localisation of all the 
various species, genera, families, and orders, of organised 
beings in space, and their existence or non-existence in time, 
are referable to this fundamental law of organisation. From 
this law also is derived what appears to be a general principle 
in medicine — that diminution of health, and the existence of 
disease, arc. the direct results of the disturbance or removed 
of one or mor< of the conditions of health, so that the whole 
extended subject of the phenomena, nature, and causes of 
special diseases and injuries resolves \\ self into the investiga 
tioB of the immediate or more or less remote disturbances of 
i be conditions of health. 

A second general principle in medicine follows from what 
: iniw been stated. For it appears that tin. removal oj 



326 ADDRESS DELIVERED TO THE 

disease consists essentially in the adjustment of previously 
altered conditions of health, and that the part Avhich you 
have to take in the recovery of those who may require your 
assistance is therefore altogether indirect and secondary. 

If the conditions on which health and life depend were 
merely material, — if the forces which are at work within the 
organised system itself, and which associate it with the ex- 
ternal medium in which it lives, were only such as the chemist 
and physicist can investigate and determine, — then the pro- 
blem of health and longevity would be comparatively simple. 
The next difficulty in your art consists, therefore, in this, that 
within the living economy you have to deal with powers 
which cannot be measured, weighed, or subjected to calculation, 
but which nevertheless exercise an influence there co-ordinate 
with the working of its material forces. As this double sphere 
of action is the leading characteristic of the organised being, 
so it on the one hand affords the distinctive mark of organic 
science, and on the other constitutes the peculiar difficulty of 
medical art. Hence we may infer, as another general prin- 
ciple in medicine, that in the treatment of disease, the adjust- 
ment may require to he, and in general must be, directed more 
or less as well to the psychical as to the 'physical conditions of 
the case. 

As man is distinguished from all the other organised beings 
in the midst of which he is placed by the comprehensiveness 
of the conditions of his economy, he is also peculiar in the 
mode in which he is enabled to provide for them. His pecu- 
liarity consists not so much in the complexity of his corporeal 
frame, as in the character and sphere of his consciousness. 
The conscious principle, if the expression may be so applied, 
of the horse or dog, is influenced only by external circum- 
stances ; the sphere of its activity is, so to speak, altogether 
external to itself ; impressible from without, and therefore, in 
some sort, conscious of surrounding objects, it is altogether 



GBADUATES IN MEDICINE. 327 

unconscious of itself. The so-called mental powers of the 
animal are capacities and faculties excited only by corre- 
sponding external objects, or by the recollection of these. Not 
endowed, therefore, with independent powers, its acts are acts 
predetermined for it, in the fundamental arrangement of its 
entire economy, with a precision and to an extent exactly com- 
mensurate with the conditions of its existence and welfare. 
The animal has consequently no field allotted to it for the ex- 
ercise of judgment, and can therefore commit no error, nor be 
responsible for any act. 

In our human economy, on the other hand, we are not 
only conscious of the material objects which surround us, but 
we have, in addition, a consciousness, even more vivid, of our 
conscious principle itself. We recognise in our economy, 
moreover, not only certain capacities and faculties, the proper 
ends, operations, and scope of which are directly predeter- 
mined and arranged, as in the lower animals, for certain 
essential requirements ; but we are conscious, in addition, of 
beliefs, capacities, and faculties, the objects of which are in- 
dicated, and their operations conditioned and regulated, by 
the laws of the conscious principle itself. In virtue of the 
endowments of this, his higher principle, man is enabled to 
extend continuously his knowledge of the laws of external 
nature, and his influence over her. From the same source he 
derives his consciousness of the law of duty, and of that 
liberty of action with which it is associated: hence also, 
through free knowledge and moral liberty, the unassisted 
human reason acquires the conviction of a supreme Lawgiver. 

You will now observe why it is that man is distinguished 
from the lower animals by the comprehensiveness of the con- 
dit inns of ln's economy. In the case of the lower animal, the 
means by which the conditions of tin- welfare "I' its economy 
are secured and adhered to are provided in its instincts. 
Although man, again, has also had secured in him, through 



328 ADDRESS DELIVERED TO THE 

his instincts, certain essential conditions of his economy, 
nevertheless the general conditions of his wellbeing, under 
the ever-varying circumstances in which he is placed, are — 
irrespective of revealed truth — only indirectly provided for 
him, through his self-conscious intelligence. His instincts, 
in common with his corporeal frame, constitute an organism, 
and so far the human constitution is similar to that of the 
lower animal ; but the organism in man is merely the instru- 
ment of his self-conscious intelligence, and it is this circum- 
stance which entails upon him the comprehensiveness of the 
conditions of his welfare. He commences life less amply 
provided with instinctive securities than the lower animal. 
He must acquire the use even of his organs of sense, and of 
his limbs, by a self-conscious process of experiment. The 
knowledge of external objects, which is gradually accumu- 
lated, and the control over them which is acquired by the 
individual during his life, and by the species collectively, is 
the gradual result of a continuous struggle between his con- 
scious principle and that material nature by which it is sur- 
rounded and penetrated ; and for this continuous effort his 
organism is the instrument. In like manner, the clue perform- 
ance of all his duties, personal and social — his duties to his 
Maker, his duties to his fellow-men — is, from the very consti- 
tution of his conscious intelligence, a life-long struggle between 
truth and error, fulfilment and non-fulfilment. These collective 
peculiarities of the self-conscious principle, as contrasted with 
the instinctive manifestations of the organism, constitute the 
proper personality of man, as distinguished from the mere 
individuality of the lower animal. 

Such are the comprehensive conditions of the welfare of 
the human economy. Their extent depends upon the endow- 
ments of the human conscious principle. Now, as the most 
remarkable of these endowments are the capacity of discrimi- 
nating, and the liberty of choice between truth and error — 



GRADUATES IN MEDICINE. 329 

between right and wrong — there exists a constant liability to 
disturbance. The disturbance is not so great, nor are its con- 
sequences so detrimental, in the progress of science as in the 
sphere of duty ; for, as the acquisition of knowledge by intel- 
lectual effort is precisely conditioned by the laws of our con- 
sciousness itself, and the motives to the application of it to 
economical purposes sufficiently powerful, the obstacles to the 
progress of science are continuously diminishing. In the 
sphere of duty, again, the disturbing element — the tendency 
to select the wrong instead of the right — is in constant opera- 
tion. It is not necessarily affected by the progress of science 
and its economic applications. On the contrary, the occasions 
for its disturbing action would appear to become even more 
numerous as so-called civilisation advances. 

It is sufficient for the sequence of my argument that at 
this point I merely allude to that Dispensation which pro- 
vides the aid necessary for man in the sphere of his duties 
and responsibilities — that Dispensation, the nature and appli- 
cation of which constitute the object and calling of another 
profession. 

The number of injuries and diseases which occur in man 
is much greater than in any of the lower animals. The 
conditions of the welfare of the latter are strictly limited to 
the cosmical arrangements of their special areas of distribu- 
tion, while their instinctive endowments determine precisely 
the amount of disturbance of health, or the amount of death, 
which occasional or periodic cosmical changes produce. So 
also injury and loss of life are necessary conditions of the 
general organic economy. For the life of a carnivorous 
animal involves the death of the animal on which il feeds, as 
the life of the herbivorous animal involves the death of the 
vegetable. Domesticated animals are liable to numerous dis 
oases and special injuries ; but these arc due to their association 
with man, who entails upon them much suffering, from which 



330 ADDKESS DELIVERED TO THE 

they would be saved if left to the guidance of their own 
instincts. As disease, then, is the result of a divergence from 
the conditions of health ; as man is privileged, in virtue of 
his conscious intelligence, to provide for himself the condi- 
tions of health over the extended area of the globe, and 
under a never-ceasing variation of circumstances ; but as he 
is at the same time liable, from the nature of his conscious 
intelligence, to diverge from those principles of truth which 
guide to the knowledge of the conditions of health, and to 
neglect that sense of duty which indicates the proper applica- 
tion of that knowledge when acquired, he becomes subjected 
to the necessary evil consequences. These consequences I 
need not enlarge upon. They involve all the disease and 
suffering which result from the neglect or infringement of 
duty to ourselves and to our fellow-men. They stand related 
to all the questions of personal and social ethics, and all the 
demands of public hygiene. Finally, they constitute the 
grounds of another general principle in the philosophy of 
medicine, which is, that the greater liability of man to disease 
is intimately related to his higher conscious intelligence. 

How essential, then, gentlemen, must it be in your pro- 
fession that you should possess a clear and comprehensive 
conception of all the arrangements by which human life is 
conditioned and modified ! How vague and limited are our 
conceptions of these arrangements apt to be ! We are apt to 
look for them in the dissecting-room and pathological theatre, 
and to forget that their most influential elements are beyond 
the reach of the knife, or the penetration of the microscope. 
Even when compelled to take into consideration the relations 
of the conscious intelligence to the bodily frame, we are apt 
to consider it as an intrusion into a department of inquiry 
which may adjoin, but which forms no part of our own. I 
venture to insist upon this topic, because by some it may be 
considered as entirely foreign to medical interest ; and by 



GRADUATES IN MEDICINE. 331 

others as involving questions admitting only of metaphysical 
discussion. But the reciprocal influences of the conscious 
and material elements of the human constitution must be 
admitted as all-important conditions of health and disease, and 
the investigation of the laws of these two opposite influences 
demands only a rigid adherence to both of the distinct 
methods of inquiry respectively peculiar to psychical and to 
physical science. And, moreover, this is not the question as 
to whether the body is only a form of the mind, or the mind 
a product of the body. It is not the question as to whether 
the mind is merely deposited in the body, or whether the 
mind accumulates and arranges the different parts of its own 
habitation, and regulates and controls them during life. 
These are questions interesting in the history of philosophy, 
and involve metaphysical discussion properly so called ; but 
they are questions having no immediate bearing on our topic, 
which includes an extended series of facts, intimately and 
immediately connected with the wellbeing of humanity. 

Every decided advance in philosophy or science is coinci- 
dent with the ingress of clearer conceptions of the object to 
be attained, and of the method of attaining it. Towards the 
acquisition, therefore, of a clearer conception of our sub- 
ject, it is very important, not only that the distinctive 
characters of the conscious principle and of the material 
frame should be kept steadily in view ; but also that the two 
perfectly distinct methods of investigating them should be 
rigorously adhered to. Now we find, in the present phase 
of our professional science, that although the rigid application 
of the precise methods of chemical and physical research to 
the investigation of the organic structures and actions has 
proved that the influence of chemical and physical force 
extends far beyond the limits formerly assigned to it in the 
living economy, nevertheless this lias in no degree weakened 
the evidence of a co-existing element in organisation neither 



332 ADDRESS DELIVERED TO THE 

chemical nor physical. For in proportion as the test-glass, 
the galvanometer, and the kymograph, transfer successive 
departments of organic science into the domains of chemistry 
and physics, so much the more remarkable do the charac- 
teristics of organic chemical action and of anatomical confi- 
guration become, and all the more striking and peculiar are 
the phenomena of consciousness felt to be. 

The characteristic peculiarity of chemical action in the 
organism appears to consist in this, that certain of its pro- 
ducts are such as are never met with in inorganic nature. It 
would appear as if chemical force in the organism were under 
the control of an influence which, while it confines that force 
in the greater part of its function to a special form of action, 
does not thereby render it less a chemical force than when it 
acts in inorganic nature. 

In like manner, while the different forms in which phy- 
sical force exhibits itself in the several domains of inorganic 
nature are exhibited in the corresponding domains of the 
living being, it nevertheless appears, in certain of its most 
important departments, to be confined by some influence to a 
manifestation of itself, such as it never exhibits beyond the 
limits of organisation. 

As, however, some of the most striking features of organic 
form have now at last been reduced to geometrical characters, 
and subjected to mathematical analysis, there appears to be 
no ground left for the assumption that all organic forms and 
movements are not immediately or directly due to physical 
forces, or do not admit of being investigated and determined 
by the sole application of physico-mathematical methods. 

If, then, gentlemen, I have exhibited correctly the present 
position of certain important departments of medical science, 
what are its future prospects? It will, in the first place, 
undoubtedly, as its several departments merge into the exact 
sciences, assume gradually a more precise character, and 



GRADUATES IN MEDICINE. 333 

demand from its cultivators, and from those who may desire 
to enter within its precincts, a much more thorough physico- 
mathematical training than has hitherto been considered 
necessary to the science or art of medicine. 

In the second place, as every advance in chemico-physical 
truth is followed sooner or later by a corresponding applica- 
tion of it to the wants of humanity, so we may confidently 
look forward to a continuous increase in the number of 
chemico-physical aj^pliances to the amelioration of human 
suffering, and to the prolongation of human life. 

Again, as it must be admitted that the science of organ- 
isation, and more particularly the entire science of the 
human economy, necessarily involve the laws of the in- 
stinctive manifestations and of the conscious intelligence ; as, 
moreover, it is essential to every increase in the clearness of 
our conceptions of these laws that they should be investigated 
through the only medium which our human, and therefore 
limited faculties supply ; and as the advance of chemico- 
physical science into the domains of organisation has only 
had the effect of bringing the instinctive manifestations and 
the fundamental facts of conscious intelligence which are 
involved in organisation more strongly and distinctly into 
view, and of reserving them for the methods proper for their 
investigation, we may, I believe, confidently anticipate great 
progress in the psychological department of organic science. 

As we have already seen that the peculiar liability of 
man to corporeal injury and to disease is directly related to 
the intellectual and moral departments of his constitution, we 
may confidently assume that the more careful study of these 
departments of the human constitution, in their relations to 
di ease, will tend greatlyto the amelioration of human suffer- 
ing and to tin; longevity of the race. And here 1 would 
observe, that in ;is far as disease is mediately dependent on 

dereliction 01 neglect of personal duty, in so far also as it 



334 ADDRESS DELIVEEED TO THE 

depends jpn social dereliction and neglect of duty — in all 
these relations of disease, yon, as physicians, are only indirectly 
interested. It would be a great mistake, however, were you 
to assume that you have fulfilled all the duties of your calling 
when you have treated the cases which come under your 
observation. Your science can alone supply information 
regarding the primary causes of prevailing disease, necessary 
for the selection of the proper public measures for its preven- 
tion. I need here only remind you how much has already 
been done, and is now doing, in this direction, and express 
my belief, that as the greatest boon which your profession has 
hitherto conferred on the community has been the prevention 
of disease, her future services in the same direction will not 
be less valuable. 

Throughout this address I have insisted much on the inti- 
mate relation which exists between the conscious principle in 
man and his liability to disease ; and I may therefore here 
remind you how much the comfort of the patient, and the 
satisfactory progress of his cure, are dependent on the cha- 
racter and demeanour of the physician. If the psychical 
condition of your patient undoubtedly influences his cor- 
poreal state, it becomes an essential part of your duty to 
secure for yourselves that respect and confidence which are 
so readily accorded to your profession, and which tend so 
essentially to the welfare of those entrusted to its care. This 
character and this demeanour will be best secured by looking 
on your profession, not as a mere science, with its formal 
application, but as an extended series of duties, the nature 
and scope of which are indicated in the very nature of the 
profession itself. 

In conclusion, permit me to say, that if a tendency pro- 
duced by my own studies, and if what I hold to be the 
fundamental principles of the special science which I profess, 
have given a peculiar colouring to this address, or have 



GEADUATES IN MEDICINE. 335 

tempted me to allude to topics which might appear out of 
place, or might require more delicate handling than I can 
give them, my excuse is, that in the present crisis of this 
University, and in the fulfilment of the special duty which 
devolves upon me on the present occasion, I felt myself called 
upon to define explicitly, from my own point of view, the 
present positions and relations of medical science and of your 
profession. 

For my colleagues and for myself, permit me also to state, 
that in dissolving the tie between us as teachers and pupils, 
we welcome you most sincerely as Graduates of this Univer- 
sity, and members of our common profession. 



VOL. I. 



136 THE PRESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 



IV.— THE PEESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE.* 

'l7ITPr/,7i yao sari KgdffQsoig xa) atpaigeffig. 

Hippoc. IIEPI NOSHN. 

Gentlemen — Had I acted in accordance with my own feel- 
ings, and with those arrangements which I have latterly- 
found most conducive to my efficiency as a teacher and man 
of science, I should have gratefully but firmly declined the 
honour you have conferred on me by placing me in this 
Chan-. I could not, however, forget that, among the aspira- 
tions of my earlier life, none were stronger than the desire of 
attaining an honourable position in the practical department 
of my profession ; and that although the comprehensive 
study of the science to which I am devoted, and the duty of 
teaching it, now necessarily occupy and exhaust my time 
and energies, nevertheless I could not decline attempting 
at least to act in accordance with the wishes of a body of my 
professional brethren, for whom I have so warm a regard, and 
to whom I am so deeply indebted, as the members of this 
Society. 

The periodic change of office-bearers in a society like this 
is not to be viewed merely as the necessary transference of 
official duties from one set of persons to another. On the 
contrary, office-bearers must, in addition, be assumed to 
represent, more or less comprehensively, the objects and 
purposes of the Society itself. But as every department of 
human knowledge is contemplated from a somewhat different 

* This inaugural address was delivered from the President's Chair at the 
meeting of the Medico-Chirurgieal Society of Edinburgh on the 5th January 
1859. 



THE PRESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 337 

point of view by different individual minds ; — moreover, as the 
advancement of science and of art is the result of effort and 
opinions apparently divergent as often as convergent in their 
effect, much benefit may be expected from the periodic review 
by different minds of any important subject or department 
of knowledge. I am therefore hopeful that, in undertaking 
my share of this periodic duty, and in attempting to review 
the present state of medicine, and to direct your attention to 
its future prospects, I may do so the more effectively that, 
although originally trained to the practice of our profession, 
I have now withdrawn from practice ; for thus, with all my 
practical instincts unaltered, I view our profession from 
without as it were, with, I confess, ever-increasing interest, 
but entirely through the medium of those physiological 
sciences to which I am devoted, and under the guidance of 
those modes of thought which I may be permitted, 
without incurring the charge of pedantry, to uphold as the 
basis of all effective and comprehensive inquiry, and which, 
as the results of early education, I have ever thankfully 
cherished. 

A few weeks ago a member of this Society, than whom 
the history of medicine records none who have been more 
successful in the suggestion and establishment of new 
methods for the relief of or recovery from disease, asked me 
what I thought would be the next great advance made in 
physic? In reference to what was thus asked of me, I 
believe you will agree with me when I assert that every 
decided advance made in the prolongation of the average 
duration of human life has been mediately or immediately 
the result of clear conceptions in reference to the conditions 
under which human life is maintained. There can be no 
doubl whatever thai the average duration of human life has 
been much more extended by the preventive methods which 
the instincl of man and physiological science have induced 



338 THE PRESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 

the public and the medical profession to adopt, than by any 
of the so-called methods of cure. Such preventive methods 
consist essentially in providing or supplying that condition, 
or those conditions, of health, and consequently of increased 
duration of life, which may happen to be deficient or absent. 
In like manner, all trustworthy methods of cure, usually so 
called, consist essentially in providing the conditions of local 
or general health in the individual — that is, in providing the 
conditions of recovery. It is with methods of prevention 
and of recovery, therefore, that our profession has to do. If 
we make use of the terms "cure" or "remedy," we do so in 
their fundamental and not in their vulgar sense ; for we do 
not profess to perform the one or to provide the other in 
their vulgar sense. What we only undertake to provide 
are — firstly, the conditions of relief or alleviation of pain, so 
far as these have been discovered ; secondly, the conditions 
of recovery, provided these conditions can be restored ; and 
thirdly, the conditions of longevity, within the limits assigned 
to the life of man in the present phase of his existence. 

It would be a curious, but certainly not an unprofitable 
inquiry, to trace throughout the history of medicine the 
influence which the ever-varying, but always more or less 
dominant, conception of disease as a real entity has had on 
physic ; to track, step by step, the change that came over 
the original conception and purpose of the duties of the 
physician, — over the conception of that art which, according to 
Hippocrates, consists in addition and subtraction, or, in other 
words, in the restoration of that harmony in the conditions 
of health, the derangement of which constitutes the essence 
of disease. What if it should appear that a great part of the 
labour that has been bestowed on the investigation of disease, 
and in the search after cure, has consisted in fruitless 
attempts to detect the presence of specific entities, and of 
counteractive specifics for their control and eradication ? 



THE PEESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 339 

How much of the mass of medical literature that has 
accumulated during the latter half of the last and the first 
half of the present century must the future historian of our 
art record as the result of the unconscious influence of the 
mythical conception of disease and of cure, working under 
the guise of scientific research and inductive philosophy ? 
"When shall w r e, in medicine, consciously and utterly reject 
the dregs of the Manichean doctrine, and see clearly, and for 
a practical end, that the essence of disease is only the disturb- 
ance of the laws of health ? 

But it may be said, " If disease be merely a transgression 
of or disharmony in the conditions of health, then medicine 
as an art (the art of healing, or skill in the application of the 
remedies of disease) can have no real existence ; it has been 
a dream all along, an unconscious and unintentional im- 
posture. Pathology, the science of disease, alone constitutes 
physic ; and the learned and candid physician, who is doing 
so much to increase our knowledge of that science, can only 
.shrug his shoulders when called on to prescribe." In this 
objection lies a fallacy, by winch our profession is not a little 
influenced in these times. It also exhibits a form of pro- 
fessional scepticism that naturally results from a change 
begun in our conceptions of disease, without a corresponding 
change in our conceptions of treatment. We are casting- 
aside the idea of the specific entity of disease ; but we have 
not to the same extent freed ourselves from the influence 
of the idea of specific cure. The fallacy may be expressed 
thus : — There is no such entity as disease ; therefore there 
in nl 1)0 no attempt at treatment. Our professional duty is a 
necessary form, due to the prejudices of the public and to 
Hi.- natural desire of suffering humanity for sympathy and 
assistance. 

This reactionary tendency at particular epochs, of which 
the reasoning jusi noticed is an example, is not peculiar to 



340 THE PRESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 

medicine. It forces itself on the attention of the observant 
student in every department of history. It is seen to be an 
invariable feature in the progress of art, science, and philo- 
sophy. Moreover, it always induces, sooner or later, its own 
correction, and will do so in medicine. The more clearly and 
comprehensively we grasp the conception of disease as being 
merely a physiological state, so much the more firm and 
uniform will be our confidence in the efficacy of physiological 
means for restoring health, and our conviction that these 
means alone constitute the conditions of relief and recovery 
from disease. The most obstinate sceptic in the efficacy 
of our heterogeneous materia medica prescribes morphine, 
quinine, strychnine, belladonna, hyoscyamus, and chloroform, 
with the most implicit confidence in the production of the 
physiological effect proper to each of these substances. The 
firmest adherent of the expectant method of treatment does 
not scruple for a moment to provide for his patient all 
those conditions of atmosphere, temperature, sleep, nutriment, 
and consolation, the efficacy of which cannot be called in 
doubt. 

Why is it, then, that while physiology is making rapid 
progress, and our knowledge of the physiological character of 
disease has already attained a tangible form, we are still 
wavering and undecided in the treatment of disease, and that 
we present, in reference to it, either a reserved formality or 
the opposite extremes of mystical credulity and absolute 
scepticism ? 

I believe you w T ill agree with me in ascribing the state of 
feeling to which I have just alluded to the unconscious 
tendency to consider any given remedial agent or measure 
too much as acting on any given disease as a whole, instead 
of viewing it as acting invariably on one or more of those 
disharmonised conditions which, in fact, constitute the 
disease. For it must here be borne in mind that the recent 



the present aspect of medicine. 341 

advance in physiology has not only corroborated the ancient 
doctrine of the interdependence of the different textures and 
organs on one another, as constituent parts of the organism, 
but has, in addition, brought prominently under view the 
independent characteristics, not of organs merely, but of 
textures, with their constituent elements and parts. As 
respects a given healthy or morbid process, we are now 
attaining to the power of distinguishing the respective 
independent actions of the blood (not of the blood viewed as 
a whole merely, but of its elements), of the capillary, of the 
nerve-filament, of the proper texture of the part ; and 
again, not of that texture viewed as a whole, but of its 
nuclei, of its internuclear substance (or, if you prefer the 
term, intercellular substance), and of the independent terri- 
tories themselves of that substance. 

It thus appears that a healthy process consists of a 
number of interdependent actions, each of which, however, 
is so far independent that it admits of being separately 
examined and inilnenced. In like manner, one or more of 
these so-far independent actions admitting of being unduly 
influenced, some one or more morbid phases of the originally 
healthy process may be induced. But since the so-far 
independent constituent actions of the process admit of 
being individually examined and influenced in both healthy 
and morbid phases, an intelligible principle is thus supplied 
for our therapeutic interference. For no principle in 
physiology is more firmly established than this, that certain 
natural and artificial substances, when introduced into the 
living body, increase or diminish, promote or restrain, the 
so-far independent constituent actions of its healthy processes. 
Those substances do not influence any one process as a 
whole, bul (inly one or more of the so-far independent 
constituent actions of thai process. One. of those substances 
may influence only the acl ion of the ultimate nerve-filament ; 



342 THE PKESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 

another, only the action of the internuclear substance ; a 
third, only that of the nucleus. The knowledge we possess 
of what may be termed this microscopic action of foreign 
substances on the healthy and morbid processes is as yet 
limited ; but it is sufficiently precise to serve as an indica- 
tion of the path that must be pursued in advancing the 
subject of therapeutics to its proper position as the ultimate 
or final department of our art. And we cannot doubt that 
the same beneficence which has subjected to the power of 
man those extended resources whence he is commanded to 
elaborate the means of his sustenance, enjoyments, and social 
advantages, has also placed within his reach a due propor- 
tion of means for recovery from disease. When these means 
are sought for, not by the rude and impulsive efforts which 
have too often characterised the history of remedy, but by 
the sure and cumulative, though apparently indirect and 
tedious method of science, we cannot doubt that a great 
advance will be made in physic. 

An advance in physic, then, is not a mere advance in 
pathology that merely involves but does not educe the 
principles of treatment. It must, therefore, be the eduction 
of the principles and means of treatment from their present 
more or less complete state of occultation that will constitute 
a real advance in physic. 

The question as to advance in physic, again, suggests the 
natural inquiry — What are the limits and conditions of this 
advance ? Correct conceptions on this subject are much to 
be desired, as calculated to produce that legitimate confidence 
on the part of the public, and that assiduity in the search for 
and application of the resources of our art, which its import- 
ance demands. 

In the first place, it cannot be doubted, although generally 
almost entirely overlooked, that the first, and probably the 
most important question which the public may put to our 



THE PRESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 343 

profession is this — Under what conditions can the health of 
individuals be preserved and developed, so that life may 
reach its maximum in the present state of society ? This is 
the question of individual and public hygiene. It was the 
leading question in ancient physic ; and it is one which, 
although much has been said and done regarding it in recent 
times, has not, it may be safely asserted, had that attention 
paid to it which its importance demands. We are too apt to 
postpone the answer to a question so comprehensive as this, 
and to devote our attention to individual cases of disease. 
We are apt to forget that the cases of disease which we treat 
might never have occurred had the previous question been 
solved, and that it is as much the duty of the physician to 
communicate the conditions on which disease may be 
prevented as those on which it may be recovered from. The 
importance of this question, its comprehensiveness, and at 
the same time its legitimate character, as within the limits of 
admitted inquiry and action, can only be appreciated by 
those who have studied that complex system of intimately 
connected conditions — moral, psychological, and physical — 
on which human life depends. 

In the second place, it may be asked, What amount of 
recovery from disease is due to the advising or providing the 
necessary conditions of it by practitioners of our art ? I may 
venture to suggest that a greater amount of recovery is due 
to treatment than the profession itself might be inclined to 
admit It is quite true that little credit is assigned to the 
vis viriliniiri '<■ naturce in a successful case of stone. But, on 
the other hand, is there not frequently too little credit 
attached to the continuous attention required in securing 
the administration of the numerous apparently trifling but 
complex and necessary conditions of recovery in a case of 
continued fever? Without doubt it will be found that, in 
a more advanced form of practical medicine, a much more 



344 THE PRESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 

extended system of means and arrangements will be provided 
for the supply of the numerous and apparently trivial 
conditions of recovery in the great majority of recoverable 
cases. 

In the third place, while it must be admitted that the 
means at present available for the alleviation of suffering 
and for the prolongation of life in irrecoverable cases con- 
stitute a large proportion of that benefit which medical art 
confers on society, there appears to be, nevertheless, great 
room for the discovery and application of means of allevia- 
tion, and of methods of treatment applicable to such cases. 
I do not refer merely to such cases as, from their severity, 
render the sufferers entirely dependent on the care and 
services of others, but to those numerous cases of all kinds, 
in which, after what may be considered as recovery from the 
original attack, the health continues impaired, or there is a 
continuous tendency to relapse, or to consequent forms of 
illness. The economy of the organism in such cases is very 
different from what it was previous to the original attack. 
Its wellbeing and duration, so far as these are attainable, 
are dependent on different physiological conditions than 
before — so different, that they may involve a total change in 
the external relations of the individual. Hence, again, I 
have no doubt that the same efficacious treatment, by physio- 
logical means and appliances, of chronic and irrecoverable 
disease will constitute a prominent feature of a more advanced 
form of our art. 

If I have, in my previous statements, given the correct 
interpretation of the present aspect of our professional 
science, it would appear that while, in the first place, the 
prolongation of life within its prescribed limits, the recovery 
from disease when that is possible, and the alleviation of 
bodily suffering, are each and all conditioned by ordinary 
physiological laws ; and that as, in the second place, that 



THE PRESENT ASTECT OF MEDICINE. 345 

amount of prolongation of life, recovery from disease, and 
alleviation of bodily suffering, which our art has heretofore 
effected, have been so by the empirical or conscious applica- 
tion of physiological means ; so, in the third place, the 
present position of physiology presents a satisfactory prospect 
of attaining the possession of a greatly-increased number of 
means and appliances, suitable for the supply and control of 
the numerous conditions essential to the preservation of 
health and to the recovery from disease. 

How essential, then, must it be in the practice of our 
profession to possess a clear and comprehensive conception 
of those natural arrangements by which human life is con- 
ditioned and modified ! How vague and limited are our 
conceptions of these arrangements apt to be ! We look for 
them in the dissecting-room and pathological theatre, and 
forget that their most influential elements lie beyond the 
reach of the knife or the penetration of the microscope. Even 
when compelled by circumstances to take into consideration 
the reciprocal influences of the conscious principle and the 
bodily frame, we are inclined to consider it as a necessary 
intrusion into another domain — a domain which may adjoin 
but does not form a part of our own. Nevertheless, within 
that adjoining domain processes are more or less continuously 
in operation, influenced by and influencing the corporeal 
actions. It is true that, from our human and therefore 
limited intellectual constitution, we are obliged to examine 
and investigate the processes of our bodily frame and of our 
conscious principle through separate media. Our human 
reason reaches, examines, and investigates the processes of 
our materia] frame through the medium of the senses, as it 
reaches, examines, and investigates the forms and movements 
of the heavenly bodies. That same human reason examines 
and Investigates the processes and acts of our conscious 
principle through the medium of thai principle itself, of 



346 THE PRESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 

which, in fact, it is only to be considered as the formal 
expression. The results obtained through the medium of the 
senses are not in the slightest degree more certain or more 
trustworthy than those reached through the medium of the 
consciousness. They differ only in the mode in which they 
are attained and the objects to which they are directed ; and 
this difference again is a necessary consequence of the limited 
constitution of the human intellect. 

I have ventured to insist on this topic, because I am 
aware that by some it is considered as entirely foreign to 
physiological and medical interest, and by others as involving 
questions of doubtful propriety because admitting only of 
metaphysical discussion. But the reciprocal influence of 
mind and body is admitted by all, as constituting an import- 
ant condition of health and disease ; and the investigation of 
the laws of these reciprocal influences constitutes depart- 
ments of inductive science, differing respectively only in the 
character of the medium through which the facts are reached. 
This is not the question as to whether the body is only a 
form of the mind, or the mind a product of the body. It is 
not the question as to whether the mind is deposited in the 
body at some one or other period of its development ; or 
whether the mind is first produced, and then accumulates 
and arranges within its own form the different parts of its 
own habitation, and regulates and controls them during life. 
These are questions important in the history of philosophy, 
and involving metaphysical discussion properly so called. 
But they are questions that have no immediate bearing on 
our topic, which involves an extended series of facts inti- 
mately connected with the wellbeing of humanity. 

Every decided advance in science or philosophy is coin- 
cident with the ingress of clearer conceptions of the object 
to be attained, and the mode of attaining it. In physiology, 
therefore, we see at present that although the steady and 



THE PEESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 347 

unprejudiced application of the precise methods of chemical 
and physical research to the investigation of the organic 
structures and actions has shown that the influence of 
chemical and physical force extends far beyond the limits 
formerly assigned to them in the living economy, nevertheless 
this has in no degree affected the evidence of a co-existing 
non-chemical and non-physical element in organisation. In pro- 
portion as the test-glass, the galvanometer, and the kymograph 
have dragged into view the purely material character of the 
forces in action in the living organism, so much the more 
clearly and strikingly do the organic characteristics of the 
chemical constitution and of the anatomical configuration 
and connection of the parts in action stand forth ; and so 
much the more remarkable, because in deeper contrast, do 
the acts of consciousness become. 

The characteristic peculiarity of chemical action in the 
living organism may be said to consist in this — that certain 
of its products are such as are never met with in inorganic 
matter. It would appear as if the so-called chemical force in 
the living organism were under the control of an unknown 
quantity, which, while it confines that force in the greater 
part of its functions to a special form of chemical action, 
does not thereby render it less a chemical force than when it 
acts in inorganic matter. 

In like manner, while the so-called physical force, as 
manifested in its domains of statics, dynamics, hydro- 
dynamics, pneumatics, optics, acoustics, thermatics, and 
electricity, presents itself, in the living body of one of the 
higher animals, in its most complex relations in the cor- 
responding departments of its influence, it nevertheless 
appears in the latter, like the chemical force in the same 
circumstances, to be confined by the same unknown quantity 
to a manifestation of itself, such as it never exhibits in 
inorganic masses. While i lie configurations of tlie inorganic 



348 THE PRESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 

masses in nature are referable to various modifications of the 
polyhedron and of the sphere, the configurations of the 
masses, and parts of vegetables and of animals, involve the 
complex relations of curves of double curvature. Without 
doubt that force, in virtue of which the shell of the nautilus 
derives its form, the cartilage of a human joint its curvature, 
and the movements of the human limbs their helical 
character, is purely physical, and of the same nature as that 
force in virtue of which the planets possess their individual 
forms, and revolve in their prescribed periods and curves. 
But while the heavenly bodies present merely the configura- 
tion of spheroids, and have their paths confined to bare 
sections, the configurations of the masses and parts of the 
animal body, as well as their movements, are, in presence of 
the unknown quantity, involved, moulded, and curved 
according to the law of the logarithmic spiral. The com- 
plexity of the statico-dynamical relations involved in forms 
and movements of this character is such that it would almost 
appear as if that mass of analytic means, accumulated by the 
industry of the mathematician but not yet made use of by 
the physicist, is laid up in store for the future anatomist 
and physiologist ; and as if the highest example afforded to 
us of the complex but orderly and invariable exercise of 
chemical and physical force is in the construction and actions 
of that human body, in connection with that conscious 
principle, also possessing its own laws, but endowed with the 
mysterious privilege of free will. 

It may now be asked — To what does all this argument 
tend ? What bearing can it possibly have on the practical 
question as to the future progress of the art of medicine ? as 
to the additional means to be expected of alleviating pain, 
diminishing disease, and lengthening the term of life ? I 
shall not consider the argument out of place if you agree 
with me in the conclusion to which it leads, that we ought to 



THE PRESENT ASPECT OF MEDICINE. 349 

have in the two domains of what may be termed anatomical 
and psychological physiology, if invariably investigated 
through the medium and by the process peculiar to each, the 
same confident expectation of advance in scientific knowledge, 
and in the practical application of that knowledge, as we 
have in other departments of inductive science, and in their 
practical applications. 

I at one time intended to illustrate at greater length 
some of the more prominent and important features in the 
recent progress of pathology and treatment, and to refer to 
what has been done in that direction by members of this 
society. I feel, however, that an attempt to do so at present 
would not only be doing injustice to the subject itself, but 
would occupy too much of your time. Eeserving to myself, 
therefore, the privilege of communicating, at our ordinary 
meetings, some of the remarks which I had intended to 
embody in this address, permit me to conclude by expressing 
a hope that, if what I have now delivered to you exhibits a 
view too much influenced by individual habits of thought, it 
will be found to present at least the great features of the 
present aspect of medicine. 



350 ON THE PEOGRESS OF ANATOMY. 



V.— ON THE PEOGRESS OF ANATOMY* 

Although this is not the first occasion on which I have had 
to commence an Anatomical Course in this Theatre, it is the 
first on which I have been called on to do so in the winter 
session as Professor of Anatomy. I will therefore direct your 
attention very shortly to the peculiar circumstances in which 
we are placed at this time, when the science is making rapid 
progress, and when much is expected both of you and of me. 
I do not know how I can do this better than by taking a brief 
retrospect of the progress of anatomy during the one hundred 
and twenty years it has been taught in this University. Short, 
comparatively, as the period is which I intend to review, it 
would far exceed the limits of an introductory discourse to 
enter into details. I shall attain my object much better by 
pointing out to you the influences which have affected the 
progress of our science, the various aspects which it has pre- 
sented at different periods, and the comparatively small number 
of men, who, among the multitude of labourers in the same 
field, must be considered as the types of the particular epoch 
in which one or more of them appeared. 

When we consider the progress which society in general, 
or any of the arts or sciences have made, we at once perceive 
that that progress has not been steady and invariable, but by 
fits and starts, presenting periods of action and of reaction, 

* This lecture, introductory to the author's first Systematic Course of 
Lectures on Anatomy, was delivered at the commencement of the winter 
session 1846. It has not previously been published. — Eds. 



ON THE PROGRESS OF ANATOMY. 351 

epochs of rapid development, and of comparative repose. 
Each successive period of advance differs both from the one 
which precedes and the one which follows. It invariably 
produces one or more men, who, although apparently the 
active agents in bringing about the development of the period, 
are in fact only the mouthpieces of the many who feel but 
cannot express, who almost lay hold of the idea, but cannot 
fashion it into a tangible form. Thus it is that almost every 
great discovery has been claimed by more than one indi- 
vidual ; Harvey, Newton, and Charles Bell were not allowed 
to enjoy their reputations in quietness ; and the astronomers 
of more than one country have been lately disputing for their 
share in the discovery of a new planet. Each successive 
epoch, differing in some essential particulars, becomes there- 
fore a period of repose when considered in relation to its 
predecessor. The interests of the last age, although no longer 
presenting the same freshness and excitement which they did 
to our fathers, do yet settle down with us into steady ackm >w- 
ledged principles of action usefully curtailed of their exuber- 
ances ; only to be the better fitted to support and protect the 
more recent ideas of our own age. Thus do we find at any one 
time two sets of men — those of the old and those of the new 
school — pitted too often, I am sorry to say, by most natural 
prejudices, against one another, always viewing the same sub- 
ject from opposite points, and therefore declaring stoutly the 
error of their opponents without perceiving their own ; never 
seeing that the opinions of the one side are only the com- 
plement of the opinions of the other, and that the truth 
must be in a certain middle course, the resultant of twc 
apparently opposing forces. Tims it is, gentlemen, that all 
advance is accompanied by opposition, every society presents 
two parties, progress is apparently the result of antagonism ; 
from which at least we may learn this useful lesson — to listen 
charitably to those who are opposed to us in opinion, and 

VOL. I. 2 A 



352 ON THE PBOGIlESS OF ANATOMY. 

to examine our opponent's statements from his own point of 
view. 

Such are a few of the more important principles by which 
all history is to be studied. Let us examine by means of them 
the short period in that of our own science which I have 
selected for consideration on this particular occasion. Towards 
the close of the seventeenth, and at the beginning, but more 
particularly during the second quarter of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, our science advanced principally in the direction of what 
is now called Descriptive Anatomy. This period was the 
epoch of Cowper, of Cheselden, of Albinus, but found its 
principal exponent in the French anatomist Winslow. With 
this mode of studying the human body a corresponding change 
in the art of surgery was produced. The operations of Chesel- 
den were not empirical, but were founded on his anatomical 
knowledge ; and had I time, or were it more directly in the 
line of my subject, I would willingly point out to you the 
effect which this more precise anatomical study had on the 
French and Dutch schools of surgery of the period we are now 
considering. 

Conspicuous among the great names of this period is one 
in which we in this Theatre, and connected with this Univer- 
sity, are more particularly interested — I allude to the first 
Monro. 

After the Union, at the beginning of the last century, 
Edinburgh had begun to rise into a condition of security and 
prosperity, which the continued troubles of the Scotch nation 
had for so many centuries rendered impossible. The Cor- 
poration of Surgeons of that period — now the Royal College of 
Surgeons — ever zealous in the improvement of medicine in 
Edinburgh, had the credit of giving rise to the anatomical 
school of Edinburgh by establishing a professorship of ana- 
tomy to their own body ; which appointment, although from 
circumstances, almost nominal, yet had the effect of bringing 



OX THE PEOGKESS OF ANATOMY. 353 

about the formation of an anatomical school in the University, 
in the success of which all parties were equally zealous, and 
to which Dr. Monro was appointed. Dr. Monro possessed 
all those qualifications necessary for the position in which he 
found himself. Educated as an anatomist by his father, who 
was himself a surgeon and practitioner, he then dissected 
under Cheselden in London, and studied under Winslow and 
Albinus in Paris and Leyden, and therefore combined in 
himself all those peculiarities which characterised the 
anatomical epoch in which he lived and taught. The 
instructions and example of Cheselden and Boerhaave — the 
latter, although better known as a physician and chemist, yet 
at the same time a learned anatomist — excited in Monro 
those unceasing efforts which he ever afterwards made to 
improve the practice of our profession, by the correspondence 
he kept up with his numerous pupils and with other practi- 
tioners ; by the papers which he published in the Edinburgh 
Medical Essays, and which led Haller to state, in reference to 
these essays, " Monrous ibi eminet;" and by the precise 
manner in which he taught anatomy to his class, always with 
a view to the practice of medicine. The effect produced in 
him by the peculiar tendency which I have already alluded 
to in the prelections of Winslow and Albinus, is evinced by 
the description which he published of the bones and nerves. 
Both works were speedily reprinted in several languages, and 
illustrated by engravings. They are both good examples of the 
accurate descriptions peculiar to the period ; and the former 
is still one of the best works I can recommend to you in your 
studies »if the human skeleton. 

By his residence in Leyden he imbibed his fondness for 
making ami collecting anatomical preparations — an art which 
was one of the characterisl Lea of the epoch which immediately 
preceded his own. It took ils rise in Holland. Swammer- 
dam, and particularly Kuvsch, invented and almost brought 



354 ON THE PEOGEESS OF ANATOMY. 

it to perfection ; and Monro must have learned from Albinus 
its application to the investigation of the exact course of the 
human blood-vessels. 

I would willingly, gentlemen, had we time, enlarge on 
this part of my subject ; I shall feel, however, that I have 
said enough if I have interested you in the memory of a 
former member of this University — a man, the truth, the 
simplicity, and earnestness of whose character are so much to 
be admired, *and who contributed so largely to the advance of 
our science and profession. For I cannot conceive how any 
one can follow any pursuit who does not admire and strive 
to imitate those who have formerly excelled in it. 

I About the middle of the last century, we enter upon a 
period which may be said to terminate shortly after the be- 
ginning of the present. During this period descriptive ana- 
tomy continued to be prosecuted, but, with the exception of 
the treatise of Sabatier, no great systematic work was pro- 
duced ; the attention which continued to be devoted to it 
rather evinced itself by the number and value of engraved 
illustrations. To this class belong the I cones Anatomicce of 
Haller — that universal genius, at once poet, botanist, anatomist, 
physiologist, and physician. The plates of Haller, from the 
truth and nature which they exhibit, so different from the 
artificial stiffness of those of Albinus, or of any former 
illustrator, with the exception of those of our own Cowper and 
Cheselden, are equalled only by the enormous learning which 
he brought to bear upon the subject. Amongst a number of 
other works of the same kind, I need only mention those of 
Vicq d'Azyr, Sandifort, and Caldani. This continued prose- 
cution of descriptive anatomy was not, however, the charac- 
teristic feature of this period. This second epoch was 
characterised by the rise and systematic establishment of 
human physiology, that department of our science which is 
devoted to the force existing in the living healthy body, in 



ON TIIE PROGRESS OF ANATOMY. 355 

contradistinction to descriptive human anatomy, which treats 
only of the material structure of the frame. Just as we found 
the descriptive anatomy of the former epoch, although not 
entirely originating, yet systematised, in the work of Winslow, 
so in the period now under consideration do we find human 
physiology systematised, and to a certain extent originating, 
in the Elementa PJn/sioIogicv Corporis Humani of Haller. But 
much as Haller did for physiology by his own continued re- 
searches and his great systematic work, there were other 
labourers in the field, whose exertions have produced a lasting 
influence on the science. Of these, the second Monro and his 
colleague Dr. Eobert Whytt are conspicuous. They were both 
professors in this University — the former of anatomy, in which 
he succeeded his father ; the latter of the institutes of medi- 
cine. Dr. Monro sccunclus, by his continued researches and 
suggestions in the physiology of the nervous system, organs 
of the senses, absorbent vessels, action of muscles, showed an 
acuteness and far-sighted penetration which give his opinions 
and observations a place in all the researches on these sub- 
jects in the present clay. Dr. Whytt, by his views in regard 
to vital and involuntary motions, and by his celebrated contro- 
versy with Haller, greatly influenced the physiology of the 
period. During this period, also, the labours of John and 
William Hunter in London added largely, and gave a great 
impulse to physiology. William Hunter, enthusiastically 
fond of practical anatomy, physiological experiments, and 
anatomical preparations, and devoted to teaching his favourite 
subject, a man of refined taste and conciliatory manners, great 
as he was, is not to be considered as the leader of his period. 
He was rather to be considered as the head of a school from 
which great men emanated. He was the first to discover, and 
in every respect to understand and appreciate bis brother 
John. He educated Hewson,he fostered and broughl forward 
Mathew Baillie. lie may, in some measure, be considered as 



356 ON THE PROGRESS OF ANATOMY. 

having given the recent great impulse to all the three depart- 
ments of our profession — pathological medicine through his 
nephew Baillie, surgery through his brother John, and obste- 
trics by his own individual efforts. Neither can John Hun- 
ter — a man who was considered by most of his professional 
brethren as a dreaming physiologist and a theorising surgeon — 
be looked upon as the type of this second epoch now under 
consideration. He was brought up in the dissecting-room, at 
the time when descriptive anatomy was chiefly studied. He 
was also an experimental physiologist throughout his whole 
career. But putting out of view his surgical works, his writ- 
ings during his lifetime did not so much promote the advance 
of anatomy as of physiology, and great as they were, do not, 
considered merely in the period when they appeared, occupy 
so prominent a position as those of Haller. But to us at the 
present day, who can read them through the knowledge which 
his own labours have promoted, they possess a far deeper 
meaning than could be appreciated at the time. We can now 
perceive traces in all his writings of the great work he was 
silently engaged in, a work understood at the time only by a 
very few, and now brought to light through the invaluable 
exertions of Mr. Clift and Professor Owen, under the influence 
of the College of Surgeons in London. 

It has been proved that he had made and noted down, in 
propositions of extraordinary beauty, not the anatomy of man 
alone, but that of the whole organic \v T orld, arranged so as to 
exhibit a knowledge far beyond what was dreamt of by any 
of his contemporaries. 

I have already pointed out to you how the accurate 
anatomy of Winslow, Cheselden, and the first Monro, reacted 
on the art of surgery, and it is interesting to observe a corre- 
sponding reaction in the physiological tendency of the latter 
half of the century. In Edinburgh the era of the two Monros 
and Whvtt was also the era of Cullen and Brown, and their 



ON THE PROGRESS OF ANATOMY. 357 

respective partizans, and of the influence exercised through 
them on physic. In London the physiology of John Hunter 
influenced surgery, and has made a still greater and more 
permanent impression on medicine. At the risk of becoming 
obnoxious to the charge of nationality, I cannot but observe 
here that the physiological bias of the second Monro, the pecu- 
liar character of the views of Whytt, Cullen, and Brown, and 
the physiological and pathological principles of John Hunter, 
all fellow-countrymen, in accordance with that tendency to 
abstract speculation which characterised a large section of the 
Scotch philosophers of the period, was destined to exercise 
on Continental medicine as great an influence as the Scotch 
school of philosophy and metaphysics, which took its rise 
early in this period, has exerted on those abroad. 

And here, gentlemen, I must recall your attention to a 
name which I have already mentioned more than once, and 
which occupies so conspicuous a place in the anatomical 
records of this period. Under his father, the second Monro 
became an accurate descriptive anatomist. Attached at an 
early age to the practice of his profession, which he continued 
to prosecute for the greater part of his life, he proceeded to 
Berlin, where, under the first Meckel, he pursued his favourite 
subject. It was under Meckel that he prepared his essay, 
De Venis Lymphaticis Valvulosis. Already imbued by his 
father with a love of making anatomical preparations, he pre- 
pared at Berlin quicksilver injections of the tubes and lym- 
phatics of the testes and spermatic duct, which still exist in 
our museum. He ever afterwards retained his earl}' predilec- 
tion for the study of the lymphatics, acquired great dexterity 
in injecting these vessels, and entered with much keenness 
into a controversy with the Hunters regarding the priority of 
their presumed discovery of the ('unci ions of these vessels, and 
with Hewsorj regarding the lymphatics of birds and fishes. 

A few years after the commencement of the present 



358 ON THE 'PROGRESS OF ANATOMY. 

century new views opened up in our science, and it began to 
be prosecuted by different individuals, in different directions 
and with different objects. Just as we found, in passing from 
the first to the second epoch, that the results of the leading 
researches of the former passed on as modified but acknow- 
ledged principles of action into the latter, so, in passing from 
the second to the third epoch, both descriptive anatomy and 
physiology continued to advance. The systems of descriptive 
anatomy published during the present century are very 
numerous — as, for example, the works of Portal, J. F. Meckel, 
Bichat, Cloquet, Hildebrandt, Sommering, and Blandin ; but 
they are all modelled on that of Winslow. The engraved illus- 
trations have also been numerous, and of these the plates of 
Walter, Scarpa, Weber, Tiedemann, and Barclay, may especially 
be mentioned. But the period now under review, extending 
to within ten years of the present date, is chiefly character- 
ised by the rise and progress of three apparently distinct 
departments of anatomical science — general anatomy, 
surgical anatomy, and comparative anatomy. "Not that these 
had not their respective cultivators, and made some progress, 
in former periods of the history of our science, but it is only 
in the nineteenth century that they have become systematised 
and characteristic. 

General anatomy — by which term we understand the sys- 
tematic structure, physiological properties, and pathological 
phenomena met with in the different textures of which all 
the organs or parts of the body are composed, each texture 
considered by itself — may be traced as a germ in the school of 
William Hunter, was almost expressed in the physiology of 
Haller, gives a complexion to the morbid anatomy of Baillie, 
and suddenly appeared in its present advanced condition 
through the genius and works of Bichat. With the works of 
Bichat on physiology and general anatomy you must in due 
time make yourselves acquainted ; for until you are thoroughly 



ON THE PHOGKESS OF ANATOMY. 359 

imbued with the spirit of these works, you cannot fully un- 
derstand the bearings of human anatomy on the higher de- 
partments of medicine. Beclard, a pupil and enthusiastic 
admirer of his great master Bichat, produced an excellent 
work on general anatomy in the same spirit, of which there is 
an English translation by Dr. Knox. J. F. Meckel produced 
in Germany, where this department of the science had been 
already in advance, his General and Morbid Anatomy, which is 
also translated into our language. It is to general anatomy 
that we owe the present improved state of pathological 
medicine, and these two subjects must ever advance hand in 
hand, and should any of you be inclined to give ear to the 
statement so often made, that anatomy is necessary to the 
surgeon, but not to the physician, recollect that the illustrious 
founder of that general anatomy to which we owe the present 
advance in physic, was a profound descriptive anatomist, and 
wrote one of the most complete and elegant systems we 
possess on the subject. 

Surgical anatomy may be defined to be the dissection and 
description of the regions of the human body in which sur- 
gical operations may be performed, or injuries and surgical 
diseases may occur, in such a manner as to become acquainted 
with the exact relative positions of all the parts, — skin, fat, 
muscles, nerves, and vessels, — with a view to diagnosis and 
operation. Like general anatomy its promotion may be traced 
in the works of various authors, previous to the present 
century ; but it is only during this century that it has become 
a subject of systematic study. It first assumed this form in 
the celebrated work of the late Mr. Allan Burns, On I he 
Surgical Anatomy of the 1L«<1 and Neck, and we can only 
regret that the premature death of this excellent lecturer, 
surgeon, and anatomist, brought on by his devotion to science, 
should have deprived us of the remainder of a work which, as 
far as it goes, has not even been approached by any of his 



360 ON THE PROGRESS OF ANATOMY. 

numerous followers. A host of writers on surgical anatomy 
have since appeared, most of them belonging to the French 
school. Their writings are characterised by the clear sys- 
tematic arrangement and luminous description which are pecu- 
liar to the genius of the French people and language. But 
this method and completeness is at once their peculiarity and 
their fault, they induce fatigue without proportional in- 
struction, and I appeal to the experience of those of you who 
have already acquired some knowledge of this department, 
whether you have derived the same useful information from 
the laboured works of Velpeau and Blandin, as from the plain 
common sense and discriminating accuracy of Allan Burns. 

Since the rise of surgical anatomy a number of manuals 
have appeared, and been extensively used, being arranged not 
systematically, but in the order of dissection. To them your 
attention will be more particularly directed in the course of 
demonstration and in the dissecting room. 

The department of our science which has been most 
extensively developed in the period now under consideration, 
is comparative anatomy — and with this the name of Cuvier 
will at once suggest itself to you. Much, however, as I revere 
that name, and fully as I appreciate the extent of the dis- 
coveries in comparative anatomy with which it is associated, 
I am bound to add the expression of my belief to that of most 
competent judges, that the French anatomist must yield to 
John Hunter, not only the priority of discovery, but the 
greater part of what was discovered ; and even the very 
arrangement of the system. But it is not so much for these 
reasons that I would consider Mr. Hunter as in advance of 
Cuvier. The discoveries of Cuvier in fossil anatomy have 
given an impulse to the fashionable science of geology, and a 
consequent brilliancy to his reputation, incommensurate with 
the absolute difficulty of the researches. That Mr. Hunter 
was fully alive to the importance, and capable of entering into 



ON THE PROGRESS OF ANATOMY. 361 

this line of research, his writings and collections fully testify. 
But it was in the application of his vast knowledge of com- 
parative anatomy to physiology and pathology, and the conse- 
quent advancement of the less brilliant but more useful 
science of medicine, that he so far outstripped his rival. 

Both were alike well acquainted with the structure of the 
animal kingdom, from the monads to the monkeys. This 
knowledge Cuvier applied to natural history, and expanded it 
in zoological arrangements and geological research. Hunter, 
again, was Cuvier's superior in vegetable anatomy. He was 
what Cuvier never professed to be — an accurate human anato- 
mist ; and he saw what Cuvier could not perceive — the iden- 
tity of the laws of healthy and morbid structure and function. 
When the celebrated Budolphi, himself, like Hunter at once 
a zoologist, a comparative anatomist, a human anatomist, and 
pathologist, was conversing on one occasion with Cuvier about 
a certain pathologico-anatomical specimen, the latter replied 
— " Mais ce n'est qu' accidentel," an expression which proves 
how far inferior he was to Hunter in his perceptions of the 
bearing of his science. 

Thus, it was his knowledge of pathology which gave 
Hunter his superiority. He employed his extended know- 
ledge of comparative anatomy to break down the obstacles in 
the way of advance of pathology and medicine ; and using the 
power he thus possessed, he reversed the process, employing 
his pathological principles to explain the healthy organic 
phenomena which he observed in the animal series. 

Cuvier could push forward only in one direction, Hunter 
could advance on all sides. The one conducted his labours 
amongst a people ever ready and proud to facilitate the pro- 
gress of then? men of genius, and was supplied with every 
opportunity of research by a patron as ready and more able 
to assist him than Alexander was to promote the studies of 
Aristotle, Cuvier's own prototype in natural science; Hunter, 



362 ON THE PROGRESS OF ANATOMY. 

again, pursued his subject in a capital where success in busi- 
ness, rank, or property, are surer passports than literary emin- 
ence or scientific reputation. Harassed by a laborious practice, 
which alone supplied the means of prosecuting his researches, 
without the sympathy of the public, and with few professional 
friends, he did all by his own efforts, and left a museum of 
comparative anatomy superior to that of Cuvier, and a 
surgical reputation greater than any before or since. 

During this period the progress in the Edinburgh Ana- 
tomical School partook of the varied characters to which I 
have alluded. My own immediate predecessor in this chair, 
from his early accpiaintance with Dr. Baillie and his school, 
acquired the prevailing taste for general and morbid anatomy 
which showed itself in his Morbid Anatomy of the Stomach 
and Gullet, and of the Brain. The former, especially from 
the learning and sound discrimination which it exhibits, has 
become a standard work in the literature of our profession. 
His intercourse with Mr. Allan Burns, and the influence of 
the period, had early directed his attention to various depart- 
ments of surgical anatomy, as evinced by his writings and 
illustrations of the male pelvis, hernia, etc., and thus conduced 
in no small degree to develope the bold and successful operative 
surgery of the Edinburgh School. 

I cannot conclude what I have said re^ardingj the Ana- 
tomical School of this University, prior to the period we are 
now entering upon, without alluding, more shortly than I 
could have wished, to two names inseparably connected with 
its former history, Mr. Innes and Mr. Fyfe. The former, well 
known as the author of a work on the muscles, was educated 
as an anatomist by the second Monro, and long assisted him 
in the duties of the chair. Mr. Fyfe devoted himself to ana- 
tomy, when advanced in life, and became, under the same 
master, one of the most accomplished practical anatomists of 
his day. He was not only a most assiduous and dexterous 



ON THE PKOGRESS OF ANATOMY. 363 

dissector of the human body, but was also well versed in 
comparative anatomy, as is shown by his published systems 
of Human and Comparative Anatomy. His favourite employ- 
ment was injecting, particularly the absorbents, with quick- 
silver, in which he rivalled his master, and whom he greatly 
assisted in his researches on the subject. Mr. Fyfe was, in 
addition, a man of amiable and obliging disposition, and the 
pleasure which he took, when surrounded by a numerous band 
of students, in demonstrating the parts he was at work upon, 
is still remembered by many members of our profession who 
were students of the University at the time. He was also a 
man of most laborious habits, for being equally dexterous in 
the use of the scalpel, pencil, and graver, he drew and en- 
graved with his own hands almost all the illustrations of his 
own and Dr. Monro's works. 

I cannot leave the consideration of this period in the his- 
tory of the Anatomical School of Edinburgh, without direct- 
ing your attention to another anatomist who exerted a great 
influence on our profession by his writings and prelections. 
There are few anatomical teachers who have educated a 
greater number of members of our profession, who exercised 
a greater influence on their success in life, or gained a more 
warm and permanent respect for his memory, than the late 
Dr. Barclay. A profound human anatomist, in the highest 
sense of the term, he was also well versed in comparative 
anatomy ; and although not himself distinguished by dex- 
terity, nor ever engaged in the practice of our profession, 
nevertheless, the honesty and sincerity of his character, 
his enthusiasm in the teaching of his favourite science, the 
energy and success with which lie encouraged actual dissec- 
tion by the student, and the extent to which he promoted the 
interests and assisted the talents of his pupils, rendered him 
a most successful and popular teacher. Like every true 
anatomist, lie was fund of anatomical preparations, and left to 



364 ON THE PEOGEESS OF ANATOMY. 

the College of Surgeons the collection you may now see in 
their museum. Numerous as were the physicians and sur- 
geons who studied under Dr. Barclay, he had also pupils who 
have distinguished themselves as comparative anatomists. 
Professor Owen, the worthy successor of Cuvier in the field of 
comparative anatomy and paleontology, and deeply deserving 
of our regard for the energy with which he has brought into 
view the hidden treasures of the museum of John Hunter, as 
well as Dr. Grant, of University College, were both his pupils, 
and doubtless were incited and encouraged by the kindred 
tastes and enthusiasm of their teacher. 

Such were the directions in which anatomy advanced dur- 
ing the first thirty years of the present century. At the ter- 
mination of this period we enter on the present times, which 
are not yet sufficiently advanced to enable us to see by what 
character they will ultimately be distinguished. One feature, 
indeed, which had begun to show itself in the last period has 
become very prominent in the present. 

Our science has become cut up into numerous depart- 
ments, studied by different individuals, who in general care 
little, and know less, of any department of the subject but the 
one of their own choice. Miiller, Eetzius, Eschricht, Hyrtl, 
Henle, Schwann, Vrolik, and others, still grasp the science in 
its totality, as was done by Haller, Hunter, and the Meckels ; 
but in general the title of anatomist in the present day does 
not indicate this extent of knowledge. 

He may be merely a comparative anatomist, or only a 
human anatomist ; his knowledge may extend no further than 
the relation of parts in surgical regions, or the general struc- 
ture of the viscera ; or, still worse, his knowledge may consist 
of that heterogeneous kind — facts grouped together, not by the 
harmonious laws of nature, but by the circumstance of their 
being observed by means of the microscope. You will at once 
perceive that such a one-sided knowledge as this can possess 



ON THE PKOGRESS OF ANATOMY. 365 

no vivifying principle. It cannot be productive. It never 
cum be effectually employed in advancing the boundaries of 
the science, in applying it legitimately to medicine, or in 
elucidating its true principles to those who are learning. 
Here, gentlemen, lie the difficulties you will meet with in 
your anatomical studies. It is my duty to guide you past 
them, and to assist you in acquiring such a general, accurate, 
and well-balanced knowledge of the subject as shall fit you 
for the important duties you are afterwards to undertake. To 
see how this is to be done, let us examine briefly the direction 
our science has taken during the last ten or fifteen years. 

The beautiful observations of Harvey and Malpighi on 
the formation of the chick in ovo, and the remarkable micro- 
scopic researches of Hooke and Leeuwenhoeck on the intimate 
structure of the textures and minute parts of plants and ani- 
mals, much as they excited attention at the time, were almost 
forgotten, and the subject laid aside, principally on account of 
the imperfect glasses of the period. It was one of those 
attempts to advance a science in a direction for which it was 
not fully prepared, and belongs to a class of events which may 
be traced as well in the general history of nations as in the 
progress of the various departments of human knowledge. 
The more precise application by Mr. Lister of the different 
refracting powers of crown and flint glass, to correct the 
chromatic aberration of the compound microscope, again 
i nabled anatomists to employ the instrument. About this 
time Von Baer and Purkinje, two German anatomists, began 
to use the microscope extensively — the former on the then 
neglected researches of Harvey and Malpighi, the latter on 
those of Eooke and Leeuwenhoeck. 

Von Baer, followed by Rathke, Huschke, and a number of 
other German anatomists, speedily amassed a series of facts 
and principles, which now form an extensive department of 
our science - ■" Hie Anatomy of the gradual formation of the 



366 ON THE PROGRESS OF ANATOMY. 

embryos of all animals and plants." The exclusive culti- 
vation of this department of the subject has within the last 
few years fortunately become amalgamated with the general 
science, and has given place to a much more general cultiva- 
tion of an apparently more easy and therefore more attractive 
pursuit, originating in the researches of Johannes Miiller, Henle, 
and Schwann, in co-operation with the vegetable anatomists 
— the intimate structure of the different textures and fluids, as 
revealed by the microscope and by chemical re-agents. The 
appellation Histology has been applied by the Germans to 
this subject, and there is no reason why the term should not 
be transplanted into our British nomenclature as well as others 
for which our language has not equivalent expressions. But 
I must warn you, for there is absolute danger in its use, against 
the term physiological anatomy now becoming fashionable. 
There is nothing, I can assure you, gentlemen, which has more 
retarded science and philosophy, and the kindred subjects on 
which human reason has been employed, than the introduction 
of terms with conventional meanings. Men come at last to 
defend the terms, as if they were the truth, and to mistake 
an artificial shadow for the substance required. The general 
advance has been retarded by partial and trifling skirmishing 
in the rear, instead of being pressed forward by an actual 
attack on the enemy itself. Is the intimate anatomy of the 
textures the only department of our science related to physio- 
logy ? Is the anatomy of masses not as strictly physiological 
as the structure of atoms ? And is it not at least injudicious 
in those who may be able fully to appreciate the value of their 
own terms to run the risk of leading others astray ? 

And here, gentlemen, I must be allowed to add a few 
words, first, in explanation of an apparent harshness which, 
I suspect, may have crept into my observations on the pursuit 
of anatomy by means of the microscope, partly to warn you 
against the dangers which I dread. It would be strange if I, 



ON THE PROGRESS OF ANATOMY. 367 

who have derived both pleasure and instruction from the use 
of the microscope, and who have had it in my hands almost 
daily since the commencement of my anatomical studies 
sixteen years ago, should entertain or promote any prejudice 
against that instrument. It is against the abuse, not the use, 
of it which I warn you. I beg of you not to employ it, or 
be induced by any one to do so, until you have to a certain 
extent mastered the details of descriptive human anatomy. 
That is the grammar of our science — the modeller of our 
anatomical ideas. It is by the study of it that we acquire 
the habit of thinking as anatomists, and drawing as anatomists. 
As soon would the astronomer place the telescope in the hands 
of his pupil, and request him to interpret the sinuous lines by 
which the orbits of the planets are projected on the apparent 
surface of the hollow sphere, before he has acquired steady 
ideas of astronomical forms and motions by preparatory studies, 
as would, the judicious teacher of anatomy suggest the exami- 
nation of objects by the microscope before strict anatomical 
ideas of form and relation had been acquired by the study of 
the bones, muscles, and blood-vessels. The child at birth 
does not, as you are aware, see things as they really are in 
space ; the full use of his eyes he only gains after a series of 
instinctive experiments made by means of his other senses. 
It is thus that he comes at last to use, without conscious 
effort, organs which in themselves are no mere physical 
insl ruments. Now, the telescope and the microscope are addi- 
tional eyes, and before they can be aright employed on the 
objects with which the astronomer and anatomist have to do, 
a supplementary education must be submitted to (an educa- 
tion the more irksome that the other senses cannot be employed 
to interpret the revelations of the new instrument) in order 
thai the minute structures on the one hand and the heavenly 
bodies on the other maybe correctly examined. The only 
mode of procedure is, in I lie one case, to form astronomical ideas 

Vol,. I. 2 B 



368 ON THE PROGRESS OF ANATOMY. 

by the study of geometry and the result of former research ; in 
the latter, to reason from the forms and relations of the 
anatomy of large masses to the forms and relations indicated 
by microscopical appearances. 

You will now be prepared, gentlemen, in some measure to 
comprehend the principles which I shall inculcate for your 
guidance. From among the innumerable facts within our 
reach I shall select and group together those which best illus- 
trate the grand laws of the science, and which, in the hands 
of modern anatomists, have afforded such brilliant results. 
In this manner, I trust I shall be enabled to accomplish what 
I have long felt to be necessary in the present day, and 
especially in this country — a course of anatomical instruction, 
in which, without losing sight for one moment of the para- 
mount importance of human anatomy, the laws of organic 
structure shall be evolved, so as to afford, as completely as 
possible, a view of that wide range of anatomical knowledge 
which is so essential to the advancement of scientific medicine. 



DIVISION II. 
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 



Vol. I 



Plate I 




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DIVISION II. 



VI.— ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS 
LANCEOLATUS.*— Plate I. II. 

The genus Arnphioxus was instituted by Mr. Yarrell for the 
reception of a singular little animal which he received from Mr. 
Couch. The characters of this genus, as given in the History 
of British Fishes,"'* are, " body compressed, the surface without 
scales, both ends pointed, a single dorsal fin extending the 
whole length of the back ; no pectoral, ventral, anal, or 
caudal fins ; mouth on the under part of the head, narrow, 
elongated, each lateral margin furnished with a row of slender 
filam< Hi 

My attention was particularly directed to Mr. YarreU's 
description of the Lancelet, by an announcement by my friend 
Mr. Forbes, at the Newcastle Meeting of the British Associa- 
tion, of the capture of two specimens on the Manx coast. 
With his characteristic liberality, that gentleman has put these 
two specimens into my hands, with a request that I would 
employ them for the purpose of drawing up a detailed account 
of the animal. 

Unwilling to mutilate both, I have confined my dissections 
to one of the individuals, and have been fortunate enough to 
detect its leading anatomical peculiarities, to verify most of 
ili<' observations of the anatomists who have preceded me in 

i before the Royal Society of Edinburgh M.n 3, 1841. 
i V~arrelTs Hisi ■ i i 168. 



372 ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 

the investigation, and to correct what appeared to me to have 
been errors in their observations. To complete the history of 
the Lancelot, however, an examination of it when alive in 
sea-water must be undertaken. In this way only, can certain 
points in its structure and actions be explained, and light be 
thrown on the economy of one of the most anomalous of the 
vertebrated animals. 

The first notice which we have of the Lancelet is in the 
Spicilegia Zoologica of Pallas,* who received his specimens 
from the coast of Cornwall. Although he observed its 
ichthyic characters, he allowed himself to be misled by its 
other peculiarities, and particularly by the membranous folds of 
the abdomen. He described it well, but placed it in the 
genus Limax, under the designation Limax lanceolatus. 

Professor Jameson has directed my attention to the first 
volume of Stewart's Elements of Natural History, f in which 
the Lancelet is described as a Limax with the specific desig- 
nation lanccolaris. Mr. Stewart's description is evidently an 
abstract from that of Pallas, to whom he refers. He had, 
however, a right appreciation of the essential characters, as 
he states that the animal is " hardly a Limax." 

It is to Mr. Yarrell, however, in his most valuable work 
on British Fishes, that we are indebted for the first detailed 
account of this animal. He recognised in his solitary specimen, 
the Limax lanceolatus of Pallas. In his description, which is 
in other respects most correct, he has omitted the lateral 
membranous folds of the abdomen, so well observed and 
embodied in the description of Pallas. Mr. Yarrell observed 
the vertebral column, the ichthyic lateral muscles, dorsal fin, 
intestines, and ovaries, and transferred the animal, therefore, 
to the Vertebrata. He placed it in the family Petromyzida% 
near the cyclostomous fishes, as he considered the fringed 

* Pallas, Spic. Zool. x. p. 19, t. i. Fig. 11. 
t Stewart's Elements of Natural History, 2d ed. vol. i. p. 386. 



ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 373 

mouth, the armed lingual bone, the absence of eyes, and the 
want of pectoral and ventral fins, to be structural characters 
sufficient to connect it with the Lamprey and Myxine. For 
its receptioa lie constituted a new genus, Amphioxus, and 
described the species under the designation lanccolatus, looking 
upon it as the lowest in organisation in the class of fishes.* 

Mr. Couch, the indefatigable ichthyologist of Polperro, 
who supplied Mr. Yarrell with his specimen, published in the 
Magazine of Natural History, July 1838, a short paper, in 
which he gave some additional details of structure observed 
before the animal had been immersed in spirits. He con- 
sidered it to be a fish with sixty vertebrae He observed the 
anal fin, which had escaped Mr. Yarrell in the preserved 
specimen ; he also described Avhat he considered an anomalous 
kind of fin rays, in the form of transverse bows or arches, the 
curve forming the support of the fin, the pillars probably resting 
on transverse spinous processes of the vertebra?. He observed 
that these peculiar rays did not extend to the caudal portion of 
either the dorsal or anal fins. In his second specimen, on 
which the observations of structure were made, he could detect 
none of the ova which were so conspicuous in the first. 

I was not aware till I had almost finished my examination 
of the Lancelet, that anything further had been published on 
the subject. A few weeks ago, however, I observed in the 
proceedings of the Berlin Academy for 1839, an abstract of 
a paper on Amphioxus lanceolatus by Professor Miiller. 
l'n ii ii i ln's abstract it appears that Professor Eetzius of Stock- 
holm lias written a short memoir on the subject, in which he 
has announced the fact, observed by himself and Professor 
Sandevall, that the chorda dorsalis does not pass into a 
cranium, but terminates at a point behind it, Professor 

* Yarrell' Briti >> Fishes, loc. (it. 

I Berichl iiber Wi.- zur Bekann tmachuug geeigneten Verhandlungen der 
Preue Al. idi mie dei W i Nov. 1889, p. 107. 



374 ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 

Eetzius describes the spinal marrow as terminating consider- 
ably behind the anterior extremity of the chorda dorsalis, in 
a brain exhibiting scarcely any dilatation. He perceived a 
dark point which he supposed might be the rudiment of an 
eye, but he could observe no cerebral nerves. He saw 
numerous ribs, but no branchial clefts, and described a large 
opening at the posterior extremity of the gill-cavity, which 
he supposed to be a branchial opening similar to those in 
the myxine. 

Midler's own observations were made upon Mr. Yarrell's 
specimen, and also upon two sent to him by Eetzius. He 
verified Eetzius's and Sandevall's account of the chorda dorsalis, 
on the sheath of which he perceived circular fibres. The 
oral filaments he described as consisting of central and tegu- 
mentary portions. The black spot or rudiment of an eye he 
could not detect. He observed the general structure of the 
branchial cavity, ribs, and vessels, but did not determine 
the existence of the branchial aperture described by Eetzius. 
He states that the intestine terminates anteriorly in a cul-de- 
sac, a little behind which the branchial cavity opens into it 
on the left side. He supposed that some glandular streaks on 
the wall of the cul-de-sac of the intestine represented the 
liver, and considered a row of glandular masses on each side, 
consisting of cells containing dusky oval bodies as the ovaries. 
After some remarks on the structure of the muscles and skin 
of the Lancelet, Professor Midler states the . necessity for 
further observations to ascertain the details of its structure. 

The only specimens of the Lancelet, then, which have 
been examined are Pallas's specimen, Mr. Couch's two speci- 
mens, one of which is in the possession of Mr. Yarrell, the 
specimens examined by Eetzius, Sandevall, and Miiller, and 
the two in my own collection. Two specimens, I believe, 
exist in the Museum of the Zoological Society of London.* 

* Magazine of Natural History, .Inly L838. 



ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 375 

Having now stated what lias already been done in the 
anatomy of this remarkable animal, I shall proceed to de- 
scribe in detail the structure of the specimen I have depicted, 
reserving for the concluding part any general observations 
I may have to make on its structure and zoological cha- 
racter. 

The dimensions and weight of the specimen of Amphioxus 
which has afforded the materials for this paper, are, length two 
inches ; depth, a little before the middle, two lines ; weight eight 
grains. The other specimen in my possession is half-an- 
inch shorter, and not so favourable for examination. They 
were dredged up by Mr. Forbes from a sandbank, in deep 
water, on the east coast of the Isle of Man, were extremely 
active, and resembled, on superficial inspection, small sand- 
eels. On each side of the abdomen are two longitudinal 
membranous folds, and behind them an anal fin, omitted in 
Mr. YarrelTs description. The folds commence, minute, on 
each side of the hyoid apparatus, pass back on the sides of 
the abdomen, increasing in breadth till they are as broad as 
one-fifth of the depth of the animal ; they then diminish and 
terminate at the point where the lateral muscles approach on 
each side of the intestine, that is, at the junction of the 
middle and posterior thirds of the animal. 

The anal fin is a fold of integument, which, commencing 
at tlic point where the abdominal folds terminate, is con- 
tinued to the anus, where it is interrupted, but reappearing 
behind it, and becoming broader, passes on to be continuous 
witli the dorsal tin at the extremity of the tail. The existence 
of a median fin in front of the anus is, as has been observed 
by Miiller, very remarkable; but it is in exact accordance 
with a fact mentioned to me by Professor A-gassiz, that in 
certain fresh-water fishes, the development el' which lie had 
watched, a fin of this kind, with rays, exists for a short p 
of their embryonic e: i tence, and l hen disappeai 



37g on the anatomy of amphioxus lanceolatus. 

Anatomical Description of the Amphioxus. 

Osseous System. 

Ncuro -skeleton. — The osseous system, properly so called, 
consists of a " chorda dorsalis " tapering at both ends, without 
the vestige of a cranium, and of a dorsal and ventral series of 
cells, the germs of superior and inferior interspinous bones 
and fin-rays. The " chorda dorsalis " consists of sixty to 
seventy vertebrae, the divisions between which are indicated 
by slight bulgings, and lines passing obliquely from above 
downwards on the sides of the column. In this way a separa- 
tion into individual vertebroe is rather indicated than proved 
to exist ; for although the column has certainly a tendency to 
divide at the points above mentioned, yet that division is 
rather artificial than natural. There is no difficulty in 
ascertaining above sixty divisions, those at each end above 
the number stated run so much into one another that no 
correct result can be obtained. 

The chorda dorsalis is formed externally of a fibrous sheath, 
and internally of an immense number of lamina?, each of 
the size and shape of a section of the column at the place 
where it is situated. When any portion of the column is 
removed, these plates may be pushed out from the tubular 
sheath, like a pile of coins. They have no great adhesion to 
one another, are of the consistence of parchment, and appear 
like flattened bladders, as if formed of two tough fibrous 
membranes pressed together. 

As the fibres of the sheath are principally circular, provi- 
sion is made for longitudinal strains on the column by the 
addition of a superior and inferior vertebral ligament, as 
strong cords stretching along its dorsal and ventral aspects. 
The superior ligament lies immediately under the spinal cord, 
and may be recognised as a very tough filament, when the 
column is torn asunder, or some of the vertebrae removed. 



ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 377 

The inferior ligament may be raised from the inferior surface 
of the column in the form of a tough ribbon. From the sides 
of the column aponeurotic lamina3 pass off to form septa of 
attachment between the muscular bundles ; and along the 
mesial plane above the column, a similar lamina separates 
the superior bundles of each side, and by splitting below and 
running into the sides of the column, forms a fibrous canal for 
the spinal cord. Foramina exist all along the sides of this 
sanal for the passage of the nerves. A similar septum is 
situated along the inferior part of the column, from the part 
where the inferior muscular bundles unite at the anus, to the 
extremity of the tail. Along the superior edge of the 
aponeurotic septum, between the dorsal muscular bundles, and 
stretching from the anterior point of the vertebral column to 
a point beyond the anus, and half embedded between the 
superior extremities of the muscles, is a series of closed cells 
of a flattened cylindrical form, adhering firmly to one another 
by their bases, so as to present the appearance of a tube 
flattened on the sides with septa at regular distances. Each 
of these cells is full of a transparent fluid, in the centre of 
which is an irregular mass of semi-opaque globules, apparently 
cells. This series of cylindrical sacs consists of the rudiments 
of. interspinous bones, and probably of fin rays, and is 
attached below to the fibrous intermuscular septa, half covered 
on each side by the lateral muscles, and enclosed above by the 
tegumentary fold which constitutes the dorsal fin. 

A similar series of cells, with the same relations, is 
situated on the ventral surface of the body, and stretches from 
the spot where the abdominal folds terminate, to a point 
nearly opposite the termination of the dorsal series. 

Splanchno-skeleton.- — -The splanchno-skeleton consists of a 
hyoid apparatus and n series of branchial ribs, seventy or 
eighty on each side. Tin's division of the skeleton will be 
described along with the respiratory apparatus, with which 
it is intimately connei I 



378 ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPIIIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 

Nervous Sysh 

The spiual cord is situated on the upper surface of the 
chorda dorsalis, enclosed in the canal formed in the manner 
above described. When the whole length of this canal is 
displayed by removing the muscles, and then carefully opened, 
the spinal cord is seen lying in the interior, with nerves 
passing out from it on each side. It stretches along the 
whole length of the spine, is acuminated at both ends, and 
exhibits not the slightest trace of cerebral development. In 
its middle third, where it is most developed, it has the form 
of a ribbon, the thickness of which is about one-fourth or 
one-fifth of its breadth ; and along this portion, also, it presents 
on its upper surface a broad, but shallow groove. The other 
two-thirds of the cord are not so flat, and are not grooved 
above, are smaller than the middle third, and taper gradually ; 
the one towards the anterior, the other towards the posterior 
extremity of the vertebral column. A streak of black pigment 
runs along the middle of the upper surface of the cord. It is 
situated in the groove already described, and is in greater 
abundance anteriorly and posteriorly, where the nerves pass 
off at shorter intervals, than at the middle or broadest part of 
the organ. From fifty-five to sixty nerves pass off from each 
side of the cord ; but, as the anterior and posterior vertebrae 
are very minute, and run into one another, and as the spinal 
cord itself almost disappears at the two extremities, it is im- 
possible to ascertain the exact number, either of vertebrae or 
of spinal nerves. These nerves are not connected to the 
spinal marrow by double roots, but are inserted at once into 
its edges in the form of simple cords. 

The nerves pass out of the intervertebral foramina of the 
membranous spinal canal, divide into two sets of branches, 
one of which run up between the dorsal muscular bundles 
(dorsal branches) ; the other (ventral branches) run obliquely 



ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 379 

downwards and backwards on the surface of the fibrous sheath 
of the vertebral column ; attach themselves to the antero- 
posterior aspect of each of the inferior muscular bundles, and 
may be distinctly traced beyond the extremity of each bundle. 
When an entire animal is examined by transmitted light, and 
a sufficient magnifying power, the anterior extremity of the 
spinal cord is observed, as before mentioned, to terminate in a 
minute filament above the anterior extremity of the vertebral 
column. The first pair of nerves is excessively minute, and 
passes into the membranous parts at the anterior superior 
angle of the mouth. The second pair is considerably larger, 
and, like the first pair, passes out of the canal in front of the' 
anterior muscular bundle. The second pair immediately sends 
a considerable branch (corresponding to the dorsal branches 
of the other nerves) upwards and backwards, along the anterior 
edge of the first dorsal muscular bundle. This branch joins 
the dorsal branch of the third pair, and, passing on, joins a 
considerable number of these in succession, and at last becomes 
too minute to be traced farther. After sending off this dorsal 
branch, the second pair passes downwards, and backwards on 
each side above the hyoid apparatus and joins all the ventral 
branches of the other spinal nerves in succession, as its dorsal 
I iranch did along the back. This ventral branch of the sec< md 
pair is very conspicuous, and may be easily traced along the 
Line formed by the inferior extremities of the ventral divisions 
of the muscular bundles, the ventral branches of the oilier 
nerves joining il al acute angles between each bundle. It 
may be traced beyond the anus, but is lost sight of near the 
extremity of the tail. Twigs undoubtedly pass from the 
spinal and lateral nerves towards the abdominal surface of the 
body, but, on account of their minuteness, and the difficulty 
of detecting them in detached portions of the abdominal 
membrane, they could not be satisfactorily seen. 

When a portion of (lie spinal cord is examined under a 



380 ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCE OLATUS. 

sufficient magnifying power, it is seen to be composed entirely 
of nucleated cells, very loosely attached to one another, but 
enclosed in an excessively delicate covering of pia mater. The 
cells are not arranged in any definite direction, except in the 
middle third of the cord, where they assume a longitudinal 
linear direction, but without altering their primitive spherical 
form. The black pigment, formerly mentioned as existing 
more particularly on the upper surface and groove, is observed 
to be more abundant opposite the origin of the nerves ; and, 
as it is regularly arranged in this manner in dark masses along 
the anterior and posterior thirds of the cord, the organ in these 
places, on superficial inspection, resembles much the abdominal 
ganglionic cord of an annulose animal. Along the middle 
third the pigment is not so regular, but appears in spots at 
short intervals. When any portion of the cord, however, is 
slightly compressed, and microscopically examined, it becomes 
evident that there is, along the groove and mesial line of its 
upper surface, a band, consisting of cells of a larger size than 
those composing the rest of the organ. Some of these cells 
only are filled with black pigment, but all of them contain a 
fluid of a brown tint, which renders the tract of large cells 
distinctly visible. When the compression is increased the 
cells burst ; and the fluid which flows from the central tract 
is seen to contain jet black granules, which may be detected 
as they escape from the cells. 

The nerves consist of primitive fibres, of a cylindrical 
shape, with faint longitudinal striae. The primitive fibres of 
a trunk pass off into a branch, in the usual way, without 
dividing ; and, where the trunks join the spinal cord, the 
primitive fibres are seen to approach close to it, but without 
passing into it. The greater part of the slightly protuberant 
origin consisting of the nucleated cells of the cord, with a few 
pigment cells interspersed, the exact mode of termination of 
the central extremities of the primitive nervous fibres could 
not be detected. 



ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 381 

Muscular System. 

This system is highly symmetrical, consisting of a series 
of lateral muscular bundles, corresponding in number, size, 
and position, to the vertebra of the " chorda dorsalis." These 
bundles have a general resemblance to the division of the 
lateral muscles of the higher fishes. Each bundle consists of 
a dorsal and ventral portion. The dorsal passes from the 
lateral line, on a level with the vertebral column, backwards 
and upwards ; the ventral passes from the same level, down- 
wards and backwards. The inferior bundle is the longest ; 
and both of them have a somewhat conical shape, and are 
attached to the spinal column and skin by the aponeurotic 
septa formerly described. The fibres of these muscles pass 
respectively from before, obliquely upwards and downwards 
almost, but not completely, in the direction of the muscular 
bundle, along that portion of the trunk occupied by the 
branchial portion of the intestinal tube. The ventral bundles 
pass half-way over the dilated cavity, and terminate in blunted 
extremities, which are attached to the skin, and to the walls 
of the branchial compartment, so as to dilate it for the recep- 
tion of sea-water. Beyond the anus the ventral bundles are 
attached to each side of the fibrous septum above described, 
meeting below in a sharp ridge. Between the anus and the 
branchial cavity, where these muscles inclose the digestive 
portion of the intestinal tube, they do not meet completely 
below, but are connected by an aponeurosis, which forms a 
strong tendinous arch at the point in front, where the muscles 
separate more completely. The whole cavity of the trunk, which 
is occupied by the intestinal tube, is lined by a fine aponeurol ic 
membrane, which, about the lower edge of the lateral muscles, 
becomes muscular, and shuts in the whole of the inferior pari 
of the trunk from the mouth to the tendinous arch formerly 
described. Tin's abdominal muscle consists of two layers 



382 ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATDS. 

■ — au external, apparently longitudinal ; an internal, trans- 
verse. 

The only muscle in the Lancelet for performing a special 
function is a flat bundle, connecting and bringing together the 
two halves of the hyoid apparatus, for the purpose of closing 
the mouth. 

Under the microscope the primitive fibres of the lateral 
muscles exhibit the usual transverse strise, but are not collected 
into fasciculi, constituting immediately the mass of the tissue. 
Transverse strise are not observable in the fibres of the 
abdominal muscle. 

Intestinal System. 

This system appears as a tube passing nearly in a straight 
line from mouth to anus. It consists of two portions — an 
anterior, large and dilated, and appropriated to the respiratory 
function ; and a posterior, small, of pretty uniform calibre, 
and constituting the proper digestive apparatus. The res- 
piratory portion of the canal will be described afterwards in 
connection with the vascular system. The mode in which 
the digestive communicates with the branchial department 
of the tube could not be satisfactorily made out. It 
appealed, however, that the branchial cavity, becoming 
smaller, curved slightly of itself towards the left side, 
and then proceeded directly, and without any change in its 
calibre, to the anus. The anus is in the form of a longitudinal 
slit. 

There is not the slightest trace of a liver, or of any other 
assistant chylopoietic viscus. The gut was full of a brown 
granular matter, tinged, probably, by a bilious secretion from 
the walls of the bowel. 

Respirator]/ System. 
This system is constituted by the anterior compartment of 



ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATTJS. 383 

the intestinal tube, on the walls of which a peculiar vascular 
arrangement exists for the aeration of the blood, and the com- 
plicated skeleton superadded, for the efficient performance of 
that function. 

In connection with the respiratory apparatus, I shall, as 
formerly proposed, describe the splanclmo-skeleton. This 
division of the osseous system consists of a hyoid apparatus 
and of a range of branchial ribs. 

The hyoid apparatus supports the mouth, and guards its 
entrance. The mouth is in the form of a longitudinal slit, 
and is bounded on each side by the two divisions of the hyoid 
apparatus. Each of these consists of seventeen pieces 
articulated together. From each of these pieces, except the 
first, a ray proceeds, those at the extremities of the two 
divisions being shorter than those at the centre. The anterior 
extremities of the two divisions, or branches of the apparatus, 
meet at the anterior superior angle of the month ; and the 
two posterior, after curving forward, meet at the posterior 
inferior angle. The various pieces of which this apparatus 
consists have the consistence of cartilage. They are hollow 
along the bases, and to the points of the rays. Their cavities 
appear to be full of a transparent fluid containing here and 
there masses of globular cells, exactly similar to those in the 
interspinous bones. This part of the skeleton is covered by 
the integuments, and by the membrane of the branchial cavity. 
A fringe of the integument surrounds the hyoid rays, extending 
a little beyond their bases. This fringe must be considered 
as the lip or margin of the mouth, the hyoid rays, although 
occasional])' dependent, belonging properly to the cavity of the 
mouth. The rami of the hyoid are brought together, and the 
mouth closed, by the transverse muscle formerly described. 

Immediately behind the hyoid apparatus the branchial 
cavity commences, and continues as a dilated lube, which at 
lust contracts, and becomes continuous, as formerly described 
vol. i. 2 c 



384 ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 

with the digestive portion of the intestine. The walls of the 
two anterior thirds of the branchial cavity are strengthened 
on each side by a series of transparent cartilaginous, highly 
elastic, hair-like ribs, which are imbedded in their substance. 
The upper extremities of these ribs are fixed in two streaks of 
a tough white substance, which runs along on each side of the 
inferior surface of the chorda dorsalis, on the sides of the 
inferior longitudinal ligament. The inferior extremities of 
the ribs terminate in a more complicated manner. Each 
alternate pair of ribs bifurcates. The inferior branch of the 
rib on each side meets its fellow of the opposite side at an 
angle in the median line. The superior branch curves up 
also, and meets that of the other side. The non-bifurcated 
ribs are shorter, and terminate in a line with the bifurcation 
of the neighbouring pairs. There results from this arrange- 
ment a sort of skeleton canal, the walls of which are completed 
by membrane. There are from seventy to eighty ribs on each 
side. Their general direction is from above downwards and 
from before backwards, but more perpendicular than the 
ventral bundles of the lateral muscles, with which they form 
acute angles. Along the edges of these ribs vessels pass for 
the performance of the respiratory function, and the canal 
above described contains the branchial artery or heart. 

Vascular System. 

In the canal which has been described as passing along 
the inferior wall of the branchial compartment of the intestinal 
tube, a vessel runs. This vessel diminishes anteriorly ; and, 
posteriorly, it also diminishes, and is lost in the direction of 
the digestive tube. Valves, if they exist, have not been 
detected in this tube. At the extremities of each pair of 
bifurcated ribs, the abdominal vessel just described gives off 
a primary branch, which passes along the edge of the rib, 
sending secondary branches at regular intervals and at right 
angles to the other primary branches on each side. Along 



ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS 385 

the opposite sides of all the ribs another set of vessels may be 
seen, passing on to the chorda dorsalis, enlarging as they 
advance, and sending off secondary branches at right angles. 
When near the heads of the ribs, these vessels anastomose in 
semicircular loops, the canals of which are of large calibre, 
and the walls provided with distinct circular fibres. From 
the angles between each of these loops, and continuous, there- 
fore, with the primary branches, smaller trunks pass on to 
the median line, and enter, opposite to their fellow at the 
other side, into a small longitudinal vessel which runs along 
the whole length of the chorda dorsalis, between the heads of 
the ribs, and on the inferior surface of the inferior longitudinal 
ligament. This vessel is the Aorta, and distributes arterial 
branches to the various parts of the body. 

Generative System. 

This system consists of a series of somewhat irregular, 
bean-shaped, granular bodies, situated each on the inside of 
the inferior extremity of the ventral portions of twenty or 
thirty of the muscular bundles of the middle third of the 
animal. These masses are attached to the internal surface of 
the aponeurotic lining of the abdomen, on the outside of the 
branchial chamber. No duct or outlet could be detected. 
Each mass, under the microscope, displayed a congeries of cells 
of various sizes, evidently incipient ova or sperm cells. The 
individual did not appear to be in season. 

Tcgumentary System,. 

The shin is remarkably thin, but tough ; and exhibits 
neither scales, pigment, nor metallic lustre, except at the base 
of the dorsal fin, along which, ot the upper edge of the inter- 
spinous bones, a silvery band of considerable strength passes. 
The skin, under the microscope, displays minute parallel 
striae, which occasionally cross one another. The beautiful 
iridescent tints which ii exhibits, both before and after detach- 



386 ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 

ment, appear to be caused by these stria? ; and the same 
structure probably produces similar phenomena in the apon- 
eurosis which lines the cavity of the abdomen. 

Concluding Remarks. 

At a very early period in the development of every verte- 
brated animal, the cerebro-spinal axis presents the appearance 
of a white elongated streak. At the same period, and in 
accordance with this simple condition of the nervous central 
organ, the skeleton consists of a chorda dorsalis, and very soon 
afterwards, of some of the peripheral elements of the spinal 
column. A central organ of circulation, in the form of a tube 
on the anterior inferior aspect of the embryo, invariably co- 
exists with the simplest forms of the nervous and osseous 
systems. Branchial clefts and a liver are parts of the embryo 
of the vertebrated animal which are never found to accompany 
a cerebro-spinal axis of the simplest form, or a heart before it 
becomes divided into compartments. 

No adult vertebrated animal has hitherto been described 
which at all approaches in organisation the simplicity of the 
embryonic forms to which allusion has just been made. Such 
an animal, a being perfected before the appearance of branchial 
clefts, might have been conceived ; and, from the laws of 
organic development, its position in the system might have 
been indicated. As AmpMoxus makes a close approximation 
to this simplicity of type, it may be useful to consider the 
relation of its different organs one to another. 

One of the most remarkable peculiarities in the Lancelet 
is the absence of the brain. Eetzius, indeed, describes the 
spinal marrow as terminating considerably behind the anterior 
extremity of the chorda dorsalis, in a brain which exhibits 
scarcely any dilatation ; but careful examination of the dis- 
section of my own specimen, which I have also submitted to 
the inspection of Dr. John Reid, and of other competent 
judges, has convinced me that the spinal cord, which may be 



ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPIIIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 387 

traced with the greatest ease to within 1-1 6th of an inch of 
the extremity of the chorda dorsalis, does not dilate into a 
brain at all. It may be urged that we ought to consider the 
anterior half of the middle third of the spinal marrow, where 
it is most developed, to be the brain, and all that portion of 
the chorda dorsalis which is in connection with the branchial 
cavity, as the cranium. That this does not express the true 
relation of the parts, is evident from the fact, that this portion 
of the cord, to its very extremity, gives off nerves, which are 
too numerous to be considered as cerebral, but more especially 
from the mode of distribution of the first and second pairs, 
which, in my opinion, proves the anterior pointed extremity 
to be the representative of the brain of the more highly 
developed vertebrata. A brain of such simplicity necessarily 
precludes, on anatomical grounds alone, the existence of organs 
of vision and of hearing. These special organs, developed in 
the vertebrata at least, in a direct relation with the cephalic 
integuments and the brain, could not exist, even in the form 
of appreciable germs, in the Lancelet. The black spot which 
Ketzius took for the rudiment of an eye may probably have 
been, what also deceived me at first, a portion of the black 
mud which floats about in the branchial cavity, and which 
adheres obstinately to the parts in the neighbourhood of the 
oral filaments. The first pair of nerves, although very minute, 
in accordance with the slight development of the parts about 
the snout, and the want of special organs of sense, might, from 
their position and relations, be considered as corresponding to 
the trifacial in the higher vertebrata. The second pair 
appears to be the vagus, not only from its distribution as a 
longitudinal filament on each side of the body, as in other 
fishes, but also from its relations to the hyoid apparatus and 
branchial cavity, to "which division of organs the eighth pair 
in fishes is specially devoted. The distribution of a branch of 
this nerve, however, along the base of the dorsal fin, and the 
course of the posterior part of the main branch, would appear 



388 ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 

to show that this nerve, which I have provisionally de- 
nominated the Vagus, is, in fact, the trifacial, which, in the 
higher fishes, is not only distributed to all the fins, but holds 
exactly the same relations to the dorsal and anal fins, and to 
the spinal nerves, as the nerve now under consideration in 
the Lancelet. 

The peculiarities in the structure of the spinal cord are 
not less remarkable than those of its configuration. It is 
difficult to understand, according to the received opinions on 
the subject, how a spinal cord destitute of primitive fibres or 
tubes, and composed altogether of isolated cells, arranged in a 
linear direction only towards the middle of the cord, can 
transmit influences in any given direction ; and more especially 
how the tract of black or grey matter, if it exercises any 
peculiar function (excito-motary) communicates with the 
origin of the nerves. The nerves, also, are remarkable, origi- 
nating in single roots, and containing in their composition one 
kind only of primitive fibres (cylindrical). 

In reference to the skeleton of the Lancelet, it is evidently 
of the simplest kind. If we limit the term skeleton to the 
Neuro-Skeleton, this animal possesses only the primitive form 
of such a skeleton — a chorda dorsalis without any cranial 
enlargement, with a dorsal and ventral series of germs of 
interspinous bones and fin rays — peripheral elements of a 
spinal column. 

From a consideration of the particular class of embryonic 
forms to which this fish corresponds, we could not expect 
either bone or cartilage in the composition of its skeleton. 
Accordingly, the skeleton consists of a series of sacs, assuming 
particular forms according to their several positions : flattened 
in the chorda dorsalis, cylindrical in the fin bones. These 
sacs are easily derived, according to established histological 
laws, from the primitive nucleated cells which constitute the 
tissue of their representatives in the embryo, and contain, in 
their inferior, cells, or the nuclei of cells. This view of the 



ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 389 

tissue of the skeleton of the Lancelet is based on a law of 
organisation which is not usually recognised in questions like 
the present, viz. — that adult organs representing embryonic 
organs, are altered so as to be fit for the performance of their 
functions, but never so far as to depart, either in tissue or 
form, from the type of their corresponding embryonic organs. 
The arch-shaped fin rays, described by Mr, Couch, are merely 
the dissepiments between the cylindrical germs of the fin 
bones. 

The leading peculiarity of the Lancelet, considered as a 
representative of an embryonic form in the adult series is the 
want of true gills or branchial arches — the deficiency of 
branchial clefts. Retzius, indeed, describes an opening at the 
posterior part of the branchial cavity, which he compares to 
the abdominal openings in the Myxine ; but as I have been 
unable to discover this opening in my specimens, I agree with 
Miiller in considering its existence as highly problematical, and 
I shall proceed to demonstrate that, in accordance with the 
plan on which the other organic systems of this animal are 
formed, such an opening into the branchial chamber could not 
exist. The abdominal openings in the Myxine are the result 
of the closure of its numerous branchial clefts by the integu- 
ments. They are analogous, in fact, to the branchial orifices 
of the tadpole, immediately before cessation of the aquatic 
respiration. The respiratory apparatus of the Myxine, then, 
although inferior in functional activity to that of other fishes, 
is actually referable to a more elevated type. The Myxine 
possesses a brain in which the central masses are considerably 
evolved, and a nervus vagus of sufficient development. The 
brain of the Lancelet, again, is reduced to a mere filament, 
ami the existence of a nervus vagus appears to be highly 
problematical. These considerations, and the fact that 
branchial openings have not been detected by Yarrell, Couch, 
Miiller, or myself, must Lead l" the conclusion that this fish 
has either never bail branchial clefts at any period of its 



390 ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 

existence, or that if it at any time had them, they must have 
totally disappeared. I am inclined to believe that the former 
is the real state of the case, not only from the views already 
urged in reference to the other organs in this animal, but also 
from the consideration that if these clefts had ever existed 
their traces would have remained. As the seventy or eighty 
pairs of branchial ribs cannot be looked upon as true branchial 
arches, and as we cannot suppose that any vertebrated animal 
could have so many branchial fissures, we are driven to the 
conclusion that the Lancelot never had at any period of its 
existence true branchial arches and clefts, and that the ribs have 
been developed for a special purpose — for a mode of branchial 
respiration hitherto undescribed in the class of fishes. 

The Lancelet respires by receiving sea-water into the 
anterior compartment of its intestinal tube — this cavity is 
kept dilated by the elasticity of the numerous filamentous ribs, 
and this dilatation may be increased by the action of the 
superimposed ventral bundles of the lateral muscles. It is 
contracted by the action of the abdominal muscle. This is a 
mode of respiration similar to that which prevails in the 
tunicated molluscs. It is interesting to observe that the 
branchial membrane of the Lancelet is exactly similar in its 
peculiar vascularity (ramifications at right angles) to that which 
lines the branchial cavity of the molluscs just specified. 

If the branchial membrane were examined in the living 
animal, it would undoubtedly exhibit cilia in as great abund- 
ance as in the branchial membrane of the ascidicv, and such a 
ciliary arrangement must constitute one of the active agencies, 
not only in renewing the supply of water for respiration, but 
also in conveying food to the orifice of the digestive portion 
of the intestinal tube. As in the ascidice, the entrance of the 
intestino-respiratory canal is guarded by filaments. The 
hyoid filaments of the Lancelet performing the same office as 
the filaments at the oral orifice of the ascidicv., acting as a 
sieve in preventing the entrance of foreign bodies, or of food, 



ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 391 

which it has neither jaws to comminute, nor powers of 
stomach to digest. 

The branchial ribs I do not consider as parts of the neuro- 
skeleton, as they bifurcate to enclose the heart, this organ in 
the Lancelet being contained in a sac resembling the cartila- 
ginous pericardium of some other fishes. They are repetitions 
of 'the hyoid bone developed for a new form of branchial 
apparatus. They are true splanchno-ribs, parts of a splanchno- 
skeleton, and analogous to the cartilages of the trachea and 
branchial tubes (also repetitions of the hyoid bone) of the 
higher vertebrata. Some of these splanchno-ribs, had branchial 
clefts been developed, would have become true branchial 
arches ; but just as in the vertebrata above the fishes, in which 
the branchial clefts have disappeared, and tracheal cartilages 
have become developed, so in this animal, in which the 
branchial clefts have never appeared, cartilaginous arches 
have become necessary for its peculiar aquatic respiration. 

The hyoid filaments of the Lancelet must not be con- 
sidered as the analogues of the branchiostegous rays, which 
spring from the peripheral aspect of the bone, but as developed 
forms of the teeth or tubercles which are ranged along the 
central aspect of the branchial apparatus of the higher fishes, 
and which are occasionally highly developed for similar 
purposes. As the upper jaw is developed from a cranium, 
and the lower jaw is formed at a period posterior to the 
appearance of the hyoid bone — the absence of these two bones 
is a necessary consequence of the inferior position of the 
Lancelet in the series of vertebrate forms. 

The plan of the circulation is simple, and in accordance 
witli the primitive condition of the respiratory apparatus, both 
functions being performed in a manner closely resembling 
that observed in certain annulose animals. The dorsal vessel 
corresponding to the heart or branchial artery, and the 
abdominal vessel to the aorta of the Lancelet, the lateral 
communicating vessels of certain of the rings in the annelide 



392 ON THE ANATOMY OF AMPHIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 

performing the respiratory function, like the vessels of the 
branchial chamber already described. The development of 
cardiac septa and of a liver follow closely, if they do not 
accompany, the branchial fissures. The absence of such 
fissures in the Lancelet sufficiently explains this deficiency of 
parts usually considered essential to the vertebrated animal. 

For similar reasons, true renal and generative organs do 
not appear in this animal. 

The double row of isolated generative organs are in the 
normal position of their embryonic representatives, and not 
more advanced in organisation than the Wolffian bodies 
at their first appearance. How the contents of these ovisacs 
or spermsacs are conveyed to the exterior, it is difficult 
to say. If the abdominal opening described by Professor 
Eetzius actually exists, it appears to me much more probable 
that it is an opening, not into the branchial, but into the 
peritoneal cavity, as in certain of the higher fishes, and that 
it performs the double function of admitting sea-water for 
peritoneal respiration, and for allowing of the exit of the ova 
and sperm from the cavity of the abdomen, into which they 
are cast from the glandular organs attached to its lining 
membrane. This hypothesis, which I have had no opportunity 
of verifying, gets rid of the difficulty in a satisfactory manner, 
explains to a certain extent the observation of Eetzius, and is 
in accordance with the type of formation in the class. 

Viewed as an entire animal, the Lancelet is the most 
aberrant in the vertebrate sub-kingdom. It connects the 
Vertebrata not only to the Annulose animals, but also through 
the medium of certain symmetrical ascidise (lately described 
by Mr. Forbes and myself),* to the Molluscs. We have only 

* Report of the British Association, 1840, and No. XII. of this volume. 
An important observation, bearing on the affinities of the Ascidians and 
Amphioxus, has recently been made by the discovery by M. Kowalevsky oi' an 
axial cylinder in the tail of the Ascidian larva, which possesses almost the 
same structure as the chorda dorsalis of Amphioxus (Mem. de l'Acad. Imp. de 



ON THE ANATOMY OF AMI'HIOXUS LANCEOLATUS. 393 

to suppose the Lancelot to have been developed from the dorsal 
aspect, the seat of its respiration to be transferred from its in- 
testinal tribe to a corresponding portion of its skin, and ganglia 
to be developed at the points of junction of one or more of its 
anterior spinal nerves, and inferior branch of its second pair, 
to have a true annulose animal, with its peculiar circulation, 
respiration, generative organs, and nervous system, with snpra- 
cesophageal ganglia, and dorsal ganglionic recurrent nerve. 

As some fishes undergo metamorphoses after leaving the 
ovum, the question naturally suggests itself, is the Lancelet an 
adult fish ? May it not be the young of some fish in one of 
the stages of growth ? The uniformity of every specimen of it 
hitherto described, and the peculiar toughness and firmness of 
its tissues, appear to be decisive of its being a perfect animal. 

In regard to the zoological position of Amphioxus, Mr. 
Yarrell was correct in giving it the lowest place in the class 
of fishes ; but if the details of its structure, and the anatomical 
considerations which this paper contains, be correct, the genus 
can no longer be retained in the same family with Petromyzon 
and Myxine, but will assume an ordinal value in any new 
arrangement of the class. 

If genera allied to Amphioxus are at present in existence, 
they are probably not numerous ; but in the ages which have 
passed since the development of animal forms commenced, 
abranchiated fishes may have been more common ; and the 
paleontologist, when his attention is directed to the subject, 
may probably be able to refer some anomalous organic remains 
to extinct fishes of this order. 



St. Petersbonrg, vol. x.) In vol. xi. he has given an account of the de- 
velopment of Amjihioxus. In the Bulletin of the .same Academy, vol. xii. 
1867, Owsjannikow describes the arranovmnit and structure of the nervous 
■I in A. lanceolatus, which, though differing in some points, yet agr< e - in 
others with the statements made in the text. - Eds. 



3 ( J4 PECULIARITIES IN THE STRUCTURE 



VIL— ON CERTAIN PECULIARITIES IN THE STRUC- 
TURE OF THE SHORT SUN-EISH (ORTHAGO- 
RISCUS MOLA).* 

The anatomy of an animal or vegetable may be investigated 
and described with two objects in view ; first, the elucidation 
of its habits, and of its true place in the system ; or, secondly, 
the discovery of the laws which regulate organic form and 
tissue (Morphological and Teleological laws). 

It is with the latter object in view that I have now to 
offer a few observations on certain peculiarities in the struc- 
ture of the sun-fish, as confirmatory of some of the principles 
to which I have just alluded. 

The anatomy of this fish has been investigated by Dr. 
Jacob, in a paper which I have not had an opportunity of 
consulting.*!* Cuvier and Meckel, in their Systems of Com- 
parative Anatomy, have recorded its various peculiarities ; but 
as the observations of these anatomists have a reference to its 
general structure, I shall not have occasion to refer again to 
their labours, j 

The specimen I had an opportunity of examining was the 
very large individual lately procured for the Natural History 

* Read before the Werncrian Society, 12th December 1840. 

•f- Dublin Philosophical Journal, November 1826, referred to by Mr. 
Yarrell. 

J Since this paper was written, 1 have seen a Leyden Inaugural Disserta- 
tion, May 1810, P. H. J. Wellenbergh, Observationes Anatomicce de Orthra- 
goritco Mola. The author gives a detailed account of the skeleton, intestinal 
canal, and heart ; but throws no light on any of the subjects treated of by 
me. 



OF THE SHORT SUN-FISH. 395 

Museum of the University of Edinburgh.* It measured 5 
feet 8 inches from the snout to the tail, 3 feet 3 inches from 
the tip of the dorsal to the tip of the anal fin, and weighed 
489 pounds. 

On commencing to remove the skin, which was found to 
be rather a difficult operation, in consecp:ience of the total 
deficiency of any structure resembling the dermis, I found that 
the coloured and tubercular layers of the integument were 
attached to the external surface of a structure or tissue of a 
very peculiar kind. This tissue extended in the form of a 
layer, varying from one-fourth of an inch to 6 inches in 
thickness, all over the body, head, and fins. It was thickest 
along the median line of the back and belly, of medium thick- 
ness along the sides, and thinnest on the surface of the fins. 
Large and thick masses of it enveloped the bones of the cra- 
nium, and enclosed the opercular laminas and branchiostegous 
rays. The soft cartilaginous bones were imbedded in such a 
manner in its substance, that they presented the appearance 
of nuclei in it, and resembled the first traces of the skeleton 
in the early embryo. The most distant or peripheral elements 
of the skeleton, the fin-rays, and certain parts of the opercu- 
lar apparatus, were so much softer and more delicate than 
the tissue in which they were imbedded, and so completely 
deficient in any periosteal covering, that they could only be 
discovered in the fresh state by their translucency. 

This peculiar tissue was separated from the muscular 
substance in its neighbourhood by the ordinary loose 
filamentous structure (cellular membrane). Its relation 
to the skin was very peculiar. The tissue was inelastic, 
tough, of a dead white appearance resembling lard, granular 
when torn, and presented very slight traces of vascularity, 

* This specimen was found in shallow water in the Firth <>f Forth at 
Culross, lying sluggishly on one side, hut making vigorous resistance when 
attacked. 



396 PECULIARITIES IN THE STRUCTURE 

and these only in the neighbourhood of certain parts of the 
skeleton. It discharged no oil, but on standing a quantity of 
watery fluid exuded, and its bulk was considerably diminished. 
When boiled, it dissolved into a gelatinous mass, which passed 
in the form of a clear transparent liquid through flannel. A few 
shreds of animal matter remained. This fluid on cooling became 
a fine jelly, inodorous and tasteless. The greater part of this 
tissue, then, is composed of or may be converted into gelatine* 
There was no trace of dermis or true skin, the coloured 
lamina of the integument appearing to be merely the super- 
ficial layer of the peculiar cellular tissue, changed by the 
deposition of colouring matter in the cells to adapt it to its 
proper function. The peculiar tissue must either be looked 
upon as the true skin itself, or more correctly it must be con- 
sidered as the primitive nucleated vesicular tissue of the 
embryo fish, from which the pigmentary and tubercular layers 
of the skin have already been developed, but from which the 
conversion into true skin has not begun, and that of the peri- 
pheral bones has been arrested.f 

* I am indebted to Dr. Aitken for this account of the chemical constitution 
of the tissue. 

[We have not reprinted the paragraph on the minute structure of this tissue, 
as the examination was made with a doublet, and the description given has 
since been superseded. We may refer to the more recent accounts of the 
anatomy of this fish, from the dissection of specimens provided by Mr. Goodsir, 
by Professors Cleland and Turner in the Natural History Review, 1S62, and 
to the description by Professor Harting of an Orthragoriscus ozodura in the 
Vcrhandelingen der KoninMijke Akademie, Amsterdam, 1868. — Eds.] 

+ Meckel, Comparative Anatomy, French edition, torn v. p. 185. Accord- 
ing to the observations of Dr. Jacob, in the Dublin Philosophical Journal, the 
cetacea have no dermis, except we consider, along with him, that the blubber 
is the true skin distended with oil. The subcutaneous fat of the cetacea, how- 
ever, differs from the gelatinous vesicular tissue of the sun-fish in having no 
primitive cells in its constitution, consisting of common fibrous tissue inclosing 
in its areohe fat or oil-cells. It may, nevertheless, be considered as a tissue 
in which some of the primitive cells have been developed into fibrous tissue, 
while others have become filled with oil. 



OF THE SHOKT SUN-FISH. 397 

From what I have now stated, it is evident that the interest 
to be attached to this tissue consists in its purely embryonic 
character. The general appearance of the cells, their nuclei 
and nucleoli, the uniformity of the tissue in every part of the 
animal, and its chemical composition, all indicate this cha- 
racter ; and when taken in connection with the embryonic 
state of the bony tissue, and the rudimentary condition of the 
muscular system, forms a very interesting and important cha- 
racter in the species, and probably in the order of fishes to 
which the one under consideration belongs. 

In a teleological point of view it is important, as it points 
to the existence of certain laws which regulate the develop- 
ment of animal tissues — namely, first, In the organic series, 
tissices as well as forms undergo progressive development; 
secondly, This progressive development of the tissues mag be 
retarded, retaining their early emhryonic condition in certain 
beings in the series ; and, thirdly, Tissue is' subordinate to form* 
A sun-fish, in fact, as well as other fishes of its order, is as 
highly developed, in so far as regards form, as any in the 
class ; in certain of its tissues it is still in the condition of an 
embryo. 

A second peculiarity to which I shall refer, is the form of 
the caudal fin of the orthagoriscus. The naturalist is familiar 
with its truncated shape, but the anatomist has not yet ascer- 
tained the cause of the peculiarity of this part of the skeleton.! 

* For an exposition of this last law of organisation, see Dr. Martin Barry's 
Memoir on Embryology, 2d series, Phil. Trans. 1839. 

+ Meckel, Comparative Anatomy, French edition, torn. ii. p. 285. Fur a 
diawing of tlie tail, which appears to have been made from a (hied skeleton, 
see Dr. C. A. S. Schultze, " Ueber die ersten Spuren des Knochensystems, and 
die Entwickelung der "Wirbelsaule, is den Thieren." — Meckel's Archivs, 1818. 
Willenbergb'a drawing, which he states was made from a dried skeleton, is 
Lncorrecl in the mode of junction of the pectoral girdle to the spine. bu1 more 
particularly in the ma] representation of the mode of termination of the spinal 
column. He has mistaken the. two or three last vertebra} for a fin -ray and 
interspinous bom . 



398 PECULIARITIES IN THE STRUCTURE 

I found that the rays of the tail-fin, and their interspinous 
bones, were crowded together in a direction from behind for- 
wards, and abutted against the superior spinous process of the 
fourteenth and the inferior spinous process of the fifteenth 
vertebra. The sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth vertebrae 
assumed the appearance, the two former combined, of an 
interspinous bone, and the latter of a fin-ray, and could not 
have been distinguished from these but by their direct con- 
tinuation with the bodies of the vertebrae, and their more 
cylindrical and shorter form. The joint between the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth was in the line of the articulations of 
the fin-rays and their interspinous bones, the ultimate vertebra 
assuming the appearance and function of a fin-ray, the 
penultimate and antepenultimate combined of an interspinous 
bone. 

The interest involved in this form of skeleton consists in 
the explanation it affords of the true nature of the so-called 
last vertebra in the spinal column of fishes. Is that fan-shaped 
bone a vertebra ? or is it a composite bone, containing the 
elements of a number of vertebrae and of interspinous bones 
of fin-rays ? I have always been led to conclude that it is a 
composite bone, and it required only such an arrangement of 
skeleton as that now under consideration to afford a natural 
analysis of the tail in this class of fishes, and to prove the 
correctness of the opinion to which I have just alluded. In 
many of the osseous fishes the last bone of the spine exhibits 
traces of a central element, and in some families (Tcenioides) 
it appears to be prolonged far beyond the caudal fin, in the 
form of a fine filament, but in none, as far as I am aware, is it 
arranged as in the present instance. 

The next peculiarity is in the muscular system. The sun- 
fish exhibits not a trace of abdominal muscles.* The viscera 
from the spine to the median line of the belly are inclosed by 

* Meckel, Comparative Anatomy, torn. v. p. 185. 



OF THE SnORT SUN-FISH. 399 

abdominal walls, consisting of peritoneum on the internal sur- 
face, of skin on the external, and of a thick layer (4 or G 
inches) of the peculiar tissue already described between 
them. This is a conformation exactly corresponding with 
the embryonic condition of all the vertebrata. The ab- 
dominal muscles are among the last to be developed, in 
consequence, in a great measure, of the persistence of the 
yolk-bag, and the evolution of the abdominal walls from the 
dorsal towards the ventral aspect. 

The muscles of the spine, also, instead of stretching from 
head to tail, are reduced to a very small size, and constitute 
only a weak fan-shaped muscle on each side of the caudal fin. 
These muscles consist of a small digitation for each of the 
fin-rays, and appear to me rather to be analogous to the 
caudal-fin muscles of other fishes than to the great lateral 
muscles of the spine. 

The thick mass of muscle on each side of the sun-fish 
consists of the muscles of the anal and dorsal fins ; very weak 
in other fishes, but developed here in an extraordinary 
manner — in an inverse ratio to the spinal muscles.* This 
inversion of the muscular masses depends on the stunted con- 
dition of the vertebral column, and on the developed state (in 
regard to form) of the peripheral elements of the skeleton, 
and is an instance of the dependence of one organic system 
on another. The morphological cause of the stunting of the 

* Meckel, Comparative Anatomy, torn. v. p. 185, inclines to the opinion 
that the dorsal portion of the lateral fleshy mass of the sun-fish is a composite 
muscle, consisting of the anterior part of the usual lateral spinal muscles, 
and of the muscles of the dorsal fin ; or that the latter had assumed the form 
and position of the former. 1 have, however, satisfied myself that this mass, 
although extending forwards to the head, is in fad the fin-muscle, and that 

it lists of uninterrupted radiating bundles. The body of this fish, then, 

contains only six muscles- two fir each fin. It appears to swim by a scul- 
ling action of the dorsal anil anal lins, the tail being a very inefficient organ 
of locomotion. 

vui.. i. 2d 



400 PECULIARITIES OF THE SHORT SUN-FISH. 

column is still a problem,* and must be sought for, probably, 
as a circumstance connected with the development. What- 
ever it may be, it must be considered as the means of adapt- 
ing the structure of the animal to some peculiarity in its 
habits or economy. 

* I have not assumed the short spinal cord of the Orthagoriscus mola as 
the cause of the stunting of the osseous column, as there are contradictory 
facts which must he explained before we can connect the length of the latter 
in the embryonic and adult series with the length of the former. 



GYMNORHYNCHUS HOERIDUS. 401 



VIIL— ON GYMNOEHYNCHUS HOEETPUS, A NEW 
CESTOID ENTOZOON.* (Plate VI. p. 445, vol. ii.) 

The genus Gynmorhynchus was instituted by Eudolphi, for 
the reception of a worm which infests the muscular tissue of 
the Brama Raji, and which had been placed by Cuvier in the 
genus Scolex. This worm, Gymnorhynchus rcptans (Eudolphi), 
Scolcx gigas (Cuvier), is the only species which has been 
hitherto observed. It is described by Eudolphi, Cuvier, 
Blainville, and Milne Edwards, and figured by Bremser. 
The characters of this genus, according to Eudolphi, are : — 
Body depressed, continuous, very long, with a subglobose 
cervical receptacle ; head provided with two bipartite 
suckers, and emitting four naked retractile proboscides. 
Bremser, however, represents in his atlas the four proboscides 
not as naked, but as armed with recurved hooks, an arrange- 
ment which can only be recognised when they are fully 
extended. Milne Edwards, in the last edition of Lamarck's 
Invertebrate Animals, has defined the genus thus : — Body 
depressed, continuous, or without articulations, composed of 
three parts ; one median, subglobose, prolonged backwards 
into a very long tail, and forwards into a wrinkled neck ; the 
cephalic bulging provided with two bipartite slickers and 
four papillose tentacula. 

When dissecting the smi-lisli, which formed the subject of 
a formei communication to the Society, I found in the liver 
a number of entozoa which presented arvery curious appear- 

* K.m.I before the Wernerian KTaturaJ History Society, February 20, 1841. 

[Dr. Cobbold, in his Treatise on the Ento oa places this parasite i ngst 

the Tetra/rhynchidce, ;ui<1 names it Tetrarhynchus reptcms. Eds.] 



402 GYMNORHYNCHTJS HORPJDUS, 

ance. They were cylindrical, very much elongated, coiled 
and twisted on the surface and in the substance of the 
organ, one of their extremities subglobose, and situate 
immediately under the peritoneum, the other tapering to a 
fine point. They adhered to the parenchyma of the organ 
by cellular tissue, and occasionally, where one coil lay over 
the other, the two adhered. Their colour was cream- white, so 
that they contrasted strongly with the deep brown of the liver. 
On removing one of them, and making a longitudinal 
incision, I found that it was not a worm, but an elongated 
sac or cyst containing a worm, which, when withdrawn, 
was found to be alive, although the fish had been a week 
dead. When placed in lukewarm water, it pushed out its 
head and neck from the cervical receptacle, protruded the 
four-armed tentacula, and continued in lively motion for 
some hours. The globose receptacle, with the head and 
neck of the worm, were lodged in the bulbous extremity of 
the cyst, but the tail did not extend into the attenuated 
extremity. 

I had no difficulty in referring the worm to the genus 
Gymnorhynchus. I may remark, however, that it presented 
one character not included in the definition of this genus. 
It exhibited, when gently compressed between two plates 
of glass, distant, but distinct articulations. From an 
examination of Bremser's drawing, and a consideration of 
the relations of the genus, I strongly suspect that the old 
species is also articulated, and that such a conformation 
must be considered as a character of this cestoid genus. 
My specimens present a character which appears to be 
sufficient to distinguish them as a new species. They have a 
separate circle of large recurved hooks on the tentacula, an 
arrangement not to be seen in Bremser's figure of Gymno- 
rhynchus rej)tans. 

The cyst enclosing the worm is double. The outer coat is 



A NEW CESTOID ENTOZOON. 403 

rough, flocculont, and adherent to the parenchyma of the liver. 
The anterior extremity is dilated, and in all the specimens 
was situate immediately under the peritoneum. The poste- 
rior extremity, again, was so attenuated that it was traced with 
great difficulty, as it lay coiled about in all directions through 
the substance of the organ. Within the outer coat another 
cyst is situate closely investing the worm ; it is smooth, trans- 
parent, thin, and elastic, and does not adhere to the outer. 
The worm is visible through this second tunic, and lies with 
its anterior bulbous extremity packed up in the vesicular por- 
tion of the cyst. When one of the animals was released from 
its prison, and placed in water, it dilated its anterior extremity, 
and projected its head and neck. The head and neck, 
when withdrawn, are lodged in the cervical receptacle. There 
is no particular muscular arrangement to effect this. The 
tissue of this, as well as of the rest of the animal, was the 
primitive granular tissue lately described by Mr. Forbes. 
The four-armed tentacula are retracted by four distinct 
muscles, all of which consist of granular tissue. The arrange- 
ment of this part of the animal corresponds exactly with the 
same part in the Bothriocephalus corollatus as described by 
Leblond in the Annates des Sciences Naturclles, 1836. The 
motion of these parts in both animals is similar, and the tissue 
is identical with that denominated by Leblond " Sarcode," or 
elementary texture, the granular tissue to which I have 
already referred. 

The body, when gently compressed between two plates of 
glass, exhibited transparent transverse articulations at dis- 
tances of one-third to half-an-inch. The most careful ex- 
amination, however, revealed no nutritive or generative organs 
in any of the segments. The dilated cervical receptacle, into 
which the head is retracted, did not appear to communicate 
with an} arrangement of tubes or cavil Les in the elongated body. 

The mosl interesting circumstance in the history of this 



404 GYMNORHYNCHUS HORRIDUS. 

entozoon, is the manner in which it is enclosed in a firm and 
close cyst. It appears to me that this cyst is not altogether 
the result of irritation of the surrounding tissues. The outer 
coat of the cyst may be of this nature, but it is not so easy 
to conceive the inner tunic to be due to the same cause. Pro- 
fessor Owen, in his memoir on the Trichina spiralis — the 
entozoon of the human muscles — holds that the cyst of that 
animal, although apparently consisting of two tunics, is the 
result of irritation. Dr. Knox, again, considers it to be a part 
of the animal, although the latter lies free in the cavity. This 
latter opinion is inadmissible, according to the usual con- 
ception of an individual animal. Might we not conceive the 
cysts to be essential parts of all such entozoa, inasmuch as 
they are never absent? and may we not suppose them to be 
parts of the original ovum within which the animal was 
formed, and in which it passes the term of its existence? 
Without having any facts to adduce in proof, I hazard this 
supposition as a hint for future research ; and as it is not at 
variance with any of the known conditions of animal existence, 
it is worth consideration in a fresh investigation of the subject. 



STRUCTUKE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 405 



IX.— ON THE STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY 
OF TETHEA* 

I am indebted to Mr. Guerin, one of my pupils, for the 
specimens of the undescribed Tethea, to the structure and 
economy of which I am about to direct the attention of the 
Society. He procured them, along with many other speci- 
mens, by dredging in deep water on the south-west coast of 
Spitzbergen. They have been carefully preserved in alcohol, 
and are in as favourable a state for examination as their 
delicate texture will permit. 

These specimens present the globose or sub-globose form 
peculiar to the group ; but two of them contract towards their 
attachments, so as to resemble inverted cones, with spher- 
oidal bases (Tythca turhinato-capita — Lamarck). 

The largest spherical specimen measured 4 inches in dia- 
meter ; the smallest 2|. The turbinated specimens are 3 and 
2\ inches long by 2| and 2 broad. 

Their colour is dark-grey when removed from the alcohol ; 
but when in that fluid light lemon-yellow, on the dense, 
fleshy, and more recently-formed parts of their surfaces, and 
grey or dark grey where the downward and projecting spicula 
abound, and where mud and debris, in greater or less 
abundance, lodge in the crevices. 

The debris, or pellicle apparently exfoliate i from the 
organism, appears to be entangled among the projecting 
spicula on various parts of the surface in such a manner as to 

* Bead before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 7th March 1853. 



406 STllUCTUKE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 

enclose polygonal spaces, generally hexagonal when complete 
and well marked. 

On the dark-grey portions of the surface, where the pro- 
jecting spicula are very numerous, the character of the surface 
itself cannot be recognised ; on the lemon-yellow fleshy portions, 
from which the naked spicula do not project, numerous darkish 
spots are visible, of a polygonal form, and separated by 
light yellow bands arranged in a sort of network. These 
spots, under a lens of 1 or 2 inches' focus, appear to be per- 
forated, and have a general resemblance to the pores of the 
afferent orifices of the denser sorts of sponges. 

On various parts of the surface, but more abundantly 
towards the attached pole of the mass, there are a variable 
number of serpentine semi-cylindrical grooves, elongated, 
ramified, and continuous, or short and disconnected. ' The 
floor and walls of these grooves consist of a membrane per- 
forated throughout by angular or rounded orifices, so as to 
resemble an irregular network. The grooves may be here 
and there observed to pass into deep fissures or vents in the 
substance of the organism. These fissures tend towards the 
centre in the direction of its long spicula, the bundles of 
which may be observed passing into the interior on the walls 
of the fissures. At the junction of the grooves and fissures 
the perforated membranes of the former terminate in bands 
and lamellae, suggesting the idea that the grooves are former 
fissures closed in by the growth of the perforated membrane. 
At these junctions also it may be observed that the recent 
fissures are actually continuous with spacious cavities under 
the perforated membrane, resembling fissures with their 
deeper angular portions filled up and rounded off by new 
sponge-texture, and traversed in their wider parts by bands 
and lamellae attached to their walls and the deep surface of 
the perforated membrane for the support of the latter. 

The perforated grooves are invariably situated on parts of 



STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 407 

the surface from which the spicula project in greatest abund- 
ance. The spicula are arranged in great numbers along the 
margins of the grooves, projecting obliquely over them from 
their opposite margins, bike palisades along the faces of a 
ditch. The fissures, unlike the grooves, are situated in the 
fleshy and apparently more recently-formed portions of the 
surface. 

The character of the perforated grooves associates them 
with the oscula or feculent orifices of the typical sponges. 

On tearing a specimen through the centre, the arrange- 
ment of the nuclear radiating structure and veins peculiar 
to Tethea may be observed. The central nucleus is not 
so apparent — fleshy substance, with small areolar spaces, 
predominating over the spicular structure. The radiating 
masses of fleshy substance, with their bundles of spicula, are 
well marked. Numerous canals converge between the radiat- 
ing columns towards the centre, gradually degenerating, by 
frequent anastomoses, into freely communicating areolar 
spaces. Other canals of larger size, and lined by a semi- 
opaque membrane, collect obliquely across the radiating 
masses towards the perforated grooves on the surface. 

The peripheral rind peculiar to Tethea does not exist over 
the whole surface of these specimens. It is also comparatively 
thinner than in T. cranium. Of a grey gelatinous aspect, it 
is thickest on the lemon-yellow fleshy portions ; thinner, and 
apparently not so solid, on the portions of surface from which 
the spicula begin to project. It has disappeared entirely 
where the spicula are most numerous and projecting. The 
canals of the intermediate or radiating masses become much 
smaller and more numerous as they pass through the rind, on 
the surface of winch they open in the dark spots. 

Particulab Descripg I" . 
The Skeleton. — The skeleton of this sponge, like those of 



408 STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TETJHEA. 

the group to which it belongs, consists of silicious spicula 
bound together by horny matter. 

The spicula of which the skeleton is essentially composed 
present the following forms : — 

1. Tubular, elongated, somewhat flattened, pointed, or 
truncated spicula, slightly bent or twisted, with an average 
length of one line and a half, but of various smaller sizes. 

2. A similar form, but terminated at one end in a spheri- 
cal head, and very rare. 

3. Tubular, elongated, cylindrical, straight spicula, one line 
and a half in average length. 

4. Very slender spicula, of uniform thickness, short, with 
both ends bent towards one another. 

5. Similar spicula, with their ends bent in opposite direc- 
tions ; sigmoidal. 

6. Tri-radiate spicula in two forms. 

7. Six-radiate spicula. 

8. Stellate spicula. 

Viewed as a whole, the skeleton may be divided into a 
central and a peripheral portion. 

The central portion may be considered as consisting of two 
parts, as it is arranged in the nucleus, and among the radiat- 
ing masses. 

The nuclear portion consists of single spicula, and bundles 
of spicula of the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th orders, bound together 
and arranged so as to form a mesh-work to support the walls 
of the areolar water-passages of the nucleus. 

The radiating part consists of thick trunk-like bundles of 
the same kinds of spicula, springing from, and tied to, the 
nuclear part. These trunks ramify as they radiate, so as to 
be resolved at or near the surface into numerous nearly uni- 
form bundles, which in the recently-formed rind pass through 
between the six-radiate spicula, and elevate, to a greater or 
less extent, the free surface ; but when the rind is of older 



STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TET1IEA. -409 

date, or has disappeared, they project more or less from the 
surface, the individual spicula becoming denuded, and diverg- 
ing in various or definite directions from one another. 

The peripheral portion of the skeleton is peculiar to the 
rind, and only exists therefore on the lemon-yellow and light- 
grey portions of the surface. 

It consists essentially of the tri-radiate and six-radi- 
ate spicula ; but intermingled with the extremities of the 
terminal bundles of the central part of the skeleton, the 
spicula of which pass into the rind towards or through its 
free surface. 

The shafts of the tri-radiate spicula pass through the rind, 
deep into the radiating masses of the sponge, packed into the 
centre or attached to the surface of certain of the terminal 
bundles of the central portion of the skeleton ; from the 
spicula of which they may be distinguished by their tapering 
form, peculiar twist, and greater opacity. 

The radiating branches of the tri-radiate or six-radiate 
spicula are imbedded in the substance or on the surface of 
the recently-formed rind. But in rind of older date many 
of them project, as if their shafts had been pushed outwards, 
so that their radiations are suspended horizontally at a 
greater or less distance from the free surface of the sponge. 

"When a section of the rind is made towards the centre of 
the sponge, the radiations of these spicula may be observed 
in profile, arranged parallel to and at various distances from 
the free surface. 

Winn ihe free surface of a recently-formed portion of the 
rind is strongly illuminated by a condenser, and examined by 
a 1-inch or 2-inch objective, the radiating branches of the 
superimposed spicula maybe brought into view in succession, 
from the free surface inwards, by slowly altering the focus of 
the instrument. 

I have endeavoured to ascertain whether the six-radiate 



410 STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 

spicula are arranged symmetrically so as to circumscribe the pe- 
culiar polygonal figures wbicli must result therefrom. I have, 
however, hitherto failed, either because the eye is unable in 
the maze of crossing spicular branches to isolate the pattern ; 
or because they have been disarranged, as I am inclined to be- 
lieve they are, first, in consequence of the varied development 
of the intervening soft textures, the result of varied conditions ; 
and secondly, in consequence of the oblique course of the 
water-passages which they support. 

In addition to this arrangement of radiated spicula, the 
peripheral portion of the skeleton consists of the divergent 
naked, or imbedded spicula of the terminal branches of the 
central portion. The greater number of these appear to me 
to pass on or through the spaces inclosed by the rectangular 
secondary branches of the six-radiate spicula ; and from this 
circumstance, as well as from the fact of the projecting but 
still imbedded spicula forming conical tubercles or thin spaces, 
I am inclined to consider these spaces (which are also, from 
the form of the six-radiate spicula, somewhat elevated) as the 
parts of the surface set aside for the cutaneous attachments 
of the central portion of the skeleton, and as homologous in 
this new form of Tethea to the conical elevations of T. cranium, 
or hemispherical bulgings of T. lyncurium. 

I have already stated the general characters of the different 
kinds of spicula which I have observed in this sponge, but 
the very interesting nature of these silicious structures de- 
mands a few additional remarks. 

Into the consideration of their chemical composition I 
shall not at present attempt to enter. 

I am rather anxious to direct attention to their exact con- 
figuration and to their mode of development. 

From the comparatively large size of the elongated spicula 
of this species of Tethea, I am strongly confirmed in an 
opinion which I have long entertained from the examination 



STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. -ill 

of other silicious sponges, that these structures possess precise 
geometrical forms. I am not prepared at present to enter into 
details, for the subject is one beset with many difficulties, 
but I may state generally — 1st, That all silicious spicula, with 
continuous margins and pointed, rounded, or apparently trun- 
cated extremities, are, in fact, oblong ellipsoids or ovoids, 
more or less compressed or not in the direction of their con- 
jugate diameter, and more or less spirally twisted or not 
around their trctnsverse diameters ; 2d, That all the forms of 
unbranched spicula are reducible to ellipsoids or ovoids, or to 
linear combinations of these; and, 3d, That the radiations of the 
branched spicula are not only portions of ellipsoids or ovoids, 
but are arranged in reference to one another at definite 
angles. 

No one, as far as I am aware, has hitherto investigated 
the mode of development of the silicious spicula. Dr. Grant 
in Hcdiehondria, and Mr. Carter in Spongilla, have observed 
them forming in the embryo sponge, but the combination of 
structures by which a spiculum is laid down has not been 
noted. Dr. Grant, indeed, appears to consider the spicula 
crystalline productions ; but the general existence of a cavity 
in their interior, the animal matter which they contain, the 
peculiar forms which it is generally admitted they present — 
all tend to prove their organic origin, and clearly to distinguish 
them from raphides or ordinary crystals. 

As the formation of bone, shell, tooth, hair, and other cal- 
careous and horny structures, has now been ascertained to 
depend on the deposit of calcareous salts and horny matter in 
nucleated particles peculiarly figured and arranged, it becomes 
important to determine whether the silicious spicula of the 
sponges are developed in a similar manner. I have not been 
able hitherto to procure any observations bearing directly on 
this question, but the general considerations and structural 
arrangements appear to me to indicate clearly a law of de- 



412 STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 

velopinent of these bodies, which I would thus state pro- 
visionally : — A spiculwm is formed by a series of sponge-par- 
ticles, so arranged in a column or system as, by the siliciflcation 
of more or less of t/ieir contiguous surfaces and substance, to form 
a continuous rod. 

Mode of union of different parts of Skeleton. — Horny matter 
of the same nature as the peculiar substance which forms the 
entire skeleton of the keratose sponges, but more delicate and 
transparent, binds together the spicula, and connects the 
fasciculi of the central portion of the framework. 

The diminished quantity and greater delicacy of the 
horny connecting matter in the Tethea now under consider- 
ation, as well as in Tethea cranium, appears to me to depend 
on the greater contractility of the soft texture of these sponges. 

Towards the periphery of the intermediate or radiating 
masses, the long spicula are bound together by numerous 
fibre-cells, which may be contractile, but from their thin and 
dry aspect, I am inclined to consider them as ligamentous, 
and consequently better adapted to the movements of the 
various parts of this sponge than the elastic but more rigid 
horny texture. 

The minute curved spicula, Avhich are not very numerous, 
are always to be found arranged across the long spicula ; and 
as their length nearly corresponds to the breadth of a pair of 
the latter, and as I have not unfrequently seen them hooked 
on in this position, I am inclined to consider them as connec- 
tive structures. 

Contractility and contractile textures of Tethea. — I have 
not had a sufficiently favourable opportunity of observing the 
contractility of Tethea. I have, however, no doubt whatever, 
from the recorded observations of Donati and of Audouin, and 
Milne Edwards, that these sponges are capable of slow but 
decided contractions and relaxations. In the outer part of 
the recently-formed rind the fleshy substance consists of a 



STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 413 

slightly granular but transparent substance, in which are 
embedded numerous nucleated cells. These cells are gene- 
rally acutely spindle-shaped, or split at one or both extremi- 
ties. They are more abundant around the water-orifices, and 
are there intermixed with many stellate and bi-stellalc silicious 
spicula. 

The inner part of the rind is denser, and consists almost 
entirely of nucleated fibre-cells, which run more or less trans- 
versely, or across the axes of the spicula. 

Similar fibre-cells are met with abundantly in the fleshy 
walls of the larger water-canals of their intermediate substance, 
along with stellate and bi-stellatc silicious spicula. 

The anatomical characters, arrangement, and relations of 
the fibre-cells of Tethea, taken along with the acknowledged 
contractility of the group, indicate the functions of the fibre- 
cells in the economy of these sponges. Their peculiar aspect, 
elongated form, transverse relation to the spicula, and grouping 
around the water-canals, appear to me to indicate very clearly 
their muscular character. I do not, however, conceive them 
to be the only contractile structures in the mass of the sponge ; 
for I am inclined to believe that the slightly granular gelati- 
nous matrix, in which they and the other structures are em- 
bedded, is also capable of a slow but decided change of form, 
like the mass of an ama?ba, or the peculiar texture with 
which observers are now familiar in so many of the lower 
organisms, and which has been termed by Dujardin, Sarcode. 

The more energetic contractility of the fibre-cells would 
appeal to be concentrated on the spicula and skeleton ; the 
movements of the gelatinous matrix probably regulate the 
diameter and capacity of the water-canals. 

Pores, Water -Passages, and Oscula. — The pores, or 
afferent water-orifices, are arranged in groups of three, each 
group in relation to a six-radiate spiculum, so that a pore is 
situated in each angle between the three primary branches of 



414 STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 

the spiculum. As a result of this arrangement, it may be 
observed that when two or more of the six-radiate spicula are 
symmetrically arranged, each elongated octagonal mesh in- 
cludes two pores — one at each of its extremities, and belong- 
ing to distinct groups or systems. Dr. Johnston has denied 
the existence of pores and oscula in Tethea cranium. I have, 
however, satisfied myself that pores of that sponge are situ- 
ated in the furrows between the conical papillae. Dr. 
Johnston's observations were made on a specimen preserved 
in spirits, with which I supplied him ; my own observations 
were made on similar specimens. Neither Prof. Ed. Forbes 
nor I could detect with the naked eye, or by means of lenses 
of low power, either pores or oscula in the living sponge 
examined in sea-water. But as the specimens had been for 
some hours out of the water, and were not examined after a 
sufficiently long interval of undisturbed repose, I am inclined 
to attribute our failure in detecting the contractility of 
Tethea, and also the pores and oscula, as had previously been 
done by Audouin and Milne Edwards, to the continued con- 
traction produced by the disturbance of the animal. 

I have not been able to detect in T. cranium any trace 
of oscula ; but if an inference may be drawn from their 
situation in other sponges, I would be inclined to look for 
them on the conical spicular elevations of the rind. 

I have already referred the somewhat elevated spaces, 
bounded by the rectangular extremities of the six-radiate 
spicula, or the assumed corresponding dodecahedral spaces 
of this new species, to the conical spicular elevations of T. 
cranium ; I am therefore inclined to believe, that if oscula 
exist at all in the form now under consideration, they must 
be sought for in these spaces. 

It is interesting, in connection with this question, to 
observe that the recent rents or fissures in the rind are 
generally margined by the denuded quadrangular extremities 



STKUCTUKE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 415 

of the six-radiate spicula, wliile the pores in their semi- 
octagonal recesses still remain entire ; so that these fissures, 
and perforated grooves which result from them, may he con- 
sidered as a linear arrangement of the spaces in which it 
may be inferred the oscula ought to develop. As an addi- 
tional evidence in favour of the opinion I have already 
stated in reference to the position which the oscula of Tethea 
ought to occupy, I may refer to Mr. Huxley's recent account 
of an Australian species, in which he found irregular aper- 
tures or prominent tubercles on the surface. Now these 
could not have been pores, which he does not appear to have 
looked for. They must have been oscula ; and their relations, 
as far as they are given, are in accordance with this sup- 
position. 

I have arrived at the conclusion, therefore, that there are 
afferent orifices or pores in T. cranium, and in the Tethea 
now under consideration, but efferent orifices or oscula exist 
iu neither. How the water and animal debris escape from 
T. cranium I have not yet determined ; but if I may hazard 
an opinion as to their mode of exit, it is that they pass off 
through the older and more open portions of the rind, where 
the central or radiating spicula are nearly laid bare, or have 
begun to project. Although the rind is continuous in T. 
cranium, it is never, as far as I am aware, uniform : the 
more recent portions are smooth, without projecting spicula 
or conical elevations ; the portions of medium age present 
the characteristic conical projections ; the more ancient 
portions are comparatively open and porous, the projections 
have disappeared, and the radiating spicula project. These 
more ancient portions of the rind of '/'. cranium correspond to 
the rindless portions of tin- surface of the Spitzbergen species. 
From these facts and considerations I have come to the 
conclusion, provisionally — 1st, That neither T. cranium nor 
the Spitzbergen T. possesses efferent orifices properly so called ; 

\|>L I. I! B 



416 STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 

2d, That in T. cranium the water and debris find an exit 
through the more ancient portions of the rind ; 3d, That in 
the Spitzbergen species the water and debris pass off through 
the rents in the more recent portions of the surface — through 
the open parts of the surface where the rind is thin or 
deficient, but principally through the perforated grooves, 
which are in fact partially repaired fissures. 

The pores of the Spitzbergen Tethea are the orifices of 
tubes which pass through the rind. 

From what has been already stated, it will be perceived 
that these tubes are arranged in groups of three ; the three 
tubes of each group being set around the shaft of the corre- 
sponding six-radiate spiculum, which is in fact the axis or 
skeleton of the group. 

It must be recollected, however, that the branched heads 
of the six-radiate spicula are arranged at various depths hi the 
rind ; and as they always appear to embrace a water-tube in 
each of their primary angles, and are, besides, not placed per- 
pendicularly under one another, so the tubes which proceed 
inwards from the primary angles of the superficial to the 
primary angles of the deeper spicula must be twisted or bent. 

Whether the water-tubes of the rind ramify I have not 
loeen able hitherto to determine, but it appears to me probable 
that they do, because the six-radiate spicula are more numer- 
ous towards the surface of the rind than at its central aspect, 
and therefore the groups of water-tubes must be proportionally 
increased in number towards the periphery. 

I have already stated that it appears to me highly pro- 
bable that in the younger, and therefore more symmetrical 
form of this sponge, the six-radiate spicula of its rind are 
arranged in systems so as to include a dodecahedron in six 
octagons, that each octagon encloses a pair of pores, while the 
dodecahedron includes in its own share the terminal bundles 
of the intermediate portion of the skeleton, and is at the same 



STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 417 

time the typical position of the oscule or feculent orifice of the 
system of sponge-groups by which it is surrounded. It there- 
fore becomes a question, since the superficial spicula of the 
rind are not arranged perpendicularly above the deeper, what 
are their relations in this respect. I have not succeeded in 
determining any relation ; but from what may be observed in 
the more symmetrically developed T. cranium, I am inclined 
to suspect that the successive strata of systems of spicula are 
so arranged that lines passing through their centres would be 
spiral. 

The comparatively minute canals of the rind become 
larger as they pass into the intermediate or radiating masses 
of the sponge. They no longer retain the same fixed relations 
to the skeleton, but retiring from the immediate vicinity of 
the spicular fasciculi they pass inwards, frequently anastomos- 
ing in the interior of the intermediate spongy mass. The 
anastomoses become more frequent as the tubes approach the 
nucleus, in which they degenerate into areolae. 

The afferent water-canals are at first not to be distin- 
guished from the more or less frequently anastomosing efferent 
tubes ; but as they collect together into larger branches, and 
converge outwards and downwards to the equatorial region, 
and the attached polar region of the sponge, they become so 
much larger, and their aspect is so peculiar, that they at once 
catch the eye. Their walls are surrounded by, or rather 
consist of, a semi-transparent matter, consisting of the peculiar 
granular sarcode, intermixed witli fibre-cells and stellate 
spicula already described. These efferent tubes all terminate 
at right angles or obliquely, mediately or immediately in the 
fissures or perforated grooves on the surface, and the abundant 
gelatinous material of their walls is continuous with the 
matter of the same Kind which 1 have already described as 
filling up and repairing the recent fissures and reducing them 
to their perforated grooved form. The, fissures result from the 



418 STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 

internal development of the mass ; so that the efferent chan- 
nels of this sponge are in fact mechanical openings — vents 
produced by its internal growth. 

I have already described the textures which enter into 
the structure of the rind, and which line its water-tubes. 

I have also stated that the same textures surround the 
afferent canals. 

The perforated membrane of the grooves contains more abun- 
dant fibrous texture, and a greater number of stellate spicula. 

The walls of the afferent water-canals in the intermediate 
masses are lined by minute bodies, which may be denominated 
sponge-particles. My specimens having been preserved in 
alcohol, I have been unable to detect on the sponge-particles 
the cilia which they present in the living Grantia,* and 
for the discovery of which we are indebted to Dr. Dobie and 
Mr. Bowerbank. I have no doubt, however, that these par- 
ticles are covered with cilia, and that the currents through the 
canals are produced by their agency. The particles present- 
the usual nucleus, cellular contents, and the clear space or 
contractile vesicle. They are from the 2000th to the 3000th 
of an inch in diameter. 

In the intermediate masses of this sponge there are also 
to be met with very abundantly, but irregularly distributed, 
minute cellules about the 4000th of an inch diameter, many 
of them with tails or processes like spermatozoa, and occa- 
sionally exactly resembling spermatozoa. From a preserved 
specimen I cannot pretend to determine whether these 
minute bodies are the earlier forms of other sponge-particles, 
or whether they are actually spermatozoa. 

Ova are also very abundant in the intermediate masses. 
When minute the ova exhibit a nucleus or germinal vesicle, 
but when larger they present the appearance of mulberries, 
or minute spherical botryoidal masses. 

* See Goodsir's Annals of Anatomy and Physiology, pp. 127-129. — Ens. 



STKUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF TETHEA. 419 

Many of these masses appear to me to break up into 
the constituent elements of the intermediate masses of the 
sponge, while others near the denuded portion of the surface 
are arranged and developed into new rind. Some of these 
ova-like bodies have a distinct covering of silicious granules, 
and if we are to be guided by the analogy of Spongilla, they 
must be the sources of the ciliated or locomotive particles 
which, ejected from the parent, move off to become fixed and 
developed as independent individuals. 



420 UNDESCRIBED FORM OF GASTEROPOD MOLLUSK. 



X.— ON AN UNDESCEIBED FOEM OF GASTEEOPOD 
MOLLUSK FEOM THE FIETH OF FOETH.* 

After, the severe storm which occurred in February 1855, two 
of my pupils, Messrs. Cleland and Bryden, applied to me for 
assistance in determining a number of animals which they 
had picked up on the beach opposite the Black Eocks at 
Leith. The collection, with one exception, consisted of or- 
dinary forms. The peculiar specimen was a Gasteropod 
Mollusk, dead, apparently bleached, somewhat rubbed, and 
presenting the appearance of an Eolis deprived of its plumes. 
The novelty of its form was, however, specially evinced by 
the remarkable characters of .its branchire, which consisted 
of a number of closely-arranged longitudinal laminae, depend- 
ing from the roofs of true crypts, situated one on each side of 
the body near the head, and opening out in the lateral grooves 
under the margins of the mantle. 

The specimen was at once handed over to me, and on 
examination proved to be a new form closely allied to Di- 
phyllidia. 

The animal is white, inclining to pale citron, except the 
branchias, which are light brownish yellow. 

The body is elongated, ovate, gradually acuminated pos- 
teriorly, and somewhat depressed. Its extreme length is 1^ 
inch ; its greatest breadth across the mantle §-inch. 

The mantle is kite-shaped, its posterior angle reaching the 

* This paper was written in the year lSf>5, and intended to he read hefore 
the Wcrncrian Society, which it was at that time proposed to reconstitute, but 
as this idea was not carried out the paper was never published. — Eds. 



UNDESCRIBED FORM OF GASTEROPOD MOLLUSK. 421 

extremity of the body, and almost fusing into the corre- 
sponding apex of the foot. On its surface, at its lateral angles, 
are two circular convexities, which nearly meet in a depression 
at the middle line. These convexities are the vaulted roofs 
of the crypts which contain the branchiae, the deeper colour 
of which appears through them. Behind the depression be- 
tween the branchial convexities is a longitudinal elevation 
which tapers backward, is bounded laterally by two slight 
furrows, and is produced by the subjacent visceral mass. 
Beyond these furrows the margins project over the lateral 
grooves. The anterior margin of the mantle is convex, } •re- 
senting at its centre a concave incision, where it is also 
elevated or tilted backwards. Behind the concave incision, 
and exactly repeating its curvature, a number of opaque, 
slightly-raised ridges extend across the mantle at equal dis- 
tances, but becoming fainter, are lost as they reach the 
branchial elevations. Ten or twelve faint opaque white 
stripes, which become narrower and fainter as they pass back, 
diverge from the concave incision along the mantle over its 
elevations, and are lost about the middle of the back. These 
stripes are more distinct towards the middle line than at the 
margins of the mantle. 

The foot corresponds in form with the body. It is some- 
what narrower than the mantle ; with which it is nearly in 
contact posteriorly, where the apices of the two structures 
appear to run into one another. It is transversely rugose ; 
but smooth along both margins. A mesial furrow extends 
along its posterior third. In front its margin is concave, and 
in contact with the oval disk. 

Tin' mantle and foot, but particularly the former, are con- 
siderably broader thai) the body ; so as to include between 
their projecting margins on each side a groove, the bottom of 
which is formed by the side of the body. The grooves are 
narrow behind, where they arc terminated by the fusion of the 



422 UNDESCRIBED FORM OF GASTEROPOD MOLLUSK. 

apices of the foot and mantle. They become wider as they 
extend forwards ; and at the lateral angles of the mantle 
each divides into a notch-like furrow which separates the 
anterior lateral part of the pedal margin from the lower 
margin of the head-veil ; and into a deeper furrow which 
extends across the back to become continuous with the cor- 
responding furrow of the opposite side, and to separate the 
mantle and head-veil from one another. 

The head presents in front and below an oval disk, 
which consists of a number of concentric fleshy folds, in 
contact posteriorly with the anterior marginal concavity of the 
foot. When the margins of a longitudinal slit, which is 
situated in the centre of the disk, are separated by a pair of 
needles, the dentated edges of a pair of hard dark-coloured 
horny lateral jaws are seen and felt. The oval disk is 
evidently the retracted condition of a short proboscis. The 
head-veil is crescentic. Its anterior convex margin is 
slightly fused at the middle line in front with the superior 
margin of the oval disk ; while its posterior concave margin is 
elevated, opaque, and separated from the front of the mantle 
by the nuchal furrow. Its horns are directed downwards 
and backwards, and separate the divisions of the lateral 
grooves, as already stated. From each horn a ridge extends 
to its anterior margin. In texture and colour the head-veil 
resembles the mantle. 

From the bottom of the nuchal furrow in front of the con- 
cave incision of the mantle, a semicircular fold rises so as to 
include a transversely oval pit. The middle of the fold is 
elevated into a lamina, which rises obliquely in front of the 
pit. In the pit itself are two rounded papilla?, and on the 
fore and outer part of each is a minute eye. 

At the anterior extremity and widest part of each lateral 
groove, and immediately under each lateral angle of the 
mantle, there is a cavity which contains branchiae. The cavity 



UNDESCIUBED FOEM OF GASTEEOFOD MOLLUSK. 423 

opens by a wide orifice under the overhanging lateral angles 
of this mantle, which are slightly curled up or elevated. The 
cavities nearly meet from the opposite sides, and appear to be 
the real terminations in front of the lateral grooves. The 
bronchia? consist of from twelve to fifteen laminae, closely set 
together, extending from before backwards, longer internally 
in the cavity than externally, where they are small, short, and 
indistinct. The larger lamina? at the inner part of the series 
are attached to the vault of the cavity ; the shorter, less dis- 
tinct plates depend from the under surface of the projecting 
margin of the mantle. The laminae are of a light brownish- 
yellow colour, and appear each to consist of a double mem- 
brane with a quarter lens ; and under a favourable light, a 
number of faint opaque lines, each of which presents a few 
dots, apparently orifices, may be observed to be arranged on 
the under surface of the anterior half of the projecting margin 
of the mantle. Each line runs obliquely from behind forwards 
and inwards. 

The common genital vestibule is situated in the right 
lateral groove, immediately behind and below the bronchial 
chamber. It is circular. From its anterior compartment an 
elongated male organ projects. Its rjosterior compartment 
presents the opening of the female organs. 

The anus is situated on the apex of a cylindrical papilla, 
at the middle of the right lateral groove. 

This animal is evidently an infero-branchiate mollusk. 
In the position of the anus, and in its characters generally, 
it closely resembles Diphyllidia, but differs from that genus 
in the arrangement of the branchiae, which, instead of con- 
sisting of a series of oblique laminae arranged along the 
two posterior thirds of each lateral groove, are in the form 
(>r transverse series of longitudinal Laminae depending from 
the roofs of the two lateral cavities. So very marked was 
the apparent difference between my specimen and the 



424 UNDESCRIBED FORM OF GASTEROrOD MOLLUSK. 

descriptions and drawings of Diphyllidia, that I had no 
hesitation in referring it to a new genus, which I had pro- 
posed to denominate Cryptophyllonia. Professors Jameson, 
Allman, and Huxley all agreed with me as to the novelty of 
the form. Within the last few days, however, I have again 
carefully examined the specimen, and have discovered the 
oblique dotted markings under the margin of the cloak. 

I am now inclined to believe that it is merely a new 
species of Diphyllidia, with its posterior branchial laminae 
removed or torn off. I am the more inclined to believe 
that this is the case from the examination of Mr. Albany 
Hancock's drawing in the first volume of Forbes and 
Hanley's British Mollusca, and from a reperusal of Otto's 
description (D. liniatd) in the tenth volume of the Nova Acta. 
Otto states that " the branchiae, where they terminate under 
the curved anterior border of the mantle, become suddenly 
broader, and form a process which passes into a hollow in the 
form of a blind sac, so that the right and left branchiae 
nearly touch one another between the body and the mantle." 
If my supposition be correct, the existing descriptions of the 
branchiae of Diphyllidia are insufficient. I have no doubt 
that each portion of the branchial laminae in that genus will 
be found to depend obliquely from behind forwards and 
inwards from the lower- surface of the free margin of the 
mantle, and that the anterior ones become crowded together 
as a transverse series of large longitudinal plates in the pit or 
ciypt in which the lateral groove terminates under the 
lateral angle of the mantle. As I have only discovered the 
markings under the margin of the mantle within the last few 
days, I have not yet had time to communicate with Mr. 
Hancock. At a subsequent meeting of the Society I hope 
to be enabled to submit the result of additional inquiries 
retrardinji this form of mollusk. 



NATURAL HISTORY AND ANATOMY OF THALASSEMIA, ETC. 425 



XL— ON THE NATUEAL HISTORY AND ANATOMY 
OF THALASSEMA AND ECHIUEUS. By Edward 
Forbes and John Goodsir* 

Among the Eadiata of the British seas are two animals which, 
in their general appearance, rather resemble Annclides than 
Echinodcrmata, to which latter class they structurally belong. 
These are the Thalassemia ncptuni and Echiurus vulgaris, 
members of the family Tlialasscmaccm in the order JSipunculidcB, 
a zoological and anatomical description of which species we 
have to-day the pleasure of submitting to the Wernerian 
Society. 

The family Thalasscmaccce includes a group of vermigrade 
Echinodcrmata, characterised by having cylindrical worm- 
like bodies terminated at one extremity by a mouth, which is 
placed at the end of a short proboscis, to which is appended a 
remarkable sheath-like appendage, and at the other by an anus 
with no external appendages. 

These characters distinguish it from the other families of 
its order ; from the Sipunculaccce, which have a tentaculated 
trunk, no sheath-like appendage, and an anus placed at its 
base ; and from the Pricqndaccw, which have a trunk without 
tentacula, no oral appendage, and the anus at the posterior 
extremity at the end of a long filamentous caudal appendage, 
which has been regarded by some naturalists as a respiratory 
organ. 

The gciirr;! T/ia/(i<sniia,E</iinrus, Bonnellia, and Sternaspis, 

Read before tli" Wernerian Natural History Society on 23d January 
L841. 



42G NATURAL HISTORY AND ANATOMY OF 

constitute the family. The first has a simple oral appendage 
and no corneous bristles surrounding its anus ; the second 
has also a simple oral appendage, but has circles of corneous 
bristles or setae surrounding the posterior extremity ; the third 
is distinguished by its forked oral appendage ; and the fourth 
is marked out from its allies by the possession of a corneous 
disk, surrounded by setre placed near its anterior extremity. 
But few species are included in these four genera. Of Tha- 
lassemia but one is known. Of Echiiirus two have been 
described, the one a native of our own seas, the other of the 
North Pacific. Of Bonncllia two species are recorded, both 
inhabitants of .the Mediterranean, as is also the only known 
species of Stemaspis. 

The Thalassemia neptuni is a native of the coast of Corn- 
wall and Devon, where it lives among submarine rocks. 
Hence Lamarck, in the first sketch of his history of inverte- 
brate animals, styled it Thalassemia rupium. It was discovered 
by the observant Gaertner, and by him sent to Pallas under 
the name by which it is now known. Pallas, however, con- 
sidered it an annelide, and an ally of the earthworm, and 
named it Zumbricus thalassemia, under which name he de- 
scribes and figures it in his Spicilcgia Zoological Montagu 
afterwards found it and described it under the name of Tha- 
lassina mutatoria.^ At the same time he expressed his 
belief that his animal was identical with that described by 
Pallas, but supposed that the figure given by that illustrious 
naturalist was incorrect. This, however, is not the case, the 
figure of Pallas well representing the animal after preserva- 
tion in spirits, in which state doubtless he had only an oppor- 
tunity of seeing it. 

Of late it has been taken by Mr. Harvey at Teignmouth : 
from his specimen our structural account is drawn up. Of its 
external characters it need only be mentioned, additional to 

* Fuse. x. t. 1. f. G. f Limiccan Trans, vol. xi. p. 24, t. v. f. 2. 



THALASSEMIA AND ECHIUEUS. 427 

the descriptions of Pallas and Montagu, that it possesses a 
short retractile trunk, as well as an oral appendage. Mon- 
tagu's account of its habits, when alive, is all we know of 
them, but is most full and interesting, and may be found in 
the eleventh volume of the Linncmn Transactions. 

The Echiarus vulgaris is a much larger and more remark- 
able animal. A great number of individuals of this species 
were thrown up on the sandy shore of St. Andrews during last 
■winter after a severe gale of wind. The largest specimens 
measured about six inches long and half-an-inch in diameter. 
The body of the creature is cylindrical, annulated with little 
flat tubercles, which were floccose towards the two extremi- 
ties. From the anterior end projected a proboscis about half- 
an-inch in length, not furnished with tentacula, and having 
a deep red margin at the extremity. This proboscis is re- 
tractile, but not so a singular furrowed fleshy appendage 
placed alongside of it. This appendage is highly extensile, 
and forms a sort of sheath to the proboscis. A little way from 
its junction with the body are two shining yellow cartilaginous 
bristles ; short, lanceolate, curved,, acuminate, and retractile. 
These are the genital hooks. From between them runs a red 
line down the body towards the anus, marking the course of 
an internal vessel. The whole of the body is of a bright pink 
colour, with obscure paler narrow rings and speckles caused 
by the minute tubercles of the skin being of a paler hue. 
The anus is placed at the posterior extremity on a somewhat 
flattened disc, which is surrounded by two circles of corneous 
.-eta-, similar in structure to the genital la inks, but shorter. 
They are ten in number in each circle. The anus is round 
and red. The sheath of the proboscis differs in colour from 
tin' rest of the animal, being of a brighl scarlet It is so 
slightly affixed to the body as to break nll'on the least touch, 
and in only 0116 OI two cases did we find it attached, and then 
it broke away immediately on the removal of the animal. 



428 NATURAL HISTORY AND ANATOMY OF 

On keeping the Echiurus alive in a vessel of sea-water, it 
was continually changing its form, swelling itself out in various 
parts so as to assume very strange and eccentric shapes. If 
a fresh supply of salt water was poured into the vessel, it 
would on a sudden become very vivacious, starting up to- 
wards the surface, and swimming with spiral contortions in 
the manner of an annclide. Then it would sink to the bottom 
of the vessel, and swell itself out with water. 

The Echiurus, like the Thalassemia, was first figured and 
described by Pallas, who obtained it from the coast of Bel- 
gium. He gave a most accurate general representation of it, 
but strangely omitted the true proboscis ; and by all writers 
since his time the sheath has been described as a proboscis 
not only in this case, but in the descriptions of most of the 
other Thalassemacccc. 

Montagu first perceived the true relation of the Thalas- 
sema, and remarks in his paper that it should immediately 
precede Holothuria. This view of its position was also held 
by Cuvier, and more lately by Brandt. Lamarck, however, 
placed the Thalasscma and Echiurus in his first division of 
annelides, characterised by having no feet, and including the 
families Hirudincs and Echiurcw. In the latter, associated 
witli the earthworm and cirratulus, we find these animals 
before us. Many zoologists since his time have looked upon 
them as worms, but the structural details which follow will 
show that their relation to the annelides is one of analogy 
and not of affinity, and that their true position is among the 
Echinodermata in the order of Vermigrada or SijJunculidcv* 

Echiurus — Digestive System . 

The digestive tube commences by a mouth of a rounded 
form, very small in the state of contraction, funnel-shaped 
when dilated. The oral orifice is continuous with a canal 

* See Forbes's British Echinodermata. 



THALASSEMA AND ECIIIUKUS. 429 

which is sacculated and contracted at intervals, particularly 
in its posterior half. This first portion of the intestinal appa- 
ratus, which may be denominated the pharynx, is arranged in 
two coils so as to resemble somewhat the figure 8. These 
coils are compressed and kept in position by the muscles of 
the oral hooks and by the blood-vessels, which assume a com- 
plicated arrangement in this part of the animal. The tube 
then contracts into a highly muscular but very narrow oeso- 
phagus. This rather suddenly dilatef into the remaining part 
of the canal, which is nearly uniform in diameter, thin and 
delicate in texture ; arranged in a somewhat spiral direction 
till near the posterior part of the animal, returning upon itself 
in the same manner for two-thirds of the length of the body, 
and then proceeding to the cloaca as a straight and rather 
narrow tube. The cloaca is smaller than the same organ in 
the Holothuriadce. From mouth to anus the canal measures 
from three to four feet. The pharynx is two inches long, the 
oesophagus four, and the remainder is so uniform in diameter 
as to render it impossible to distinguish any division into sto- 
mach, intestines, etc., and so fragile as to render measurement 
very difficult. The pharynx exhibits distinct circular muscu- 
lar fibres, and in the oesophagus they are so strong and so 
arranged in bundles as to give it the appearance of a windpipe. 
The tube is not connected to the parietes of the body by a 
mesentery, but by numerous delicate muscular threads irre- 
gularly arranged and intermingled with minute blood-vessels. 
Near the middle of the body the folds of intestines are filled 
with a yellow bilious mass, but we could detect no trace of a 
liver, or of glandular structure in the coats of the gut. 

The respiratory sacs open into the cloaca on each side of 
the rectum. These sacs do not ramify, and ;ire about one-third 
of the Length of the animal, and exhibit in the living individual 
lively motions — contracting, dilating, elongating, and twisting. 
They are of a vivid red colour from the Dumber of vessels dis- 



430 NATURAL HISTORY AND ANATOMY OF 

tributed to them, and have a mottled appearance from nume- 
rous microscopic organs attached to their external surface. 
When a small portion of the respiratory organ is cut from the 
living animal and placed under the microscope in a little sea- 
water, the dots observed with the naked eye on its outer or 
peritoneal surface, exhibit the appearance of a number of fun- 
nels, with their necks attached, and their cup-like extremities 
standing erect. Each of these funnels has its outer surface, 
rim, and inner surface %v cavity, covered with cilia which 
exhibit lively motions. The inner or mucous surface of the 
respiratory sac has a number of rounded somewhat lobulated 
elevations on it, each corresponding to one of the funnels on 
the outer surface. These elevations are covered with cilia, 
but on the membrane between them none could be seen. 
The ciliated funnels could be withdrawn into the pouches 
formed by the ciliated elevations of the internal surface ; but 
we could not obtain ocular demonstration of what we suspect 
to be the case — that the cavities of the funnels open into the 
common respiratory cavities, and that the ciliated elevations 
of the inner surface disappear when the funnels in the outer 
surface are extended ; and vice versa, a current being in this 
way established between the respiratory cavities and the com- 
mon cavity of the body of the animal, which is full of sea- 
water. The muscular fibres of the two respiratory sacs ex- 
hibit a peculiar arrangement. Both the transverse and longi- 
tudinal fibres have an undulating course so as to surround the 
necks of each of the funnel-shaped organs as the fibres of the 
human gravid uterus surround the uterine sinuses. If the 
currents of sea-water flow through the funnels, the contraction 
of the muscular fibres can stop that flow, and enable the 
animal to fill the respiratory sacs by the following process. 
By contracting the anterior part of its body, and pushing the 
contained sea-water back, the animal distends its posterior 
portion into a bulbous shape, in consequence of which the 



THALASSEMIA AND ECHIDEUS. 431 

enclosed portions of the anal spines become widely separated ; 
and from their connection with the cloaca that cavity is 
dilated, and, acting like a syringe, sucks in more water. The 
animal then closes the anus, and contracts the cloaca by push- 
ing the water in its body forwards. This simultaneous action 
forces the water contained in the cloaca into the respiratory 
sacs, along which it is conveyed by their powerful vermicular 
or peristaltic action. A slight relaxation of the muscular 
fil ires of the sacs, and the erection of the ciliated funnels, will 
allow the water to pass into the cavity of the body, while the 
action of the cilia will remove it through the same channels 
in a contrary direction. 

The vascular system consists of two longitudinal vessels, 
one running along the ventral surface of the body, the other 
along the unattached surface of the intestine. The intestinal 
trunk is always full of blood in the weak or dead animal, the 
ventral trunk always empty or collapsed. From this circum- 
stance, from the general arrangement of the vascular system, 
and from the position of the respiratory organs, we are 
inclined to think, although we have not been able to verify 
the opinion by actual observation, that the former vessel is 
the venous, the latter the arterial trunk. The vein com- 
mences by numerous radicles on the oesophageal portion of 
the digestive tube, runs along the edges of the gut, collecting 
branches as it proceeds. On the rectum, the trunk disap- 
pears by being divided into innumerable branches, which are 
apparently arterial, and proceed to the respiratory sacs, which, 
as before stated, are highly vascular. The arterial or ventral 
vessel is apparently formed by radicles from the respiratory 
sacs (branchial veins). Its walls are thin, and are perceived 
with difficulty on the surface of the nervous cord. In its 
course it supplies vessels to the intestines; and when it arrives 
at the convolutions of the pharynx, it sends off from its right 
side a large trunk, which, proceeding to the right oral hook, 

VOL. T. 2 F 



432 NATURAL HISTORY AND ANATOMY OF 

surrounds it and its muscles by dividing and again closing. 
It then proceeds to the commencement of the oesophagus, and 
joins a vessel to he described immediately. The ventral 
vessel, after giving off this great trunk, proceeds to the oral 
extremity of the pharynx, round which it forms a vascular 
circle. The latter sends branches back upon the pharynx ; 
and a branch forwards, which forms a second circle or vascu- 
lar zone round the lip, on the surface of the nervous ring, and 
a large trunk which, running to the middle of the pharynx, 
dilates into a sacculated sinus, which probably owes its peculiar 
appearance to the transverse contractions into which this por- 
tion of the tube is generally thrown. This sinus runs along 
the second portion of the pharynx, and at the commencement 
of the oesophagus receives the trunk formerly described as 
proceeding from the ventral vessel. It then terminates by 
ramifying on the oesophagus, and supplying this portion of the 
tube with aerated blood. The use of the large trunk which 
comes off from the ventral vessel, is evidently to supply the 
mouth, trunk, and anterior part of the digestive tube, with 
arterial blood, when the animal has projected the anterior part 
of the body, and when the constriction of the snout, and the 
pressure of the sand in which it is boring, would prevent the 
free circulation of the blood in the two vascular circles, at 
times when the supply is absolutely necessary from increased 
muscular action. 

The nervous system is very simple, being merely a ring- 
surrounding the anterior part of the pharynx when it becomes 
continuous with the skin. From this ring a nervous cord 
runs along the under side of the animal to the extremity of 
the body, terminating abruptly by sending off a few branches. 
Along its course the cord gives off numerous lateral twigs, 
which are unsymmetrical, and continue free for a short dis- 
tance from their origin, and then disappear in the muscular 
parietes of the body. When the animal is contracted, the 



THALASSEMIA AND ECHIURUS. 433 

cord is arranged in close undulations, and exhibits no ganglionic 
enlargements. It consists of a moderately long sheath, in which 
the nervous matter is contained in a very soft condition. 

The reproductive system consists of four sacs which open 
on the ventral surface by minute orifices, two immediately 
behind the genital hooks, the other two about an inch farther 
back, and both pairs about one-third of an inch from the 
median line. When the Ecldurus is not in season, they are 
about one inch and a half long, one-fourth of an inch in 
diameter, highly transparent, so as to be almost invisible, 
and possessed of the power of twisting in all directions. 
When the male is in season they become greatly enlarged, 
four inches long, half-an-inch in diameter, with one or two 
contracted portions. The contained fluid is milk-white, and 
rather consistent ; and when examined under a high power, 
it is seen to swarm with exceedingly active globular sper- 
matozoa, which exhibit rapid whirling and dancing motions. 
The male organs, when in this condition, are remarkably 
beautiful objects, being covered with large thread-like and 
transparent scarlet blood-vessels, which are relieved by the 
dead cream-white of the organs themselves. We have not 
seen the female sacs fully distended ; when moderately so, 
the eggs appear to be arranged as in the roe of osseous 
fishes, and are about the size of millet-seed. Examined under 
the microscope, the egg appears as a highly - transparent 
globule, enclosing towards its centre a number of smaller 
globules or cells. 

The structure <>f Thalassema neptuni is in all respects 
identical with Echiv/rus, the only difference, and that an 
unimportant one, being the less complicated arrangement of 
the intestinal 1 ube. 

The ova] and anal hooka and spines of Echiit/ms, and the 
oral hool i "I' the 7V , are protruded and withdrawn 

exactly as the setae and hooldets among the [nuclides. 



434 NATURAL HISTORY AND ANATOMY OF THALASSEMA, ETC. 

From the anatomical description we have now given, it is 
evident that the genera EcMurus and Thalasscma must be 
arranged in the class Eckinoclcrmata. The hotly filled with 
sea-water — the respiratory apparatus — the digestive system — 
and the intestinal venous trunk, are the leading anatomical 
peculiarities, and are characteristic of the echinodermatous 
animals. The colour and circulation of the blood, the want 
of an aquiferous system, the ventral nervous cord, and the 
muscular system, show the relation of these animals to the 
Anndidcs, and prove that the transition from a vermiform 
radiate animal to a true articulate animal, is effected by the 
symmetrical atrophy and hypertrophy of certain of the radiate 
elements in each ring. 



PELONAIA, A NEW GENUS OF TUNIC ATED MOLLUSKS. 435 



XII.— ON PELONAIA, A NEW GENUS OF TUNI- 
CATED MOLLUSKS, WITH DESCRIPTION OF 
TWO SPECIES. By Edward Foebes and John 
Goodsib* 

Among the Ascidian Mollusca which we have collected to- 
gether, with a view to a complete investigation of the British 
Timicata, are two remarkable animals, which appear to repre- 
sent a very natural genus as yet unrecorded. They differ from 
their allies in the tribe chiefly by their not being fixed, and 
by their form, which reminds one more of that of a Sipuncnlus 
than of an Ascidia ; indeed they may be regarded as analogues 
of certain Sipunculida?, and in that point of view the details of 
their forms and structure are of much interest to the naturalist. 

They are both of a cylindrical shape, having their orifices 
on the same plane, elevated on papillose eminences at one ex- 
tremity of the body. No rays or tentacula surround either of 
the orifices. The posterior extremity of each terminates in 
a blunt point. They live buried in mud, quite unattached to 
any other body, and are extremely apathetic animals, present- 
ing scarcely any appearance of motion. 

We have styled the genus Pelonaia (irijXif, va/w), and define 
it as follows : — 

Test, cylindrical, unattached. 

Orifices, without rays, or two equal approximated papillose 
eminences at the anterior extremity. 

Species 1. J', corrugata. Test, deep brown, much elongated, 
rudely wrinkled transvi rsely. 

* Read before the Wernerian Natural Kietorj Society, April 17, 1841. 



43 G PELONAIA, A NEW GENUS OF TUNIC ATED MOLLUSKS. 

In the mud-filled cavities of old shells from deep water — 
Anstruther. It has also been taken by Dr. Johnston at Ber- 
wick. 

Species 2. P. glabra. Test, greenish-yellow, smooth, pilose, 
not nearly so much elongated as the last. 

Dredged in seven fathoms water, in mud, Bothesay Bay. 

Anatomy of P. glabra. 

1. Muscular System. — The mantle is similar to those of the 
other Asciditc, possessing longitudinal and circular fibres. A 
strong band of transverse fibres passes round the mantle, im- 
mediately below the anal orifice, encroaching on the cavity 
principally on that side. The chief peculiarity of the mantle 
is its firm adhesion to the test. 

2. Digestive and Bespiratory Systems. — The respiratory 
opening is of small size, and exhibits no folds or tentacular 
fringes. The respiratory sac is elongated, cylindrical, con- 
tracting rather suddenly towards one side to become continu- 
ous with the oesophagus. On the external surface of the sac 
there are about thirty parallel transverse ridges, which give 
it the appearance of a plaited frill. These plaits are less 
apparent along the course of the branchial artery and branchial 
vein, but midway between them on each side they are very 
prominent, and are tied each by a minute cord to the inner 
surface of the mantle. The internal surface of the sac exhibits 
along one side the serpentine double cord which contains the 
branchial vein ; along the other side the branchial artery ; 
and from these primary and secondary perpendicular branches 
proceeding, as in the other Ascidice. The transverse plaits 
on the external surface of the sac correspond to the primary 
or transverse branches of the vessels on the internal surface. 
The animal was not examined when alive, but cilia without 
doubt exist in great abundance on the edges of the lozenge- 
shaped spaces of the sac. 



PELONAIA, A NEW GENUS OF TUNICATED MOLLUSKS. 437 

The cesopliagus commences by a white plicated opening at 
the lower end, and on one side of the sac. It is curved in a 
sigmoidal form, and exhibits longitudinal rugae through its 
coats. Near the lower end of the mantle cavity, it terminates 
by suddenly dilating into the stomach, which is pear-shaped, 
and directed obliquely upwards towards the side opposite to 
the cesopliagus. The internal surface of the stomach presents 
longitudinal plicae, and is succeeded by the intestine, which 
at first curves upwards, then down to the bottom of the mantle 
cavity, up along the oesophageal side of that cavity, and be- 
tween its walls and the branchial artery, terminating about 
the anterior third of the animal in a funnel-shaped anus, which 
is cut into ten or eleven processes like the petals of a flower. 
The first part of the intestine is white and longitudinally 
plicated ; the rectum is dilated with attenuated coats. 

3. Vascular System. — The vascular system resembles that 
of the true Ascidice, except that there is no heart. It consists 
of two sets of vessels, with four sets of capillaries, a circle 
in fact twice interrupted, once in the respiratory sac, and 
again throughout the body. The branchial veins run along 
the transverse plaits of the sac, receiving secondary and ter- 
nary twigs at right angles. The primary branchial venous 
branches empty themselves on each side into the branchial 
venous trunk, which runs in the substance of the double cord 
which coasts the superior aspect of the sac. This double cord 
terminates in an abrupt manner anteriorly near the oral ori- 
fice, and in a similar manner, but after becoming smaller, near 
the orifice leading to the cesopliagus. At this point the vein 
bcrom.'s an artery, and probably sends back vessels to nourish 
the sac. It now runs along the cesopliagus, supplying the 
stomach and intestine, and giving off in its course branches 
to the cloak. The veins arising from the arterial capillaries 
of the body meet near the commencemenl of the oesophagus 
in one trunk, which, passing along the inferior wall of there- 



438 FELONAIA, A NEW GENUS OF TDNICATED MOLLUSKS. 

spiratory sac, opposite to the branchial vein, performs the 
function of a branchial artery. 

It is interesting to observe here the differences between 
the modes in which the branches enter the branchial vein, 
and strike off from the branchial artery. In the former, just 
before the branches enter the trunk, they give off a number 
of vessels, which enter the trunk alongside of their parent 
trunk — the combination forming a sort of delta : in the latter 
they leave the trunk singly, and send off their branches in a 
radiating direction. At a little distance from the trunks of 
both artery and vein, the secondary branches become parallel 
to one another, and perpendicular to their primary branches, 
the more minute divisions following the same mode of rami- 
fication. 

Not having examined the animal when alive, we have no 
information as to the nature of its blood. 

4. Nervous System. — This system consists, as in other As- 
cidicv, of a ganglion situated in the substance of the mantle, 
between the oral and anal orifices. It is globular, and sends 
off nervous twigs — 1. To the respiratory orifice of the mantle, 
2. To the respiratory sac, where it begins to exhibit the trans- 
verse plaits, and 3. To the anal orifice of the mantle. 

5. Generative System. — The generative organs consist of 
two elongated tubes, closed at one end, open at the other, 
and having a great number of close-set parallel caeca, arranged 
at right angles, and opening into them along each side. 
These tubes are attached to the internal surface of the mantle, 
their mouths free for a short distance, and prominent, the 
rest of their extent and the attached coeca adherent. The 
orifices of these organs are situate at the junction of the first 
with the second quarter of the animal, and one-third of the 
other end of each turns in towards its neighbour, and then 
proceeds forward parallel to itself. The branchial vein runs 
midway between the generative tubes, above, and the bran- 



PELONAIA, A NEW GENUS OF TUNICATED MOLLUSKS. 439 

chial artoiy in a corresponding course below, so that the 
threads of attachment of the plaits on the external surface of 
the sac are fixed into the tubes, in a series on each side. 

Anatomy of P. corrugata. 

The structure of this species differs very little from that of 
the P. glabra. The animal being elongated, the organs are 
placed more longitudinally. The respiratory sac is longer, 
the stomach is longer, and is not placed so much across the 
body. The oesophagus runs down to the bottom of the sac 
before it terminates. The rectum is very long, and of con- 
siderable width, but just before it terminates in the anus, it 
becomes very much contracted. The mantle exhibits no 
ridge or shelf below the anal orifice, but its longitudinal fibres 
are very strong, and form a thick bundle at their origin round 
the respiratory opening. The test, instead of being thin and 
diaphanous like parchment, as in P. glabra, is thick, carti- 
laginous in appearance, coloured brown, and transversely 
wrinkled externally. 

From the details of structure which we have now given, it 
is evident that the Pelonaim are Ascidiw. Their anatomy is 
important, as it explains the nature of the parts and organs in 
the Tunicata. They differ from the other Asddice more parti- 
cularly in being bilateral. The generative organs are sym- 
metrical, and open one on each side of the anus, which is 
directed towards the ventral surface of the animal, in a line 
with the mouth and nervous ganglion. The latter is thus 
proved to be an abdominal or sub-oesophagcal ganglion, corre- 
sponding to, or forming one of the chains of ganglia on the 
abdominal surface of, the articulata. In the same manner 
the branchial artery or heart is proved to be the pulsating 

•Additional details, with Botne modifications in the description, have 
recently been given bj Dr, \V. C, M'iutosli, in the Annals of Natural //< 

June i -'•<. Ed 



440 PELONAIA, A NEW GENUS OF TUNICATED MOLLUSKS. 

dorsal vessel, and the branchial vein the abdominal vessel 
(when that vessel exists) in the annulosa. It is interesting 
also to perceive that, co-existing with this decided approach 
to the annular type of form, we have the transverse plaits of 
the respiratory sac corresponding to the rings of an articulated 
animal. The disappearance of a separate test is also a de- 
parture from the plan of formation in the Ascidice, and an 
approach to other types of form, and more particularly to the 
Girrograde EcMnodcrmata, with certain of which Pclonaia 
has at least an analogical relation, in the water-filled body, 
and in the external form. 

Pclonaia, in fine, is one of those connecting genera so 
valuable as filling up gaps in the system, and supplying links 
in the chain of structures, winch runs through the series of 
organised bodies. 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX. 



I. —ON ASYNCHRONISM OF THE AURICULAE CON- 
TRACTIONS IN THE REPTILIAN HEART.— May 14, 1859. 

Having occasion, in the beginning of August last, to inject the 
arterial system of Scincus variegatus, I laid hare the heart to empty 
the vessels by bleeding. I was astonished to observe what ap- 
peared to be a want of synchronism in the movements of the 
auricles. After a little observation, I was compelled to admit that 
the two auricles did not contract synchronously, but that after the 
ventricular diastole the right auricle began to contract, followed by 
the left. I also observed that the contraction of the ventricle 
began at its right side, in the neighbourhood of the pulmonary 
artery, and terminated on the left or arterial sinus of the ventricle. 
I now looked at Brucke's memoir in the Vienna Transactions, and 
found that he had described a ventricular arrangement by which 
venous blood only passes into the pulmonary artery in reptiles, that 
the ventricle begins to contract on its right side, and afterwards on 
its left. He takes no notice of any want of synchronism in the 
auricular contractions. 

Messrs. Arthur and Stirling confirmed the observation on the 
lizard, and were also inclined, along with me, to admit a somewhat 
similar asynchronance in the auricular contraction in the frog, 
although I knew of no arrangement by which this co-ojierates in 
the sole transmission of venous blood to the lungs. 

I exposed yesterday the heart of a tortoise, by removing four 
portions of the plastron with a trephine, in the presence of Mr. 
Turner. The asynchronism of the auricles did not appear to me so 
well marked as in the lizard. Mr. Turner scarcely admitted its 



444 APPENDIX. 

existence, but latterly expressed his opinion that the contraction of 
the right auricle terminated before that of the left. The contrac- 
tion of the ventricle appeared to both of us to commence on the 
right side, and to be followed up by that of the left side. The 
close of ventricular contraction, or the commencement of diastole, 
was accompanied by a depression of the anterior wall of the ventricle 
towards its right side. 

The distension of the pulmonary artery followed the contraction 
of the right side of the ventricle, that of the anterior aorta appeared 
to follow the contraction of the left side of the ventricle ; but this 
appearance depends probably on the earlier closure of the orifice of 
the pulmonary artery, and the continued distension of the systemic 
arteries. 

I attribute the less marked asynchronism of the auricular 
contraction in this animal partly to the small amount of its blood 
from winter fast, partly to the interventricular septum being less 
developed than in the lizard. 

I found that by turning up the ventricle by the handle of a 
scalpel, the prior contraction of the right auricle was quite distinct. 
It commences at the venous or vestibular extremity, and extends 
forward to the apex of the auricle. After the commencement of 
contraction in the right auricle that of the left begins, but the con- 
traction of the right ceases before that of the left. I requested Mr. 
Turner to examine the movements in this manner, and he at once 
detected the prior contraction of the right auricle. 

It appears to me that the blood of the right auricle diffuses itself 
over the anterior or inferior part of the ventricle, for the whole 
of this surface possesses a dark tint during distension. On the 
back or upper surface, again, the dark tint is confined to the right 
side, no doubt in consequence of the blood of the left auricle pre- 
occupying that compartment. 

"We must assume that after the ventricular systole, and until 
the auricular blood enters, the muscular fibres remain unelongated. 
The ventricular compartments must therefore be nearly obliterated 
(see sections of contracted ventricle of turtle in museum), and the 
blood from the auricles must pass through the ventricle in the 
direction of least resistance. Now, as the right auricle contracts 
first, the venous blood passing out of it is directed obliquely into 



APPENDIX. 445 

the left side of the ventricle, under the fleshy ridge which projects 
from the superior wall and base into the compartment from which 
issue the two aorta?, and with which the pulmonary compartment 
communicates. It passes, however, under the fleshy ridge or sep- 
tum (septum between venous and arterial ventricular compartments) 
towards the arterial compartment into which the blood of the left 
auricle begins to pass, a little later than that of the right into the 
right compartment. The passage of the venous blood from right 
to left is impeded by the spongy arrangement of the anterior or 
under part of the ventricle. In consequence, therefore, of first, the 
prior entrance of the venous blood, and of the course of least resist- 
ance into the venous compartment of the ventricle given it by the 
arrangement of the right auriculo-ventricular valve ; second, the 
secondary entrance of the arterial blood of the left auricle, and its 
course of least resistance given by the left auriculo-ventricular valve ; 
and, third, the retardation of the passage of the venous blood to 
the left side by the spongy texture ; time is afforded for a sufficient 
quantity of mixed venous blood passing into the pulmonary artery 
by the prior contraction of the right side of the ventricle. After 
the closure of the pulmonary compartment and its complete con- 
traction, the pulmonary artery begins to react, while the left side of 
the ventricle continuing to contract, black blood continues to flow as 
it did from the first into the aorta, but with more admixture of 
arterial blood, until the last blood, perhaps entirely arterial, alone 
passes through them. 

May 18. — I removed by means of a trephine a circle of bone 
over the pericardium of a small tortoise of the same species. The 
small size of the heart enabled me and John Arthur to discriminate 
very distinctly the prior or initial contraction of the right auricle, 
and also the commencement of ventricular contraction in the right 
side, its longer continuance on the left. The portion of the ven- 
tricle which continues longest to contract is the left angle of the 
ventricle, which receives the blood of the left auricle, as shown by 
the scarlet tint of both. The black blood of the right auricle was 
seen, on end ring the ventricle, to occupy in the first place the right 
side of the cavity, and then to disperse itself towards the left, 
on the sterna] wall of the chamber, the posterior part of the left 
Bide of the chamber being occupied by red blood. 



446 AITENDIX. 



II— NOTES ON THE MYOLOGY OF THE ELEPHANT. 

May 1856. 

The Panniculus carnosus consists of four portions — 1st, cervical, 
ribbon-shaped, which arises from the forepart of the process of the 
scapular spine, and passes upwards and forwards ; 2d, dorsal, 
arises from the elastic fascia on the back about a foot from the 
mesial line, and from along the posterior margin of the thorax : 
half-way down, its fibres converging are inserted by a thin tendon 
to the spine of the scapula ; 3d, thoracic, from the remaining part 
of the margin of the thorax, with an edge below : its fibres con- 
verge to within the arm ; 4th, a portion which arises from the line 
of origin of the last and below it, converges backwards to a strong 
tendon which spreads over the patella, and under cover of the strong 
fascia of the outside of the thigh. 

The fascia of the posterior limb is exceedingly strong and 
appears to be continuous with the fascia of the trunk with which 
the Panniculus carnosus is also continuous. On the back and 
side of the belly it consists almost entirely of yellow texture, except 
in the middle of the back, the fibres pass upwards and backwards. 
Along the outer side of the thigh it is very thick and yellow from 
the spine of the ilium to the outside of the knee ; over the latter 
it becomes white and envelopes the patella and joint, passing 
downwards, backwards, and inwards. 

In the anterior limb the subcutaneous areolar tissue is remark- 
ably dense, and presents the appearance of a close mesh-work of 
fibrous bundles without fat. The aponeurosis commences on the 
outer side of the limb in the line of the spine of the scapula and 
point of the shoulder, attached to the former, and lost above the 
latter on the surface of the anterior spinatus muscle ; at the lower 
part of the bend of the elbow, and downwards to the carcase, it 
becomes thick, longitudinally fasciculated, and almost entirely com- 
posed of elastic tissue ; on the outer part of the shoulder it is 
merely fibrous but strong ; also over the triceps it is aponeurotic 
and comparatively thin ; over the olecranon it has a similar appear- 
ance, but on the back of the arm it is again elastic though thin ; 
below the carcase it degenerates into dense areolar tissue or fascia, 



APPENDIX. 447 

which covers the flexor and extensor tendons, passing into the pad 
of the sole and forniing a thick elastic cushion at the hack part or 
heel of the foot. 

Subscapularis arises on the greater part of the costal surface of 
the scapula, comparatively thin and weak, inserted to the internal 
tubercle of the humerus. The superior anterior angle of the costal 
surface of the scapula, where it forms a thick surface, is occupied 
by the attachment of the serratus magnus, it also extends 
down over a considerable extent of the vertebral margin of the 
bone. 

The latissimus dorsi in passing forward to the humerus is 
extensively connected to the posterior inferior part of the same 
margin, and lays hold by a strong aponeurosis to the correspond- 
ing surface of the subscapularis. 

Coraco brachial Is, attached above to the coracoid tubercle, 
has its tendon firmly attached to the inner surface of the tendon 
of insertion of the subscapularis, and is inserted into the whole 
length of the inner ridge of the humerus, as far doAvn as the 
internal condyle : its tendon of origin passing down almost to its 
lower end, and the muscular fasciculi numerous, short, and 
oblique. 

Triceps extensor consists of five heads ; the inner head is small, 
and arises from the inner head of the humerus as far down as the 
condyle ; the scapular head is of enormous size, and arises from the 
whole extent of the posterior margin of the bone ; there is added to 
this scapular head a flat mass or head, which arises along with it from 
the posterior part of the margin, and extends down altogether inde- 
pendently to the inner side of the olecranon. The outer head is 
massive, and arises from the outer and back part of the humerus as 
far down as the great external tuberosity of the bone ; from this 
external tuberosity a small but distinct fifth head arises. The 
larger and smaller external, internal, and the scapular heads, are 
in erted by a common tendon into the olecranon, but the narrow 
head which arises along with tho scapular has a distinct tendon to 
the inner side of the olecranon. 

Flexor carpi radialis, from the centre tubercle of the internal 
condyle, fusiform, except in the central part of its posterior surface, 
between its two tendons consists of elastic tissue ; distal tendon 

VOL. i. 2 <; 



448 APPENDIX. 

passes under annular ligament in a sheath ; appears to he attached, to 
two metacarpal hones. 

Palmaris longus, from the posterior margin of the internal 
condyle, along with the deep and superficial common flexors, passes 
under the superficial part of the annular ligament in the direction 
of the pisiform hone ; expands into the palmar fascia. 

Flexor digitorum sublimis, from posterior margin of the internal 
condyle with the palmaris longus and flexor profundus, hy a per- 
fectly distinct head from the upper two-thirds of the inner margin 
of the olecranon, and from the corresponding part of its anterior 
surface ; this head joins the other head of the muscle about one- 
third down the forearm. At the same level the common mass of 
the flexor sublimis becomes detached from the palmaris longus and 
flexor profundus, passes down to the carpus under the annular 
ligament, with which its lower tendon is intimately connected. 

Flexor d. profundus, considerably more massive than the f. 
sublimis, arises altogether from the internal condyle (its posterior 
part and inner margin) ; it passes down, covered by palm, longus and 
flexor sublimis, and underneath the annular ligament and tendon 
of the superficial flexor. 

Flexor longus p>ollicis arises from the internal condyle, ante- 
rior and inferior to the flexor profundus, terminates in a delicate 
tendon at the lower third of the arm which passes underneath the 
annular ligament along with the tendons of the other flexors. 

Flexor carpi ulnaris arises from the inner, lower, and back part 
of the surface of the olecranon, as a small conical muscle which 
terminates in a cord-like tendon at the upper part of the arm, and 
which passes down towards the pisiform bone under the deep flexors 
of the fingers. The elongated pisiform bone, which passes consider- 
ably inwards towards the annular ligament, co-operates with the 
latter in forming the tendinous retinaculum. 

Anconeus, from the lower two -thirds of the posterior surface 
of the elongated external condyle of the humerus, and separated 
by a deep intermuscular space from the smaller external head of 
the triceps. The fibres extend downwards, curving forwards, to be 
attached to the whole external surface of the olecranon and the 
external surface of the ulna half-way down. Some of the fibres 
curve to the posterior aspect of the bone. 



APPENDIX. 449 

Extensor carp! ulnaris arises by a small but strong tendon from 
tbe external part of external condyle of tbe humerus, is massive 
and fusiform, and passes under a tendinous arch from the back part 
of the lower end of the ulna in a shallow groove. The tendon then 
passes down on the inner edge of the foot to be attached to the 
head of the metacarpal bone of the fifth toe ; it is crossed over near 
its insertion by the tendon of the ext. min. digiti. 

Extensor minimi digiti is a cylindrical muscle closely bound 
down by an aponeurotic sheath to the ridge between the outer 
and anterior surface of the ulna. Above, it arises from the fore 
part of the external condyle, but almost all the way down it is 
attached to the ulna by means of its aponeurotic sheath It continues 
fleshy down to the wrist-joint, and is tied down by the annular 
ligament in the shallow groove in front of the lower end of the bone. 
It changes its direction beyond the annular ligament, inwards and 
backwards, crossing the tendon of the last muscle, and is inserted 
into the upper and inner part of the metacarpal bone of the 
fifth toe. 

Extensor digitorum, communis. — In connection with the origin of 
this muscle is a very thick intermuscular septum, which is attached 
all along the edge which separates the inner from the anterior sur- 
faces of the ulna, and separates the last muscle from the common 
extensor. This septum is attached superiorly to the external condyle 
of the humerus by means of an excessively strong portion of the 
common investing aponeurosis of the forearm. This portion of 
the aponeurosis forms a band consisting principally of elastic fibre 
of a yellow colour, and fully an inch thick at the lower part of its 
extent ; it splits into two portions, which are attached to the mar- 
gins of the groove to which the tendon of the last muscle passes. 
The muscle itself arises from the deep surface of nearly the upper 
half of this band ; it is aponeurotic where the muscle arises from it, 
but entirely elastic in its texture below ; its fibres superiorly arise 
from the external condyle of the humerus, rapidly converge to form a 
massive conical compressed double penniform muscle, which termi- 
nates a little above tbe carpus in numerous laterally-connected 
tendons, which are arranged in the form of a Battened ribbon in a 
shallow groove on the lower and fore pail of tbe ulna, tied down by 
the transverse ligament, and with an extensive synovial apparatus 



450 APPENDIX. 

upon the front of the carpus. This ribhon divides into three portions ; 
the small internal one, passing down to the inner edge of the foot, 
divides into two slips, one for the fourth, the other for the fifth 
digits ; it is connected by a transverse slip to the middle division ; 
the middle division reunites along the metatarsal region with the 
external division ; they separate again at the base of the first pha- 
langes — the middle division passing on to the third toe, the external 
division dividing between the first and second toes. 

Extensor primi et secundi digitorum arises from the arti- 
cular surface of the ulna over a narrow space or line about its 
middle, and, under cover of the common extensor, comes out from 
beneath it, and is tied down by the annular ligament near the trans- 
verse ligament on its outer side ; continuing fleshy beyond the liga- 
ment, terminates in a small tendon, which, splitting at its extremity, 
is attached to the phalanges of the first and second toes. 

Extensor ossis metacarpi jyolllcis. — A fleshy mass arising from 
the anterior surface of the ulna along with the last muscle, but 
principally from the front of the radius. From its head down- 
wards to its lower fifth its fibres are oblique, terminate in a strong 
tendon on its outer edge, and continue with the tendon down to 
the annular ligament, by which it is tied down in the hollow on 
the outer edge and back part of the radius. Its tendon, thick like 
a rope above, flattens out below, doubles upon itself, so as to form 
two laminae, which are inserted continuously to the metacarpal bone 
of the first toe. 

Extensor carpi radialis longus arises from the humerus by 
a small origin in front, and to the outer side of the rough im- 
pression of the centre of its anterior ridge. This is a comparatively 
small elongated muscle, intimately attached about its middle to the 
thick portion of the aponeurosis of the arm, to which the cervico- 
humeral muscle is attached. The muscle itself forms the anterior 
margin of the anterior muscular prominence between the upper arm 
and forearm, and, extending downwards, terminates in a rope-like 
tendon, which is crossed obliquely by the tendon of the extensor 
ossis metacarpi pollicis, and is tied down in a sheath formed by 
the annular ligament in a groove on the fore-part of the outer sur- 
face of the radius, and is inserted into the front of the scaphoid 
bone. 



APPENDIX. 451 

Extensor carpi radialis brevis. — A much more massive muscle 
of a flattened conical form, which arises from the external ridge 
of the humerus ahove the external condyle in contact with the 
last muscle. It extends down, and transmits its large rope-like 
tendon under the extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis, and under the 
annular ligament, which ties it down in the same osseous groove, 
but in a distinct sheath from the extensor longus. The tendon, 
flattening out, extends obliquely down the carpus and metacarpus, 
to be inserted into the base of the metacarpal bone of the third toe. 



III.— NOTES OX THE GENERAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE 
MUSCLES.— January 1857. 

The muscular, like the osseous system, is segmented. 

This is proved — firstly, from embryology ; and, secondly, from 
comparative anatomy. 

The primordial transversely-segmented myome, with its longi- 
tudinally-arranged muscular fasciculi, is converted during develop- 
ment into a complex system of longitudinal, oblique, and transverse 
muscles. 

The morphological divisions of the muscular system by Professor 
Johannes Miiller are — 

1. Trunk lateral muscles, which in man are represented by the 
muscles of the dorsal region. 

2. Intercostal muscles. 

3. Abdominal muscles. 

4. Muscles of limbs. 

Midler's system is morphologically insufficient, inasmuch as it 
only admits the lateral trunk muscles as homologous with the pri- 
mordial muscular arrangement (or rather with the upper hali), while 
it would appear to indicate the other divisions as superadded or 
teleological. 

The primary subdivisions of the muscular system appear to mo 
to be — 

1. A layer on the inner aspect of the haemal chamber. 

2. A layer on the exterior of the sclerome. 

3. The muscles of the limbs, which, however, are merely modi- 



452 APPENDIX. 

fied portions of the two first divisions, but principally of the 
second. 

Thus the first division consists of — 

a. A layer lining the haemal arches. 

b. Pre-vertebral muscles. 

c. Such pre-vertebral muscles as are attached to the limbs. 
1 The second division consists of — 

a. Muscles of so-called dorsal group. 

b. Intercostal muscles. 

c. Recti abdominis. 

d. External and internal oblique muscles. 

e. All the muscles of the limbs, except those derived from the 

first division. 

/. Cutaneous muscles. 

The third division therefore, although apparently distinct, and 
conveniently considered as such, is in fact derived from the first 
and second divisions. 



IV.— NOTES ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE MUSCLES 
OF THE LIMBS.— June 15, 1858. 

If the human femur and humerus be compared together, as 
observed from the front of each, it will be perceived, that while the 
surface of attachment of the brachialis anticus extends from the 
outer to the inner humeral ridges, up as far as the lower part of the 
insertion of the deltoid, inclosing the attachment of that muscle by 
its bifurcation, the surface of attachment of the homologous muscle 
in the thigh extends from each lip of the linea aspera and as far up 
as the intertrochanteric ridge. From this enormous extension of 
that muscular mass, termed vastus externus, vastus internus, and 
crureus, the homologue of the brachialis anticus, all the other 
muscles attached to the thigh-bone are attached to its trochanters 
and condyles, and to the space enclosed between the lips of the 
linea aspera. The comparison, therefore, of the characteristic con- 
figuration of the humerus and femur, or, in other words, the serial 
homology of their processes, surfaces, and edges, must be determined 
by a careful comparison of the corresponding or homologous mus- 



APPENDIX. 453 

cular attachments. The homology of these two muscular masses 
affords a key, not only to the general muscular homologies of the 
arm and thigh, hut also to the corresponding osseous homologies. 

The iliacus internus and psoas magnus are attached together 
into the trochanter minor. Of these two muscles the iliacus 
internus has been hitherto considered by the few anatomists who 
have directed their attention to this subject, as the homologue of 
the subscapularis ; but it has never apparently been taken into 
consideration, that whereas the subscapularis passes from the 
scapula to the humerus, under and behind both the clavicle and the 
coracoid, the iliacus internus and psoas magnus pass from the ilium 
to the femur in front of and above the pubis and ischium, the 
homologues of the clavicle and coracoid. 

The iliacus internus cannot therefore be the homologue of the 
subscapularis. It will be observed, that if the brachialis anticus 
were to mount upwards, on the front of the humerus, to the region 
of its tuberosities, and to force its margins backwards until they 
nearly met on the back of the shaft of the bone, it would force the 
humeral attachment of the deltoid upwards and inwards, so that it 
would assume a position on the humerus corresponding to that of 
the trochanter minor and the thigh-bone. The outer surface of the 
ilium gives attachment to a pair of muscles — the gluteus medius 
and minimus — which are the homologues of the inferior spinatus 
and teres minor muscles ; the internal surface gives attachment below 
to the obturator internus, which is the homologue of the subscapu- 
laris ; the anterior surface, which gives attachment to the iliacus 
internus, must therefore correspond to that portion of the scapula 
intermediate between the subscapular fossa and the inferior spi- 
natus at the cervical margin of the bone. The muscle, therefore, 
arising from the surface, must be either the homologue of the supra- 
spinatus muscles, or the scapular portion of the deltoid. 

But as the supra-spinatus muscle is attached along with the 
iiilr;i-spinatus and teres minor to the trochanter major while the 
scapular portion of the deltoid is attached to the deltoid surface, 
which again is continuous with the great tuberosity by the anterior 
margin of the bicepital groove ; and as we have already seen that 
this deltoid surface would be forced upwards and inwards, and 
backwards, into the position of the Lesser trochanter of the femur, 



454 APPENDIX. 

if the brachialis anticus were developed to the same extent as the 
vasti and crureus ; the iliacus interims, in its origin, attachment, and 
relations to the pubes, exactly corresponds in its relations to those 
of the scapular portion of deltoid, if the hones of the shoulder were 
made to assume the relative positions of those of the pelvis. The 
homologue of the posterior margin of the spine of the scapula, 
widened and hollowed out, forms, in this manner, the anterior sur- 
face of the iliac bone, and the homologue of the scapular portion 
of the deltoid passes forward over and in front of the homologue 
of the clavicle. 

With reference to the homologue of the psoas in the shoulder, 
it will at once suggest itself to the comparative anatomist, that the 
psoas is represented by the levator humeri, more particularly by 
that portion of it which is connected to the transverse processes of 
the cervical vertebra3. In the feline Carnivora the levator humeri 
passes down, in connection with the scapular portion of the deltoid, 
in front of the clavicle, and reproduces in this manner an arrange- 
ment in the shoulder exactly similar to that of the psoas, iliacus, 
and pubis, in the posterior limb. It is also to be observed, that 
the breadth of the anterior surface of the ilium is, in the greater 
number of Mammalia, diminished so much as frequently to present 
the form of a margin, while in the bird it has disappeared alto- 
gether, as well as the muscle to which it gives origin. 

If the iliacus internus be the homologue of the scapular portion 
of the deltoid, then we are at once led to the homology between 
the pectineus and adductor longus in the posterior limb, and the 
clavicular portion of the deltoid, and the clavicular portion of the 
great pectoral in the anterior limb. 

The pectineus and the adductor longus pass from the pelvic 
representative of the clavicle to the line leading down from the 
lesser trochanter ; that is, from the attachment of the homologue of 
the scapular portion of the deltoid. 

It is to be observed that the great tuberosity of the humerus 
is the upper part of a ridge, which, extending down as the anterior 
lip of the bicepital groove, widens out into the deltoid surface. 

Now, as the attachment of both portions of the deltoid, and also 
of the great pectoral muscle, have been shown to have their homo- 
logue in the thigh-bone, forced to the inner and back part of that 



APPENDIX. 455 

bone, it will also be observed that the attachments of the homo- 
logu.es of the inferior spinatus and teres minor retain their attach- 
ments to the great trochanter. 

It becomes, therefore, an important question to determine the 
homologies of the humeral tuberosities and femoral trochanters. 
With this view it is to be observed, that as the obturator internus 
would appear to be the real homologue of the subscapularis, and 
as the tendon of the obturator internus is attached to the fore-part 
of the upper margin of the trochanter major, it follows, that if we 
are to be guided as to the homologies of the tuberosities and tro- 
chanter by the principal homologous muscles connected with them, 
the trochanter major, instead of being, as is usually supposed, the 
greater tuberosity of the humerus, must be the homologue of the 
lesser tuberosity, and the lesser trochanter the real homologue of 
the great tuberosity. If this be admitted, then we must also admit 
that the homologue of the centre of ossification of the greater tuber- 
osity of the humerus has been forced dowmwards, inwards, and 
backwards, in the direction of the anterior intertrochanteric line, 
and along with the linear attachment of the clavicular portions of 
the deltoid and great pectoral, assumed positions on the inner and 
posterior aspects of the thigh-bone. For physiological ends the 
attachments of the homologues of the inferior spinatus and teres 
minor retain their position at the outer and upper part of the bone ; 
and, in consequence of the homologue of the lesser tuberosity 
having passed upwards and outwards, so as to take the position of 
the homologue of the greater tuberosity, these two muscles are 
secondarily attached to it. 



V.— ACTION OF THE TOPLITEUS MUSCLE. 

This muscle takes its origin below from the tibia and the dense 
fascia-like prolongation of the semi-membranosus tendon, which 
covers it. It passes obliquely upwards, forwards, and outwards, to 
the depression on the outer surface of the external condyle of the 
femur. Its opposite points of attachment are nearer one another 
in the extended than in the flexed condition of the limb. Hence 
the muscle acts as an extensor, and not, a.s is usually stated, as a 



456 APPENDIX. 

flexor muscle. From the peculiar spiral form of the articular surfaces, 
when the knee-joint is fully extended the movement of flexion is 
initiated by the action of the sartorius, gracilis, and semi-tendinosus, 
which slightly rotate the leg and foot inwards. — (See vol. ii. p. 222.) 
Similarly, when the joint is fully flexed, the movement of extension 
is initiated by the action of the popliteus muscle, which brings the 
joint into the horizontal position. 



INDEX TO VOL. I. 



Abercrombte (Dr.), 132 

Absorption of one science by another, 
302 

Acland (Professor) of Oxford, Goodsir 
visits, 171 

Adams (Dr. Francis) of Banchory, 36 

Address delivered to the graduates in 
medicine, August 1, 1859, when 
Professor Goodsir acted as Promoter, 
323, 335 

Addresses of Goodsir as a president of 
various societies, 1S6, 336-349 

Advantages of erect position to man, 
211, 242 

iEgean Sea collection, made by Forbes, 
108 

.Esthetic Club of Edinburgh, 142, 143 

Agassiz visits Lothian Street, 104 

Agricultural matters, Goodsir frequently 
consulted on, 134 

Alcinoe rotunda found in Orkney, 53 

Alcohol in the brain of drunkards, 131 

Alimentary canal of mammalia, speci- 
mens of, 165 

Alison (Rev. Archibald), 10; (Professor 
Win. Pulteney), 10 ; Goodsir demon- 
strates anatomy of cuttle-fish to, 28 

Amphioxvs lanceolatus, memoir on its 
anatomy, 371, 393 

"Anatomical and pathological observa- 
tions," 189 

Anatomical and Physiological Society, 
Good ir chosen one. of the Vice-Pre- 
sidents of, 24, 78 

Anatomical chair of Edinburgh, contest 
for, 118 ; preparations, art arose in 
Holland, 353 

Anatomy the hobby of Goodsir when a 
student, 23 ; iin | -nl >■ derived by 
medicine from, 88, 84 

An polar element prevalent in structure, 
L78, 180 

Animal body might be teleogicaHj com- 
plete, hut morphologically incomplete, 
183 ; all forms below man, 207 J in 



man, what is, 271 ; agency, its effects 
on the surface of the globe, 218 

Animality, nature of, 207, 214 

Animals, their habits studied by Goodsir, 
57 ; and vegetables specially created 
for man's use as food, 217 

Ankle-joint of man and ape compared, 
230, 231 

"Annals of anatomy and physiology," 
189 

Annelids, their dorsal vessel homologous 
with the heart and primitive aorta of 
vertebrata, 141 

Annihilable, matter cannot be conceived 
of as, 222 

Anstruthcr, many of the population fell 
at Kilsyth and Sheriffmuir in the 
cause of the Covenanters, 3 ; (Easter), 
its population, etc., 4 ; native place of 
Dr. Chalmers, the poet Tennant, and 
Professor Goodsir, 5 ; its Burgh and 
Grammar Schools, 12, 13 ; Goodsir 
joins his father in practice at, 34, 35 

Anthropologists apt to neglect mental 
science, 267, 268 

Ape — hand of ape an imperfect hand, 
239, 240 

Apes corporeally and psychically distinct 
from man, 265 ; all related to each 
other, 283 

Apparatus (philosophical), Goodsir's 
keenness after, 169, 170, 172 

Aquaria and vivaria at 21 Lothian Street, 
98 

Arabian horse from Duke of Hamilton, 
135 

Area for man is the entire globe, 21 5 ; ori- 
ginal area is north temperate zone, 216 

Arm in man, 236 

Arnold (Professor) milk-tooth sacs how 
formed, 42, 13 

Arthur (.lulmt, janitor to Professor 
Goodsir, 162, L68 

Articular surfaces at end of heme, (!ood- 
sir's view of, 151 



458 



INDEX. 



Asynchronism of the auricular contrac- 
tions in the reptilian heart, 443-445 

Austrian Government ask from Goodsir 
advice for the natural history equip- 
ment of the Novara, 173 

Autopsy of Professor Goodsir by Dr. 
Chiene and Mr. Stirling, 195 

Baird (Principal) employs Barclay at 
Bo'ness, 25 

Balancing body when standing on one 
leg, 227 

Balanus tintinnabulim, paper on the 
larvae of, 75 

Balfour (Professor J. H.), obituary notice 
of Goodsir, 76, 197 ; at 21 Lothian 
Street, 104 

Barclay (Dr. John) anecdote of, 25 ; his 
collection and pupils, 363, 364 

Barnacle, separate sexual system of, 
106 

Barrow, at Kingsmuir, opened, 47 

Barry (Dr. Martin), researches of, in 
histology and embryology, 67, 68 ; 
discoverer of parent cell, 114 ; a 
candidate for chair of ' ' Institutes of 
Medicine," 121 ; letter to Goodsir on 
fate of his brother, 150 

Basement membrane of Bowman, 115 

Beale (Dr.) germinal matter, 90 

Beauty, on the natural principles of, 
143 

Bee, instinct of, 316 

Bell (Sir Charles), models of ulcers, 23 ; 
discovery of the functions of the 
nerves, 86 ; first settling in London, 
100 

Bennett (Dr. J. H.), professor of the 
Institutes of Medicine, 33 ; at 21 
Lothian Street, 105 

Bereiss (Professor) collected Lieberkuhn's 
injections and specimens, 170 

Berlin, his friends and studies at, 169 

Beroe pileus and new species, anatomy 
of, 51 

Bible to be studied, Goodsir's advice to 
his brother, 34 

Bichat, "AnatomieGenerale," 86; each 
special tissue has a physiological pro- 
perty of its own, 112 ; his brain 
remarkably non-symmetrical, 184 

Biological discovery in Germany, 65 

Blandin on milk-teeth, 41 

Bone, sections of, made to investigate 
arrangement of fibres, 175 

Bonellia, two species, natives of Medi- 
terranean, 426 

Books, the last that he studied, 193 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Good- 



sir, secretary of, 75 ; vice-president, 
76 

Botany, his taste for, revived, 75 

Bowman on the structure and use of 
the Mafpighian bodies of the kidney, 
115 

Brain of man in geometrical proportions 
and mass, superior, 184 ; of Pro- 
fessor Goodsir, 195 ; complex struc- 
ture of, 291 ; action in, 296 

Brewster (Sir David), 45, 49 ; his 
opinion of Goodsir, 54 ; review of 
Goethe's scientific biography, 156 ; 
keen vision, instance of, 176 

British Association, Goodsir's first at- 
tendance and paper at, 35, 36 ; at 
Glasgow hi 1840, paper by Goodsir 
and Forbes, 72 ; meeting at Edin- 
burgh in 1S50, president of physio- 
logical and zoological section, 190 

Brotherhood of Friends of Truth, 60, 61 

Brown (Dr. John), assistant of Dr. 
Cullen, 16 ; (Dr. John), member of 
^Esthetic Club, 142 ; (Robert), on 
nucleus of vegetable cell, 85. (Dr. 
Samuel), as a chemical philosopher 
and thinker, 68, 69 ; at 21 Lothian 
Street, 104, 106 

Brunonian system not favoured in Bri- 
tain, 16 

Brute, psychical essence in, 295 

Burial-place of Professor Goodsir, 194 

Burke's skin made into a tobacco-fiouch, 
163 

Burns (Allan) as a lecturer, surgeon, and 
anatomist, 359, 362 

Busk (George) on parasitic growths, 
113 

Cecum, on changes produced in the, 
by ulcers, etc., 76 

Cancer mamas and C. bernhardus, joint 
paper on their metamorphoses, by 
John and Harry Goodsir, 75 

Caprella, paper on new species of, 75 

Carpenter (Dr.), articles on secretion in 
Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physi- 
ology, 115 ; once a candidate for chair 
of " Institutes of Medicine," 121 

Cams, a work of, gives first impetus to 
Goodsir's researches in developmental 
anatomy, 24 ; acknowledges Ids in- 
debtedness to Goodsir, 162 

Casts of dissections made by Goodsir, 
23, 34 

Casts of the layers of muscles, 131 

Cat and eagle, 57, 58 

Calopterus, genus of fossd fishes, de- 
scribed by Goodsir, 49 



INDEX. 



459 



Cell or primitive organic corpuscle, dis- 
covery of, 84, 85 ; various views and 

theories of philosophers on formation 

of, 89 ; Goodsir's observations, 90-95 
Cells perform the process of secretion, 

115 
Cell-genesis, the first ray of biological 

discovery, 65 ; Barry's development 
of, 67 
Centre of gravity in man and in animals, 

226 ; of absolute knowledge, 300 
Centres of nutrition, what Goodsir meant 

by the term, 90 ; paper on, 114 
Cephaloppdous molluscs, peculiarities in 

eye of, 51 
Cetacea, Goodsir studied, 137 
Chalmers (Dr. ), native of Anstruther, 5 ; 

Professor of Moral Philosophy at St. 

Andrews, 13 
Chameleon, on the action of its tongue, 33 
Charlotte Street, Goodsir's residence in, 

187 
Chemical force in living organisms, 347 
Chemico-physiological inquiries, Goodsir 

desirous of making, 111 
Chemistry, young Goodsir's successful 

study of, 16 
Cheselden's operations not empirical, 352 
Child, acquisition of language by, 252, 

25 I 
Chimpansee, lips in, 250 
Christian Faith, anatomists not opposed 

to, 116 
Christianity, influence of on man, 1S5 ; 

and the knowledge of Cod's laws in 

nature, 220 ; what it has done for 

science, 285 
Christison (P'rofessor), 16; his lectures, 

29 
Cilia, paper on, 49 
Cttiograda, papers on, by Goodsir and 

Forbes, 53, 72 
Claims of Professor Goodsir as to his 

position in the- 1 1 istory of Science, 200 

( 'In a. si 1 in of Arthur's Seat, Goodsir shows 

Edward Forbes how to dissect ii, 32 
Cleland (Professor), opinion "I' Profi or 

• : Isir's training, etc., 161 

( ilimate, how changed by human agencj , 

213 
Clujh ido one ti ;ated by Goodsir, 137, 

169 

( 'o.-ilescence otfTrlelices, Some 68 V, others 

difficult, 286 
Cochlea controlling action of larynx, '1 1'.' 
College of Surgeons, Goodsir becomes a 

fell,,:. 

< ',,Iniiiii (vertebral), in man cut by its 
own axis iii live points, 225 



Comparative anatomy, constant refer- 
ences to, 12S, much studied by Good- 
sir, 137 

Comparative Psychology, 308 

Complete and incomplete, meaning of 
the expressions, 210 

Completeness of human structure, 207 

Conditions of life, 207 

Connective tissue of the kidney, 116 

Conscious element of animal, 20S, 209 ; 
its peculiarity, 212, 213 ; principle 
in man, how it differs from that of 
animal, 214 

Consciousness, animals have a principle 
allied to that of man, 211 ; of man 
self-conscious of animal instinctive, 
222 

Contemporaries, Goodsir's relations with, 
189 

Continent, Goodsir goes to Continent for 
his health, 149, 150 

Conversation of Professor Goodsir, 201 

Cormack (Dr.) and the Monthly Medical 
Journal, 64 

Comceres quarry near Anstruther, Fossil 
fishes from, 49, 50 

Corporeal constitution of man, how regu- 
lated, 217 ; and physical elements of 
organisation, 290 

Correspondents of Professor Goodsir, 
188, 189 

Corynwrpha nutans found in Orkney, 52 

Cosmic atoms and the microscope, 84 

Couch on Ainjihioxus lanceolatus, 373 

Course of lectures, altered each year, 129 

Covenanters, Fife a cherished locality 
of, 3 

Cow, embryo of, possesses germs of canine 
and upper incisive teeth, 44 

Creation, man can only conceive creation 
to be the evolution of existence, 222 

Crustacea, dorsal vessel homologous with 
heart and primitive aorta of vertebral a, 
141 

Crystallography, fundamental forms 
viewed by the light of, 176, 179 

< hipar, Literary ami Antiquarian Society, 
16 ; paper on animals collected near 
Anstruther, 51 

Curatorship of Museum of Medical Fa- 
culty offered to and accepted by Good- 
sir, 109 ; report on progress, 114 

Curvatures of animal vertebra] column, 

225, 226 
( (utaneous muscular system in man, 243 

2 11; nerves, -J l."i 

Cuttle-fish, on the eye of, 51, 52; speci- 
mens of its anatomy in Goodsir's mu- 
seum, 1 6 I 



4m 



INDEX. 



Cuvier (Baron) compared with John 

Hunter, 360, 361 
Cyprinus auratus, fungus on gills of, 76 

Dallas (E. S), member of ^Esthetic club, 
143 

Dalyell (Sir J. G.), corresponds with 
Goodsir on natural history, 35 

Day (Professor), 97 ; a resident at 21 
Lothian Street, 105 

Dean Cemetery, Goodsir's burial-place, 
194 ; death, 194 

Degraded form of man, savage, 276 

Demonstrator of anatomy, Goodsir ap- 
pointed, 114 

Dentistry, tired of, 21, 22 

Descriptive anatomy, 352 

Development (full) of man's material 
economy, how attained, 219 

Dick's (Professor) pupils examined by 
Goodsir for diploma as veterinary 
surgeons, 134 

Diguity of the human body, propositions 
for his ten lectures on, 207, 285 

Dipliyllidia, probable new species of 
from Firth of Forth, 424 

Disease, man's liability to disease in- 
timately related to neglect of the 
dictates of his higher principle, 279, 
330 

Disputatious tone of men educated at 
Edinburgh noticed by Benjamin 
Franklin, 102 

Dissecting rooms, extension and im- 
provement of, 123 

Dissecting table, Goodsir's place, 130 

Dissection (true) an object of wonder 
and beauty, 24 

Distoma hepatica, on its structure, 140 

Doctors (country), who have extended 
the boundary of literature and science, 
36 ; country Fife doctors mode of 
practice in last century, 8 

Dominion of man over the plants and 
animals intended by the Creator, 
216 

Dornoch Firth, paper on the natural 
features of, 75 ; zoology of, exa- 
mined by Goodsir, 108 

Drummond (Dr.), assistant to Goodsir, 
125 ; appointed to a situation in 
Hunterian Museum, 128 
Drunkard's body keeping free from de- 
composition for thirty days, 131 
Duncan (Dr. James), 64 
Duration, origin of our conception of, 

221 
Duties and instinctive actions, 274 
Duverney on milk teeth, 41 



Dyce, cartoon of the Judgment of Solo- 
mon presented by Goodsir to Royal 
Scottish Academy, 145 

Eagle and its prey, 57, 58 

Ear in man, 248, 249 

Earth's whole surface intended for man, 
216 

Ecclesiastical government in Scotland,165 

Echinodennata, on their blood and water- 
vascular system, 139 ; specimens illus- 
trating their anatomy in Goodsir's 
museum, 164 

Echiurus vulgaris, 74, 427-433 

Economy of man originally more perfect, 
278; of the animal continuous, 284 

Edinburgh, its position, environs, etc., 
1-3 

Elbow-joint in animals cannot be fully 
extended or fully flexed, 237 

Electrical fishes studied by Goodsir, 
137, 169 ; organs of fishes, specimens 
of, in museum, 164 

Elements in specific constitution, 210 

Elephant, notes on its myology, 446-451 

Ellisiaflos maris, 52 

Emotional affections in man and animal 

i 222, 223 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15 

Entozoon, a new cestoid described by 
Professor Goodsir, 401-404 

Epochs in science, what men owe to, 87 

Erect position in man, Goodsir's views, 
183, 184, 224-231 

E n'neus S2)lcndens, paper on, 75 

Essence of humanity, 215-223 

Eulogia of Professor Goodsir, 196-19S 

Eustachius on milk-teeth, 41 

Evolution from within outwards, 294 

Experimental research, 303, 305 

Extension of human race, how provided 
for, 215 

Extra-mural lectiu-ers and the ' ' Queen's 
College," 63 

Eye of cuttle-fish, on, 51, 52 ; in man, 
247, 248 ; of infant, 319-321 

Falconer (Dr. Hugh) opinion of Goodsir's 
morphology, 161 

Fallati (Dr.) of Wildbad, 150 

Faraday's mind could guide into one 
channel the different departments of 
his subject, 286 

Fellowships proposed to be established, 
165 

Fellowship in honour of Professor Good- 
sir, 168 

Fergusson (Sir William, Bart.) demon- 
strator to Dr. Knox, 28 



INDEX. 



4G1 



Fever : on continued fever and its treat- 
ment, etc., 77 
Fife, sketch of its history, 3, 4 
Fingers, movements of, 238 
Firth of Forth, dredgings in, 46 
Fishes, skeletons and skins well preserved 

by Goodsir, 46 
"Flesh" in revealed record, 271 
Flower on permanent and milk-teeth, 41 
Folds of human skin, 244 
Follicular stage of dentition, on, 38, 40 
Food of early Fife settlers inferred from 
teeth, 47 ; resources of and their ex- 
tent indicated to man, 217 
Foot in man, peculiarities in its construc- 
tion, 229 ; human foot and apes' 
compared, 240, 241 
Forbes (Lord President Duncan) 9 ; 
letters of, 10 ; Grizzel, 9 ; (Edward), 
Goodsir shows him how to dissect a 
snail, 32 ; the maga club and its literary 
organ, 59 ; as Archimagus, 61 ; his 
fellowship with Goodsir, 61, 62 ; love 
of fun, 73 ; cruising in Mediterranean, 
wishes Goodsir with him, 107 ; death 
of, 166, Goodsir expected to become 
his biographer, 166, 167 ; dredges two 
specimens of Amphioxus on the east 
coast of Isle of Man, 375 
Force and power, how they differ, 270 
Forces of organisation determined by the 

indwelling power of the psyche, 270 
Forearm in man and ape compared, 237 
Forms of living bodies and their parts, 

21'::, 294 
Fossil iishes presented to Literary and 
Philosophical Society, 46 ; found at 
Cornceres quarry, 49 
Fragmentary character of human know- 
ledge, 301 
Franklin expedition, brother Harry joins 
it, 9, 101 ; Goodsir long hoped for the 
return of, 150 
Friends of Goodsir, 31 ; funeral, 194 
Fungus on gills of gold fish, paper on, 7<'> 
Furthering the Creator's plan, 209 
Fyfe (Mr.) his labours with the scalpel, 
pencil, and graver, 362, 303 

Gales and his anatomical pursuits, 84 
( . keropod mollusc from the Firth of 
Forth, iindescribed form of, 121, 421 
Geometry applied to anatomy, Goodsir'a 

studies in, LSI 
I >■ Square, removes to, 187 
German language .-mil literature, con- 
tinued study of, 168 
( lerman , I aeii dia overies in biolo 
Germinal vesicle in ovary of birds, dis- 



covered by Purkinje, 84 ; centres, 
what Goodsir meant by the term, 90 ; 
membrane of Goodsir, 115 

Globe — the entire globe the area for man, 
215 

Goethe, the founder of animal morpho- 
logy, 154, 155; Goodsir's estimate of 
his speculations, 156 

Goodsirs of Fife, their family history, 
5-7 

Goodsir (Dr. John) the Professor's grand- 
father, 7-9 ; (Archibald) youngest bro- 
ther of Professor, 10 ; (Miss Jane), 9, 
192 : (Professor John), his birth, 9 ; his 
biography 11, 203 ; anatomical and pa- 
thological observations, 90 ; appointed 
demonstrator of anatomy to Professor 
Munro, 114 ; lectures at Philosophi- 
cal Institution, 114; elected professor 
of anatomy, 121 ; elected Fellow of 
the Royal Society, London, 121 ; lec- 
tures on natural history for Professor 
Jameson in 1853, 146 ; facility in 
tracing lines and facets on surfaces, 
175 ; on science and Christianity, his 
views, 185, 285 ; his various homes, 
187 ; his illness, 191 ; his death 
and funeral, 194, autopsy of, 195; 
fellowship in honour of him, 198 : 
(Rev. Joseph Taylor), 9 ; on Edward 
Forbes and John Goodsir, 32 ; John 
advises him to make the Bible his 
main study, 34 ; on his brother's 
natural gifts, 34 : (Harry) joins Frank- 
lin's expedition, 9 ; animals collected 
near Anstruther, 51 ; capacity in which 
he went out on Franklin's expedition, 
101 ; succeeds his brother at College 
or Surgeons, 109 ; stuffing salmon for 
his brother, 111 : (Robert) sails twice 
to Arctic Regions, 9 : (Thomas), anec- 
dote of, 6. 

Graham (Dr.), Professor of Botany, 31 

"Grand gore," edicts against, 47 

Grant (Dr.), of University College, a 
pupil of Barclay's, 364 

Gregory (Dr. John and Dr. .James), 10 

Gruby of Vienna, history of parasitic 
growths, 113 

Guerin (Mr.) gets Trlhea on coast of 
Spitzbergen, 405 

Guillot questions accuracy of some of 
Goodsir's observations on teeth, 43 

Gulliver, edition of HewBOn's works, etc., 
88 

Gfymnorhij/nchus horriduB, parasite on 
sun-fish, 74 ; description of, 101, 404 

ll \i.i ki ■!. (Professor), "Protogenes," 95 



462 



INDEX. 



Hncmal arch, Goodsir did not assent to 

Owen's view, 158 
Hair (Dr.), dissections of muscular fibres, 

175 
Hair in man, its distribution and charac- 
ter, 244, 245 
H;U1 (Dr. Marshall) on excito-motory 

system, 86 
Haller on Monro's " Edinburgh Medical 
Essays," 353 ; " Icones Anatomicse," 
354 ; his " Elementa Physiologite Cor- 
poris Humani," 355 ; 190 experiments 
to determine muscular irritability, 68 

Hallet appointed to a situation in 
Hunterian Museum, 128 ; transcribes 
Goodsir' s lectures on the invertebrata, 
138 

Hamilton, jun. (Dr.), 103 ; (Sir William) 
on the thought of creation, 222 ; on 
learned ignorance, 301 

Hand of man the only perfect hand, 238, 
can be hollowed into a cup or grasp a 
sphere, 239 ; formed to act under and 
for human thought, 321 

Handyside (Dr.), candidate for chair of 
anatomy, 121 

Hannover (Dr.) on the construction and 
use of the microscope, translation re- 
vised by Goodsir, 166 

Harting (Professor) on Orthagoriscus 
ozodura, referred to, 396 

Haunch of man and mammal, 227 

Hay (D. R.), assisted by Goodsir in his 
work " Geometrical Beauty of the Hu- 
man Figure," 143 ; death of, 145 ; 
harmonic angles, ISO 

Head, on the morphological constitution 
of the skeleton of the vertebrate head, 
158 

Health of Goodsir, 149 

Heirlooms of the Goodsirs and Edward 
Forbes, 101 

Henderson (Dr. William), 64, 65 ; he and 
sGoodsir work together, QQ 

Henle and Valentin on the epithelium 
and animal textures, 85 

Eerrissant on milk-teeth, 41 

Herring shoal preceded by vast accumu- 
lation of minute marine animals, 75 

Herring and sprat, difference between, 
108 

Herschel (Sir John) on hypo-sulphites, 
113 

Hewson (William) on central particle 
of blood, 85 

Higher principle of man to control ani- 
mal instincts, 220, 221 

Highland and Agricultural Society, 
Goodsir a member, 134 



Hip-joint in man and quadrupeds, 228 

Histology, progress of, 84, 96 ; German 
labourers in, 366 

History indicates north temperate zone 
as original area of man, 215 

Holidays, how Goodsir spent his, 167, 
202 

Holothurice, on the respiration of, 140 

Home of the Goodsirs at 21 Lothian 
Street, with its occupants, 97 ; his 
other places of residence, 187 

Hope (Dr.) Thomas, Professor of Che- 
mistry, 31 

Horatian Maxim on Goodsir's " Dissect- 
ing-room Note-book," 125 

Horizontal axis of vertebral column in 
quadrupeds, 225 

Human agency, its positive effects on the 
globe, 218 ; changes it can effect, 
219 ; body, Goodsir's views on its 
teleological and morphological com- 
pleteness, 183 ; constitution, what is 
involved in it, and what it secures 
for man, 220 ; science and the infal- 
lible Pneuma, 127 

Humanity, what its actual history is, 
223 

Hunter (John) and his works in anatomy, 
356, 361, 362 

Hunter (Dr. William), his influence on 
anatomy and physiology, 355 

Hunterian Medical Society, 64 

Huxley (Professor) on the teeth and 
hairs, 38 ; opinion of Goodsir's mor- 
phology, 161 ; lectures on relation of 
man to lower animals, 185 ; account 
of Australian Te.thea, 415 

Hypo-sulphites counteract the Sarcina 
ventriculi, 113 

Hypcroodon dalei, paper on, 75 

Hyrtl (Professor), Goodsir works with 
him at Vienna, 167 

Idealistic opinions of phvsiologists, 

290 
Immaterial principle, the agency which 

determines the actions and regulates 

the processes of the corporeal frame, 

269 
Immediate instruments, organs of sense 

in animals, 21 2 
Individual organism from pre-existing 

parents, 294 
Influences detrimental to life, how 

guarded against, 217 
Times (Mr.) as an anatomist, 362 
Insanity, Bichat's opinion that want of 

symmetry in two sides of cerebrum 

was its cause, 184 



INDEX. 



4G3 



Insects, dorsal vessel homologous with 
heart and primitive aorta of verte- 
brate, 141 

Instinct, definition of the term, 214 ; 
and consciousness, 310-316 

Instinctive acts of the animal, 283 ; 
consciousness, essential characters of 
animality to he found in, 210 

Institutes of Medicine chair, candidates 
for, 120, 121 

Instruments (philosophical), Goodsir's 
endeavour to procure the best, 172 

Integument and organs of sense and 
speech in man, 243-255 

Intelligence, 308 ; first stage in its 
evolution, 309 

Intermaxillary hone in human skull, 
how Goethe inferred its existence, 
415 

Internal parasites, vegetable as well as 
animal, 113 

Intestinal lesions observed by Goodsir, 
66 ; his preparations, SO 

Invertebrate, lectures on their compara- 
tive anatomy, 138 

Tstiqpterus, genus of fossil fishes, 50 

Italian literature, Goodsir studies, 169 

Jacko, the monkey, and his doings, 97, 
98 

Jaguar, supra-condyloid foramen of, 27 

Jalabert (M.) and the ribbon of the 
Brotherhood of Friends of Truth, 60 

.Jameson (Professor), 29, 30 ; seeks in- 
troduction to and is kind to Goodsir, 
45 ; writes to Goodsir to make col- 
lections for the museum, and to 
write a paper for Wernerian Society, 
63 ; Goodsir lectures on natural 
history for, 146, 147 

Johnston (Dr. George), of Berwick, 36 ; 
on Tetkea cranium, 414 

Joints, their movements of a spiral 
character, 152 

Jourdain on milk-teeth, 41 

• l 1 1< I n,i nt, man conscious of the faculty, 
221 

Kixi.wn (Professor), member of iEs- 
thetic Club, 1 12 

Kingsmuir bai row exami 1, 17 

BLnee-joint, on movements of, 152 

Knox, John, in Fife, 3 

Knoz (Dr.), Goodsir attends his lectures, 
1 9 : make i skeleton of pike for, 23 ; 
invites I lood lir to be \ ice-presiden1 of 
Anatomical and Physiological Society, 
2 1 ; as a teacher, 'Jf>-'2s • \ 
Good ii i" join him in the anatomical 
VOL. 1. •' 



lectureship, 62 ; his catalogue of 
collection of College of Surgeons, 80 ; 
at 21 Lothian Street holding forth on 
his African experiences, and discussing 
questions with Samuel Brown, 104 ; 
distinguished pupils of, 142 ; wishes 
Goodsir to engage with him in a 
quarterly work on anatomical science, 
142 ; " Manual of Anatomy," Good- 
sir's opinion of, 142 

Kolliker supports Goodsir's views on 
teeth, 43 

Kowalevsky and Owsjannikow on Am- 
phioxus, 392, 393 

Labour, daily, dogged, downright, 203 

Lancelet, or Amphioxus lanceolatus, 
paper on, 371-393 

Language, its development, a remark- 
aide part of the human constitution, 
220 ; in brute a succession of signs, 
313 ; and the number of articulate 
sounds, 251 

Lantern of Grandfather John, 101 

Laplace, his saying on his deathbed, 87 ; 
physico-chemical actions in living 
bodies, 112 

Largo, Dr. John Goodsir settles at, 7, 
8 

Larynx in man, its simplicity and com- 
pleteness, 249 

Lavoisier explained nature of chemical 
phenomena in organisms, 112 

Lectures at College of Surgeons, 80-81 ; 
of Professor Goodsir, their influence on 
his pupils, 201 ; popularity 125 

Leg of man, peculiarities of, 229 

Leslie (Sir John), a native of Largo, 15 ; 
organic aspect of logarithmic spiral, 
180 

Life and organisation, lecture at Roya 
Medical Society in 1856, 286-322 

I/imax lanceolatus, Pallas first describes 
the Amphioxus under that name, 372 

Limb (upper), regarded by Goodsir as 
an appendage of the lower pari of the 
neck, L57 ; in man, principles of its 
completeness, 184 

Limbs, mites on the morphology of the 
muscles of, 452-455 

Lvmnwsus involutus, anatomy of, 75 

Linguistic roots and the adaptability of 
the mechanism of speech for their 
production, 251 

Lips of man and chimpan lee, 250 

Lister's improvement of microscopic 
glasses, 365 

Liver of Bunfish, worm infesting, 401 
and on kidney, 78 



2 II 



464 



INDEX. 



Living organism, relations of, 292, 293 
Liz.irs, appointed to a post in Hunterian 

Museum, 128 
Logarithmic spiral in nature, 180 ; line 

on his obelisk, 194 
Lonsdale (Dr.), "Life of Professor 

Goodsir," 1-203 ; remark of Dr. Knox 

to, 26 ; on the termination of the 

nerves, 152 
Lothian Street (21) domicile of Goodsir, 

Forbes, etc., 97 ; pets at, 98 ; visitors 

to, 104-106 
Louis and Chomel, on intestinal lesions 

described by, 66 
Love of science communicated by Good- 
sir to pupils, 128 
Lumbar curve in man, 225 ; not in 

animals, 226 
Lumbricits thalassema of Pallas (Spici- 

legia Zoologica), 426 
Lymphatics, researches of Monro se- 

cundus on, 357 

Macgillivray (Professor), how he 
obtained his chair in Aberdeen, 78, 
79 

Mackenzie (Dr. Joshua), father of Henry 
Mackenzie, 10 ; (Mr.) resigns curator- 
ship of Anatomical Museum, 114 

Mackintosh (Dr. John), lectures on prac- 
tice of physic, 29; (Dr. W. C.), 
anatomy of Pelonaia corrugata, 439 

Macvicar (Dr.) of Moffat, lectures of, on 
natural history, attended by young 
Goodsir, 14 

Maga Club, Goodsir elected a member, 
59 

Malaptcrurus, anatomy of new species, 
78 ; specimens of, sent to Berlin, 169 

Man, his original area in north temperate 
region, 183 ; economy and spheres of 
action, 215 ; by virtue of spiritual 
principle excluded from scale of mere 
animal being, 275 ; excluded by his 
completeness, from all mere animal 
forms, 283 

Manifestations of three states of con- 
sciousness, 211 

Manu-ped or foot-hand of ape, 230 

Manx beauties, Edward Forbes's draw- 
ings of, 73 

Markings on the palm of the hand of 
man and the chimpansee, 174 

Material force (external), man avails 
himself of it, 219 

Materialistic tendencies of physiologists, 
290 

Mathematical research, 303-305 

Matter and mind, how they are to be 



used in the investigation of man's 
position, 267 
Mechanics, young Goodsir fond of the 

study of, 16 
Mechanism of the joints, 151 
Meckels, the two, 357-359 
Meckel on muscle of sun-fish, 399 
Mediate instruments, organs of sense in 

man, 212 
Mediterranean, Forbes cruising in, 107 
Melville (Professor) as an assistant to 

Goodsir, 163 
Metaphysical inquiry, 305 
Meyer, his labours on the mechanism of 

the joints, 152 
Microscope, importance of, in anatomi- 
cal researches, 84, 88 ; shows uni- 
formity of character in growth and 
construction of tissues, 85 ; various 
kinds used by different anatomists, 
88 ; demonstrations of structure under, 
at Edinburgh University, 124, 125 ; 
when to be used by the anatomical 
student, 367 
Microscopic researches of Hooke and 

Leeuwenhoeck, 365 
Milk-teeth opinions of anatomists on, 

41 
Mind, its spiritual nature confirmed by 
physiology, 290 ; latent in the em- 
bryo, 295 
Mirbel on physiology of plants, 85 
Mold on the primordial utricle, 94 
Moir (Dr.) of Musselburgh, 36 
Molars — -peculiarity of anterior molar 

40 
Monkey, pet, of Goodsir's, 97, 98 
Monro (John) of Milton, father of Dr. 

Monro, primus, 10 
Monro, primus, and his influence, 
352-354 ; secundus, researches of, 
355, 357 ; fortius, on morbid ana- 
tomy, 362 
Moral science and the Revealed Record 

recognise spiritual element, 277 
Morphological laws, 155 ; perfection far 
distant, 159 ; anatomy defined, 263 ; 
should be kept distinct, 264 
Morphology of recent growth, 2S9 
Morphology of the muscles, 451-455 
Mortality of psyche in brute, unphilo- 

sophical to entertain question, 298 
Mother of Professor Goodsir, 11 ; teaches 

him to draw, 14 
Motion, a condition of thought, 222 
Mouth, how its structure affects speech, 

250 
Muller on cellular structure of chorda 
dorsalis, 85 ; Goodsir's acquaintance 



INDEX. 



465 



with, 109 ; influence of his intellect 
on physiological research, 2S7 ; on 
Amphioxus kmceolatus, 373 

Muscles, a complete dissection of, 131 ; 
of vertebra and trunk in man, 226 ; 
of haunch, 227 ; of elephant, 446- 
451 ; notes on the general morpho- 
logy of, 451, 452 ; notes on the mor- 
phology of the muscles of the limbs, 
452-455 ; action of the poplitens 
muscle, 455 

Muscular system of man, on the ar- 
rangements of the fibres and fasciculi, 
174, 175 

Museum of University of Edinburgh, 
45 ; Goodsir forms a natural history 
museum, 46 ; of Royal College of 
Surgeons, 80-83 ; formed by Goodsir 
and his assistants, 162-105 ; excel- 
lence of specimens in Goodsir's mu- 
seum, and their illustrative speciality, 
171 

Musical instruments, playing power 
owing to a nervous mechanism, 249 

Myology of elephant, notes on, 440-451 

Myological studies, 130, 131 

Mystery of connection between matter 
and mind, 291 

Afyxine compared with Amphioxus, 3S9 

Nasmvtii (Mr.), dentist, Goodsir appren- 
ticed to, 19 ; kindly cancels his inden- 
tures, 22 

Natural history feelings of Goodsir im- 
bibed by his pupils, 128 ; lectures on 
for Professor Jamieson, 146 

■■ Naturphilosophie" of the Germans, 
303 

" Naturwissenschaft" of the Germans, 
303 

Neill's (Dr. Patrick) opinion on sprat 
ami herring, 108. 

Nervous system, morphological relations 
of, 156, 157 

Nerve-filaments, Goodsir's views on, 153 

Newbigging (the brothers), 65 

Nice, Goodsir at, 150, 168 

" Noctes Lothian©," 1 06 

Noniem -kit u iv o| I'nile , oi-Cooddr, 157, 

158, 161 
Normanby (Lord) appoints Professor 

Macgillh raj to \ berdeeo chair, 7'.) 
North 1 a region (lie original area 

of man, 1 -:; 

Notel k -; and mann ici ip1 i, 200 

on lei inn. on life and org 
lio„, 299, 822 
tra,G Isir consulted on the natural 

-I tie \n | 



scientific circumnavigation of the 

globe, 173 

Nucleated cell the great agent in ab- 
sorption, nutrition, and secretion, 
115 

Numbers of students at his classes, 
129 

Nutrition the same as secretion, 115 

Oblique axis of vertebral column in 
apes when standing, and in birds, 
225 

Obliquities and oblique overlapping, 

■ 178, 179 

Observational research, 303, 305 

Oineromaths and their symbols, 59, 00 

Oken's programm, 155 

Old and odd medical lecturers in Edin- 
burgh, 103 

Optical principles on which eye is con- 
structed, 211, 212; sense, heightened 
in Brewster and Goodsir, 175, 176 

Organisation, epoch the science has 
reached, 2S7 

Organs of sense, mediate or immediate, 
212 

Orthagoriscus mold, Goodsir's memoir 
on certain peculiarities in its struc- 
ture, 74, 394-400 ; other accounts of 
by Professors Cleland and Turner 
referred to, 396 

Orthodoxy questioned, 119 

Owen (Richard), England owes her high 
position in comparative anatomy to, 
86 ; detects vegetable organisms in 
lungs of Phoznicopterws,, 113 ; the 
highest British authority as a teleo- 
logist and comparative anatomist, 156 ; 
labours in teleological anatomy, Good- 
sir's great value of, 190 ; a pupil of 
Barclay's, 364 ; on Trichina spiralis 
referred to, 404 

Oxford, a delight to Goodsir, 171, 172 

Oxonian system combined with northern 
scheme of education, 171 

Page (Dr. David) excavates burial-ground 

of St. Leonards, 48 ; at 21 Lothian 

Street, 105 
Palate of man, 250 

Palaeontology, Goodsir's studies, i:», 50 
Pallas, Amphioxus, described in his Spi- 

cilegia Zoolo jica a.. Liino lam 

tm, 872 

Palm "f the hands of man and the ehim- 

pansee, markings of, 171; the folds 

in l he skin, 'J.'IS 

Paralj si of low. t ex\ rcmil i< , I ! Ish 

[50 



466 



INDEX. 



Parasite of the nervous system of had- 
dock and cod, 141 

Patella, on action of, 151 

Pathology, Goodsir's studies in, 66 ; 
parts with his preparations, 80 

Pelonaia, a new genus of tunicated mol- 
luscs, described by Forbes and Good- 
sir, 72, 435-440 ; P. corrugata, 435 ; 
P. glabra, 436 

Perception, what it is, 310 

Percy (Dr. John), graduation thesis, 131 

Perineum, casts of dissection of, 34 

Personal characteristics of Professor 
Goodsir, 70, 71 

Personality of human being, 221 ; of man, 
spiritual element, 271 

Pets at 21 Lothian Street, 97, 98 

Pettigrew appointed to a situation in 
. Hunterian Museum, 128 

Plmllusia vulgaris, tunic of, 1 41 

Phases (two) of humanity, 280 ; cause 
of second, 281 

Philosophical Institution, twelve lectures 
on human physiology at, 114; instru- 
ments, Goodsir collects the best, 169, 
172 

Philosophy of matter, various views of, 
94, 95 

Phmiicoptems, greenish vegetable mould 
in lungs of, 113 

Phonetic types, their tenacity in succes- 
sive development of language, 253 

"Physiological anatomy," 366 

Physiological laws, obedience of animals 
to, 218 

Placenta, on the structure of, 116 

Plant, psyche in, 296 

Pneuma, Goodsir's infallible, 127 ; in 
man subject to his will, 272 ; co-ordi- 
nate with sphere of action on earth 
and his future destination, 276, 299 

Popliteus muscle, action of, 455-456 

Position of man, and the erect one pecu- 
liar to him, 224 ; in the scale of be- 
ing, 266 

Potato disease, paper on, 76 ; Goodsir 
studies the subject, 121, 122 

Power and force, how they differ, 270 

Practice, the aim and purport of medical 
education, 131-133 

Practitioner, Goodsir as one at An- 
struther, 34 

Preciseness of Goodsir as a lecturer, 126 

Preference of man for certain articles of 
food sp& tally created for him, 217 

Present aspecl of medicine, addressed by 
Professor Goodsir to the Medico- 
Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh, 
January 5, 1859, 336-349 



Press on Professor Goodsir, 196, 197 
Prevention better than cure, 337, 338 
Prizes aimed at by Professor Goodsir, 199 
Productivity of certain vegetable and 
animal forms affected by human 
agency, 21 S 
Progress of anatomy, lecture on, 350, 368 
Progression of human body less laborious 

than of animal, 227 
Progressive man, 280-285 
Protoplasm (nucleated) of the Germans, 

91, 94 
Proliferation of cells, 93 
" Promoter, " Goodsir's addresses as, 186, 

187, 323-335 
Protogenes of Professor Hteckel, 95 
Psyche, the soul of the animal, 269, 298 
Psychic principle, immutability of its 

powers, 272, 276 
Psychical essence varies in its endow- 
ments in different species of animals, 
295; powers in brute, 314, 315 
Psychology, human and comparative, 
how to be investigated, 210 ; and 
metaphysics, distinction of, 307 
Pupils, Goodsir rmich esteemed by, 126 
Purkinje's views on development of 
teeth, 43 ; discovers germinal vesicles 
in ovary of birds, 84 

Quain's Anatomy, edited by Drs. 
Sharpey, Thomson, and Cleland, 115 
Quaker Philosophers, 67 

Rabbits, 150 sacrificed by Dr. Martin 
Barry to ascertain one fact in physi- 
ology, 68 

Raschkow's views on milk-teeth, 43 

Reptilian heart, on a want of synchron- 
ism in the movements of its auricles, 
443-445 

Reymond (Du Bois), Goodsir takes a 
specimen of Matapterurus to, 169 

Reaction of animal on its area, 209 ; of 
man upon his geographical area, 218 

Rectangular system on which man's body 
is formed, 276 

Redfern (Professor), observations on ab- 
normal nutrition in articularcartilages, 
117 

Reid (Dr. John), demonstrator to Dr. 
Knox, 28 ; and his works, 65, 66 ; 
gets St. Andrews chair of anatomy and 
medicine, 72 ; at 21 Lothian Street, 106 

Religiosity characteristic of every form 
of the human race, 277 

Religious character of Goodsir, 193 

Replenishing and subduing the earth, 
instances of, 215 



INDEX. 



467 



Reputation of Professor Goodsir abroad, 
189 

Responsibility of man, 274 

" Resurrectionists" of Edinburgh, 20 

Retina, mosaic structure of, 320 

Retrogressive man, 276-279 

Retzius on Amphioxus lanceolnlus, 373 

Revealed record to be taken into account 
■when treating of man's position, 184 ; 
and man's consciousness that he is to 
have dominion over plants and ani 
mals, 216 ; and the .scientific results 
of human research, 278 

Revelation (Divine) inscribed on Goodsir's 
standard, 127 ; indicates north tem- 
perate zone as original area of man, 
215 

Robin on milk-teeth, Goodsir's remarks 
on, 44 

Rosenkranz, JSsthetik des Basslichen, 
144 

Ross (Duncan Forbes) of Kindeace, 9 ; 
(Miss Jeanie), wife of Rev. Josejih 
Taylor, 9 

Rousseau as a true philosopher, 154 

Royal College of Surgeons, Goodsir be- 
comes a licentiate of, 34 ; appointed 
curator, 79 ; his work there, 80-83 

Royal Infirmary, Dr. John Reid and his 
circle at, 65 ; Goodsir wishes to be- 
come assistant-surgeon, 133 

Royal Institution, cast of dissection of 
horse presented to, 135 

Royal Medical Society, Goodsir joins it, 
24 ; its presidents, 64 ; great names 
upon its roll, 76 ; elected senior 
1 president, 77 

Royal Physical Society, Goodsir's first 
public appearance, 33 ; president of, 
78 

Royal Society, elected a fellow, 121 

Ruminants, on the follicular stage on 
dentition in, 44 

Sacrum, development of in man, 226 
Si. Andrews, Goodsir goes to university, 

13 ; its museum, 1 f ; university, 45 ; 

its literary and philosophical society, 

!'■ ■ i ■ • ■ .- 1 ■ 1 e :iys at, 48, 53 ; G Nil- 

and Forbes aspirants for chairs in the 

oniversitj of, 72 
Salmon, <■' Isir studies development 

and characters of, 110 
Sanitarians, animals are perfect, 218 
Sanitary regulations, how forced upon 

the attention of man, ul 8 

\a ventrictUi, paper on, 7'i ; in 

eases of water-bra h. 112; affects alj 

phases of life, 1 18 



Savage, man not originally, 276 

Schleiden and Schwann discover cell in 
1838, 84, 85 

Schwann's views on the nature of the 
cell, 94 

Science not recognised in this country, 
100, 101; should not be elevated 
above other forms of human belief, 
185 ; properly so called had its origin 
within the Christian era, 285 

Scincus Variegatus, want of synchronism 
in the movements of the auricles of 
heart, 443 

Scolex gigas, Cuvier, Gymnorhynchus 
repictns, Rudolphi, 401 

Scottish king's tombs, edict against 
desecration of, 48 ; systems of physic, 
Cullen and Brown, 357 

Scriptures should be more read and ex- 
pounded at public worship, 166 

Sea-urchins, on their structure, 139 

Seal tamed at Anstruther, 58 

Secreting structures, paper on, 114 

Secretion the same as nutrition, 115 

Self and not self, oxir consciousness of, 
221 

Self-consciousness of human conscious- 
ness, 222 

Senatus academicus, their opinion of 
Professor Goodsir, 196 

Sensation, three parts in every act, 
309 

Serres on embryonic condition of teeth, 
42 

Sharpey (Dr.) observations on Cilia and 
his early use of the microscope in 
anatomical research, 88 ; history of 
general anatomy, 115 

Sheep, embryo of, possesses germs of 
canine and upper incisive teeth, 44 

Sheep's cranium picked up by Goethe, 
ami inference he drew from its exami- 
nation, 151 

Shetland and Orkney, Goodsir's and 
Forbes's visit to, 52, 53 

Shoulder in man, its peculiarity, 232 ; 
in the animal, 233, S.',:> 

Bight iii infant, 319, 321 

Simps.. n jSir .lames Y., Bart.), his 
labours and discoveries, 66, 67 

SUin of man, its density, toughness, and 
pliancy, 214-246 

Skull, variety of opinions as t.> the 
number nf its segments, ltin ; and 
brain in man, 256-261 

Skulls of early frife settlers examined, IT 

Smacks of Anstruther, 1 7 

Smell, "'i tie- eesthel ice ofj 1 13 ; and 
I:, te in in. in. ".! i»'>, 2 17 



408 



INDEX. 



Smolts grow into grilse, 110 

Smyth (Professor Piazzi), member of 

^Esthetic club, 142 ; on the antiquity 

of intellectual man, referred to, 280 
Snail, account of its anatomy, 33 
Sole of human foot and of ape, 240, 241 
Song, stanza from one of Forbes's oinero- 

mathic songs, 105 
Sounds, on the general principle which 

regulates the approbation or disappro- 
bation of sounds, 1 43 
South Cottage, Wardie, 188 ; his death 

at, 194 
Space, a condition of thought, 221 
Species, specific economy, 20S ; when 

species ceases to exist, 209 
Specific chemical constitution of each 

group of ultimate organised parts of 

'frame, 293 
Speculation in last years of Goodsir's 

life, 181 
Speech as affecting the application of 

man's endowments, 220 ; conferred 

on man by a Divine act, 184 ; in 

man, 250-255 
Spence (Professor), attended Goodsir in 

his last illness, 194 
Spicula of Tetkea, 408-412 
Spider-monkey, corkscrew curve of tail, 

225 
Spine (human), 225 
Spiral attitudes into which human body 

can be thrown, how accounted for, 226 ; 

character of joint-movements, 152 
Spiral (logarithmic) law at work in the 

increase of organic bodies, 180 
Spiritual economy to be considered in 

judging man's relative place in animal 

series, 275 ; relations of man, Goodsir 

on, 185 
Sponges, paper on the morphological 

constitution of the skeleton of, 75 ; 

on the animal matter of, 138 
Sprat and herring, difference between, 

108 
Stirling (Mr.), assistant conservator, 1G3, 

176, 178 
Structure merely the instrument of 

consciousness, 209 ; and actions of 

living organism as a chemico-physical 

system, 288 
Struthers (Dr. John), teaches Goodsir's 

class, 150 
Student homes and habits, 97-107 
Studifl Zoonomica, a work proposed, 129 
Subjects, high price of, 20 ; Goodsir 

caviies one to Anstruther, 34 
Sufferings of Goodsir from overwork, 
I 19 ; his Latest, 191 



Sun-fish (short) and its parasite, memoir 
on, 74, 394, 400 

Surface of globe, how affected by human 
agency, 218 ; of organic forms, Good- 
sir's researches, 174 

Surgeon, Goodsir as a practical surgeon 
at Anstruther, 35 ; (consulting) wishes 
to become, 132 

Surgical anatomy, 359 

Syme (Professor), notices young Goodsir, 
10 ; Goodsir dresser and assistant to, 
29 ; his opinion of Goodsir's lectures 
at College of Surgeons, 81 ; offers 
him curatorship of Medical Faculty's 
collectiou, 108 

Symmetry of brain has more to do with 
higher faculties than bulk or form, 184 

Sympathetic nerve, on the cephalic 
termination of, 54-56 

Synovial membrane of joints, on, 152 

Syntethys from Hebrides, a new genus, 78 

Syphilitic nodes on skulls of early Fife 
settlers, 47, 48 

Tail in fishes like Orthogoriscus, etc., 
39S, 399 

Taylor (Rev. Joseph) of Carnbee, 9 ; 
(Miss Elizabeth Dunbar), marries Dr. 
Goodsir of Anstruther, 9 

Taylor and Smyth, measurements from 
pyramid, 181 

Teaching and revival of the anatomical 
school, 122-123 ; of Goodsir, its ex- 
cellences and completeness, 1 30 

Teeth, Goodsir makes collection of 
morbid and healthy anatomy of, 24 ; 
memoir on the origin and development 
of the pulps and sacs of the human teeth, 
36-44 ; of man affecting speech, 250 

Tegumentary folds of palm of human 
hand, 238-239 ; of ape's hand, 240 

Teleological anatomy defined, 262 ; 
should be kept distinct, 264 

Temperate zone most suitable for human 
life and welfare, 216 

Tennant (William) the poet, a native of 
Anstruther, 5 

Testimonials of Goodsir for anatomy 
chair, 119 

Tests and oaths required for university 
chairs, 121 ; removal of professional 
tests in lay chairs of Scottish univer- 
sities, 145 

Tethea, paper on the structure and 
economy of, 405-419 

Tetrahedron, the finished structure of 
man, 179 

Tetra.rhynohus reptans, Cobbold,Entozoa, 
401 



INDEX. 



469 



Textures, Goodsir's studies of the type 
upon which they were arranged, 174 

Thalassemia and Echiurus, Forbes and 
Goodsir's paper on their natural 
history and anatomy, 425-434 

Thalassma mutatoria of Montagu, 426 

Theological thoughts of Professor Good- 
sir, 166 

Theses of his pupils, 1 28 

Thigh and thigh-hone in man and ani- 
mals compared, 228 

Thomson (Dr. Allen) as a discoverer in 
embryology, 68 

Thought and the moral faculty not 
possessed by the animal, 220-221 

Thumb in human hand capable of com- 
plete opposition, 238 

Time and space, 318 

Tissues, anatomy of, researches in, 84-06 ; 
their growth and construction uniform 
in character, 85 ; deeper examination 
of, by compound microscope, 87 ; 
Goodsir regarded their demonstration 
as an essential part of his course, 125 

Todd (Dr.), " Cyclopaedia of Anatomy 
and Physiology," 86 

Tongue of man, 250 

Tortoise, experiment on the auricular 
contractions of its heart, 443-445 

Tradition points out north temperate 
zone as original area of man, 215 

Trangression of laws, animals not sub- 
ject to, 213 

Triangle, the basis of organic forms, 
Goodsir's views, 176-182, 193 

Triangular arrangements, 175 

Trichina spiralis not found on subjects 
dissected, 141 ; Owen on, 404 

Trinity Baths, residence at, 1S7 

Truth in measurements, Goodsir's parti- 
cularity, 178 

Timicata (compound), paper on, 78 

Tunicated molluscs, lectures on, 141 

Turner ^I'rot'essor), assistant to Goodsir, 
125 

Tutorial system introduced into his chair 
by Goodsir, 124 

Tweeddale (Marquis of) consults Good- 
sir on feeding qualities of turnips, 134 

Ugly, on the esthetics of the, 144 

Ulceration in articular cartilage, 116 
Ulcers and abscesses, how they affa t the 

caecum, 76, 77 
University of Edinburgh, Q lair matri- 
culates in, 19 ; anatomical museum, 
Goodsir labours to make it liist-rate, 
170 



Upper limb in man, 232-242 
Uvula as affecting speech, 250 

Vesalius and the influence of his ana- 
tomical discoveries, 84 

Vertebral column in man, peculiarities 
arranged for erect position, 224-227 

Vertebrate head, on morphology of, 15S 

Veterinary diploma, Goodsir examines 
for, 134, 135 

Virchow (Professor) dedicates to Goodsir 
his work on cellular pathology, 92 

Vision, sense of, as manifested in the 
animal, 211-213 

Vogt's opinion that the brain produces 
thoughts, etc., 290 

Voice in man, 249 

Wagner and Henle's views on the nature 
of the cell, 94 

Wardie, intention to build a house at, 
188 ; his last days at, 191 

Wellenbergh (P. H. J.), inaugural dis- 
sertation on Orthagoriscus referred to, 
394 

Wernerian Society, Goodsir becomes a 
member, 74 ; writes many papers for 
it, 74, 75 

Whytt (Dr. Robert), influence on physi- 
ology, 355 

Wildbad, Goodsir at, 168 

Will, animals have no will in the proper 
sense, 213 ; directed by Divine prin- 
ciples of thought and belief, 223 

Wilson (Dr. George), 69 ; at 21 Lothian 
Street, 106 ; and Goodsir propose to 
lecture on chemico-physiology, 111. 
112 ; as biographer of Forbes, Good- 
sir's opinion, 167 ; (James), accom- 
panies Goodsir to Dornoch Firth, 108 

Words originally appellative, 251 

Works to the last, 191-193 

Worm infesting museuhirtissue of Bra/ma 
raji, 401 

Written language an addition to tin- 
faculty of speech, 255 

YaBBBLL institutes genus Amphioxus, 

371 
Young (A.) sends specimens of salmon 

and spawn to Goodsir, 110 

Zoology (marine) studied at Anstruther, 

17 
Zoology, Goodsir's love for the study of, 

LS6, 137 
Zoophyte, new to British seas, found in 

Orkney, 52 



Printed by R. Clark, Edinburgh.